Q1. Cell or tissue death within a living body is called as
Ans: (c) Necrosis is death of body tissue. It occurs when there is not enough blood flowing to the tissue, whether from injury, radiation, or chemicals. Necrosis is not reversible. When substantial areas of tissue die due to a lack of blood supply, the condition is called gangrene. Necrosis is caused by factors external to the cell or tissue, such as infection, toxins, or trauma that result unregulated digestion of cell components.
Q2. Insufficient blood supply in human body is referred as
Ans: (a) In medicine, ischemia denotes a restriction or thinning or to make or grow thin/lean, haema blood) is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive). Ischemia is generally caused by problems with blood vessels, with resultant damage to or dysfunction of tissue. It also means local anemia in a given part of a body sometimes resulting from congestion (such as vasoconstriction, thrombosis or embolism).
Q3. Deep fried food materials are carcinogenic because they are rich in
(c) Cooking oil
Ans: (b) If foods are overheated or burnt, a group of carcinogenic substances called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are produced. PAHs represent a very large group of compounds. Chemically, they consist of fused aromatic rings made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms. After being ingested, PAHs can be absorbed in the intestine and distributed to other organs through blood circulation. Besides cancercausing, PAH exposure is also associated with many adverse effects in laboratory animals, including reproductive toxicity, cardiovascular toxicity, bone marrow toxicity, immune system suppression, and liver toxicity.
Q4. The toxicity of which of the following heavy metals leads to liver cirrbosis?
(a) Copper (b) Lead
(c) Mercury (d) Zinc
Ans: (a) Cirrhosis is a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrosis, scar tissue and regenerative nodules (lumps that occur as a result of a process in which damaged tissue is regenerated), leading to loss of liver function. Cirrhosis is most commonly caused by alcoholism, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, and fatty liver disease. Some inherited diseases that can cause cirrhosis include Wilson’s disease (which causes an accumulation of copper in the body), alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (a genetic disorder caused by defective production of a particular enzyme), and glycogen storage diseases (a group of disorders that cause abnormal amounts of glycogen to be stored in the liver).
Q5. Typhoid is caused by
(a) Pseudomonas sp.
(d) Salmonella typhi
Ans: (d) Typhoid fever, also known as typhoid, is a common worldwide bacterial disease, transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person, which contain the bacterium Salmonella typhi, serotype Typhi. Salmonella enterica enterica is a subspecies of Salmonella enterica, the rod shaped, flagellated, aerobic, Gram-negative bacterium. It is a member of the genus Salmonella.
Q6. BCG immunization is for
Ans: (b) Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine against tuberculosis that is prepared from a strain of the attenuated (weakened) live bovine tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis, that has lost its virulence in humans by being specially subcultured in an artificial medium for 13 years, and also prepared from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacilli have retained enough strong antigenicity to become a somewhat effective vaccine for the prevention of human tuberculosis. At best, the BCG vaccine is 80% effective in preventing tuberculosis for a duration of 15 years; however, its protective effect appears to vary according to geography.
Q7. Besides carbohydrates, a major source of energy in our food is constituted by
(a) Proteins (b) Fats
(c) Minerals (d) Vitamins
Ans: (b) Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and generally insoluble in water. Chemically, fats are triglycerides, triesters of glycerol and any of several fatty acids. Fats provide a source of concentrated energy as well as the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Fat transports these vital nutrients around the body. Fats or lipids are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipases produced in the pancreas. Examples of edible animal fats are lard, fish oil, butter/ghee and whale blubber.
Q8. The limb bones of children become bent if there is deficiency of vitamin
(a) A (b) B1
(c) D (d) E
Ans: (c) Rickets is weakness and deformity of the bones that occurs from lack of vitamin D. Vitamin D occurs in whole milk, butter, egg yolks, animal fats, and liver, especially fish liver oil. The body also makes its own vitamin D when sunlight shines on the skin. Children who do not eat enough foods with vitamin D, and who do not get enough sunlight, gradually develop signs of rickets. Rickets is fairly common in some countries, especially in cool mountain areas of Asia and Latin America where babies are kept inside and wrapped up. Rickets is also increasing in crowded cities where children are seldom taken into the sunlight.
Q9. A medicine which promotes the secretion of urine is called
Ans: (c) A diuretic provides a means of forced diuresis which elevates the rate of urination. In medicine, diuretics are used to treat heart failure, liver cirrhosis, hypertension and certain kidney diseases. Some diuretics, such as acetazolamide, help to make the urine more alkaline and are helpful in increasing excretion of substances such as aspirin in cases of overdose or poisoning. Diuretics are often abused by sufferers of eating disorders, especially bulimics, in attempts at weight loss.
Q10. The chemicals released by one species of animals in order to attract the other members of the same species are
(b) Nucleic acids
Ans: (c) A pheromone is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species. Pheromones are chemicals capable of acting outside the body of the secreting individual to impact the behavior of the receiving individual. There are alarm pheromones, food trail pheromones, sex pheromones, and many others that affect behavior or physiology. Their use among insects has been particularly well documented. In addition, some vertebrates and plants communicate by using pheromones.
Q11. Jaundice is caused due to the infection of
(a) Brain (b) Liver
(c) Kidney (d) Spleen
Ans: (b) Jaundice is a yellowish pigmentation of the skin, the conjunctival membranes over the sclerae (whites of the eyes), and other mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood). This hyperbilirubinemia subse-quently causes increased levels of bilirubin in the extracellular fluid. Jaundice is often seen in liver disease such as hepatitis or liver cancer. Jaundice can occur if: too many red blood cells are dying or breaking down and going to the liver; the liver is overloaded or damaged; or the bilirubin from the liver is unable to move through the digestive tract properly.
Q12. The average heart beat rate per minute in a normal person is
(a) 82 (b) 92
(c) 72 (d) 98
Ans: (c) The average heart rate for adult humans is about 70 to 75 beats per minute in a normal relaxed mode. While we tend to think of the “normal” heart beat rate as being “72 beats per minute”, in actuality the heart beat rate is not and should not be constant. In fact, the contemporary understanding is that the degree to which the heart beat varies is a key indicator of health and well being. Conversely, the degree to which it does not vary is a key indicator of health risk. The “72 beats per minute” that we are familiar with is the normal average heart beat rate.
Q13. EEG records the activity of
(a) heart (b) lungs
(c) brain (d) muscles
Ans: (c) Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. EEG measures voltage fluctuations resulting from ionic current flows within the neurons of the brain. In clinical contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain’s spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, usually 20–40 minutes, as recorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. Diagnostic applications generally focus on the spectral content of EEG, that is, the type of neural oscillations that can be observed in EEG signals. In neurology, the main diagnostic application of EEG is in the case of epilepsy.
Q14. The colour of cow’s milk is slightly yellow due to the presence of
Ans: (d) Yellow milk is commonly related to the diet that that cow is on. Grass is the most common diet that will turn milk (and fat) yellow, due to a compound in the grass that makes it green called Carotene. Carotene is a kind of plant-steriod that makes plants the vibrant colours they are, and this carries through the body of the grazer that eats these plants. Carotene mostly affects the colour of fat. Since milk is comprised of around 3.5% milk fat, a dairy cow that is grass-fed tends to produce yellow milk, over a dairy cow that is not grass-fed and fed primarily a mix of hay, silage and grain.
Q15. Which one of these is a communicable disease ?
(a) Diabetes (b) Diphtheria
(c) Arthritis (d) Cancer
Ans: (b) Diphtheria is an upper respiratory tract illness caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, a facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium. Diphtheria is a contagious disease spread by direct physical contact or breathing the aerosolized secretions of infected individuals. Diphtheria toxin is produced by C. diphtheriae only when infected with a bacteriophage that integrates the toxin-encoding genetic elements into the bacteria.
Q16. The concentration of which of the following decreases in anaemia ?
(a) Haemoglobin(b) Collagen
(c) Hyoglobin (d) Myosin
Ans: (a) Anemia is a decrease in number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. However, it can include decreased oxygen-binding ability of each hemoglobin molecule due to deformity or lack in numerical development as in some other types of hemoglobin deficiency. Because hemoglobin (found inside RBCs) normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the capillaries, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in organs. Since all human cells depend on oxygen for survival, varying degrees of anemia can have a wide range of clinical consequences. Iron deficiency is thought to be the most common cause of anaemia globally, although other conditions, such as folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin A deficiencies, chronic inflammation, parasitic infections, and inherited disorders can all cause anaemia.
Q17. Which of the following diseases usually spreads through air ?
(a) Plague (b) Typhoid
(c) Tuberculosis (d) Cholera
Ans: (c) Airborne diseases refers to any diseases which are caused by pathogens and transmitted through the air. These viruses and bacteria can be spread through coughing, sneezing, laughing or through close personal contact. These pathogens ride on either dust particles or small respiratory droplets and can stay suspended in air and or are capable of traveling distances on air currents. Many common infections can spread by airborne transmission at least in some cases, including: Anthrax (inhalational), Chickenpox, Influenza, Measles, Smallpox and Tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) happens to be one of the most leading causes of death in adults from infectious diseases. Around 95 percent of people suffering from this disease are from developing areas in the world. Measles and diphtheria are two diseases found in poverty conditions.
Q18. Cereals are a rich source of
(a) Starch (b) Glucose
(c) Fructose (d) Maltose
Ans: (a) Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by all green plants as an energy store. It is the most common carbohydrate in the human diet and is contained in large amounts in such staple foods as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice, and cassava. Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odourless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin.
Q19. Small Pox is caused by
(a) Rubeola Virus
(b) Variola Virus
Ans: (b) Smallpox was an infectious disease unique to humans, caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. The disease is also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera, which is a derivative of the Latin varius, meaning “spotted”, or varus, meaning “pimple”. After vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the eradication of smallpox in 1979. Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest, which was declared, eradicated in 2011.
Q20. Respiration process requires
(a) heat (b) water
(c) oxygen (d) sunlight
Ans: (c) In physiology, respiration (often confused with breathing) is defined as the transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. This is in contrast to the biochemical definition of respiration, which refers to cellular respiration: the metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy by reacting oxygen with glucose to give water, carbon dioxide and ATP (energy). Respiratory behavior is correlated to the cardiovascular behavior to control the gaseous exchange between cells and blood. Both behaviors are intensified by exercise of the body. However, respiratory is voluntary compared to cardiovascular activity which is involuntary.
Q21. A vitamin requires cobalt for its activity. The vitamin is
(a) Vitamin B12
(b) Vitamin D
(c) Vitamin B2
(d) Vitamin A
Ans: (a) Vitamin B12, vitamin B12 or vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood. It is one of the eight B vitamins. It is normally involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, but also fatty acid synthesis and energy production. Vitamin B12 consists of a class of chemically related compounds (vitamers), all of which have vitamin activity. It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt.
Q22. Plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells is made up of
Ans: (a) The cell membrane or plasma membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. The cell membrane consists primarily of a thin layer of amphipathic phospholipids which spontaneously arrange so that the hydrophobic “tail” regions are isolated from the surrounding polar fluid, causing the more hydrophilic “head” regions to associate with the intracellular (cytosolic) and extracellular faces of the resulting bilayer. This forms a continuous, spherical lipid bilayer. Forces such as van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bonds, and noncovalent interactions, are all forces that contribute to the formation of the lipid bilayer. Overall, hydrophobic interactions are the major driving force in the formation of lipid bilayers.
Q23. Which one of the following is also called the ‘power plants’ of the cell ?
(a) Golgi body
Ans: (b) In cell biology, a mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. These organelles range from 0.5 to 1.0 micrometer (ìm) in diameter. Mitochondria are sometimes described as “cellular power plants” because they generate most of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth
Q24. What is the chemical name of vinegar ?
(a) Citric acid
(b) Acetic acid
(c) Pyruvic acid
(d) Malic acid
Ans: (b) Vinegar is a liquid substance consisting mainly of acetic acid (CH3CO2H) and water, the acetic acid being produced through the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. It is today mainly used in the kitchen as a general cooking ingredient, but historically, as the most easily available mild acid, it had a great variety of industrial, medical, and domestic uses, some of which (such as a general household cleanser) are still promoted today. Commercial vinegar is produced either by fast or slow fermentation processes. Acetic acid has a distinctive sour taste and pungent smell. Besides its production as household vinegar, it is mainly produced as a precursor to polyvinylacetate and cellulose acetate. Although it is classified as a weak acid, concentrated acetic acid is corrosive, and attacks the skin.
Q25. Animals l iving in the three trunks are known as
(a) Arboreal (b) Volant
(c) Amphibious (d) Aquaticx
Ans: (a) Arboreal means living in trees. In every habitat in which trees are present, animals have evolved to move in them. Some animals may only scale trees occasionally, while others are exclusively arboreal. These habitats pose numerous mechanical challenges to animals moving through them, leading to a variety of anatomical, behavioral and ecological consequences. Arboreal species have behaviors specialized for moving in their habitats, most prominently in terms of posture and gait. Specifically, arboreal mammals take longer steps, extend their limbs further forwards and backwards during a step, adopt a more ‘crouched’ posture to lower their center of mass, and use a diagonal sequence gait.
Q1. Cell or tissue death within a living body is called as