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Part 055 – World Geography Previous Year Questions

Q1. Where is the Island of Man located ?
(a) Between Northern Ireland and England
(b) Between France and England
(c) Between Malaysia and Indonesia
(d) Between Cuba and Jamaica
Ans: (a) The Isle of Man, otherwise known simply as Mann, is a self-governing British Crown Dependency, located in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland within the British Isle. The closest land is southern Scotland. It is 52 kilometres long and, at its widest point, 22 kilometres wide. The United Kingdom is responsible for the island’s defence and ultimately for good governance, and for representing the island in international forums, while the island’s own parliament and government have competence over all domestic matters.

Q2. Where are most of the earth’s active volcanoes concentrated ?

(a) Europe
(b) Pacific Occan
(c) Africa
(d) South America
Ans: (b) The Pacific Ring of Fire is an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. In a 40,000 km horseshoe shape, it is associated with a nearly continuous series of oceanic trenches, volcanic arcs, and volcanic belts and/or plate movements. The Ring of Fire has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world’s active and dormant volcanoes. It is sometimes called the circum-Pacific belt or the circum- Pacific seismic belt. About 90% of the world’s earthquakes and 81% of the world’s largest earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. The next most seismic region (5–6% of earthquakes and 17% of the world’s largest earthquakes) is the belt which extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. The Mid- Atlantic Ridge is the third most prominent earthquake belt.

Q3. The Savannah finds its ideal conditions of growth in :

(a) mild and humid climate
(b) dry summer and wet winter climate
(c) hot humid climate with long dry season
(d) hot summer and cool winter climate
Ans: (c) Savanna formations find a favourable growth in form of a hot sub-humid tropical climate, a dry season and a rainy season, with an average annual temperature between 22 °C and 27 °C. A savanna is a rolling grassland scattered with shrubs and isolated trees, which can be found between a tropical rainforest and desert biome. Not enough rain falls on a savanna to support forests. Savannas are also known as tropical grasslands. They are found in a wide band on either side of the equator on the edges of tropical rainforests. Savannas have warm temperature year round. There are actually two very different seasons in a savanna; a very long dry season (winter), and a very wet season (summer).

Q4. Where is Lake Superior, the largest freshwater lake in the world, located?

(a) USA (b) Brazil
(c) Canada (d) Russia
Ans: (a) Lake Superior is the largest of the five traditionally demarcated Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded to the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and the U.S. state of Minnesota, and to the south by the U.S. states of Wisconsin and Michigan. It is generally considered the largest freshwater lake in the world by surface area. Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world in area (if Lakes Michigan and Huron are taken separately; see Lake Michigan–Huron), and the third largest in volume, behind Lake Baikal in Siberia and Lake Tanganyika in East Africa. The Caspian Sea, while larger than Lake Superior in both surface area and volume, is brackish.

Q5. Which of the following rivers flow in Germany?

(a) Seine (b) Volga
(c) Danube (d) Thames
Ans: (c) The Danube is a river in Central Europe, the continent’s second longest after the Volga. Classified as an international waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen which is in the Black Forest of Germany at the confluence of the rivers Brigach and Breg. The Danube then flows southeast for 2,872 km (1,785 mi), passing through four Central European capitals before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and Ukraine. Once a longstanding frontier of the Roman Empire, the river passes through or touches the borders of ten countries: Romania (29.0% of basin area), Hungary (11.6%), Serbia (10.2%), Austria (10.0%), Germany (7.0%), Slovakia (5.9%), Bulgaria (5.9%), Croatia (4.4%), Ukraine (3.8%), and Moldova (1.6%), more than any other. Its drainage basin extends into nine more.

Q6. What is the longest mountain range in the world above sea-level?

(a) Andes mountains
(b) Himalayas (c) Alps
(d) Pyreness mountains
Ans: (a) A mountain range, or ‘mountain belt’, is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains. Above sea level the Andes is usually considered the world’s longest mountain system; it is 7,000 kilometres in length. The Himalaya Range contains the highest mountains on the Earth’s surface, the highest of which is Mount Everest. The world’s longest mountain system is known as Ocean Ridge, which is a chain of mountains that runs on the seafloor of five oceans around the world; it has a length of 65,000 kilometres, and the total length of the system is 80,000 kilometres. The Andes is the world’s longest mountain system on the surface of a continent; it is 7,000 kilometres in length. To clarify, the Andes is the world’s largest chain of mountains above sea level.

Q7. Where is Normandy beach located?

(a) France (b) Nertherlands
(c) Spain (d) Belgium
Ans: (a) Normandy is a geographical region corresponding to the former Duchy of Normandy. The continental territory covers 30,627 km² and forms the preponderant part of Normandy and roughly 5% of the territory of France. The region is bordered along the northern coasts by the English Channel. There are granite cliffs in the west and limestone cliffs in the east. There are also long stretches of beach in the centre of the region. During the Second World War, the D-Day landings on the Normandy beaches under the code name Operation Neptune, started the lengthy Battle of Normandy which resulted in the Liberation of Paris, the restoration of the French Republic, and was a significant turning point in the war.

Q8. Match the rivers flowing through the cities below :
City River

(a) Rotterdan 1. Seine
(b) Paris 2. Potomac
(c) Budapest 3. Rhine
(d) Washington4. Danube
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(a) 2 3 1 4
(b) 1 3 4 2
(c) 3 1 4 2
(d) 4 3 2 1
Ans: (c) The Seine is a 776 km-long river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France. The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. The Rhine is a river that flows from Grisons in the eastern Swiss Alps to the North Sea coast in the Netherlands and is the twelfth longest river in Europe. Germany, Austria, Switzerland, France, Netherlands are countries traversed by it. The Danube is a river in Central Europe, the continent’s second longest after the Volga. Classified as an international waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen which is in the Black Forest of Germany at the confluence of the rivers Brigach and Breg. The Danube then flows southeast for 2,872 km, passing through four Central European capitals before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and Ukraine.

Q9. Match the rivers given below with the cities through which they flow :
City River
a. Bangkok 1. Hwangpu
b. Shanghai 2. St. Lawrence
c. Dresden 3. Chao phraya
d. Montreal 4. Elbe a b c d

(a) 3 1 4 2
(b) 2 4 3 1
(c) 4 3 2 1
(d) 1 2 3 4
Ans: (a) Shanghai is the largest city by population in the People’s Republic of China and the largest city proper by population in the world. Located in the Yangtze River Delta in eastern China, Shanghai sits at the mouth of the Yangtze River in the middle portion of the Chinese coast. Bangkok is the capital city of Thailand and the most populous city in the country. The city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres in the Chao Phraya River delta in Central Thailand. Dresden is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the Czech border. Montreal is located in the southwest of the province of Quebec. The city proper covers most of the Island of Montreal at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers.

Q10. ‘Dykes’ are especially constructed in

(a) Norway (b) Holland
(c) France
(d) United Kingdom
Ans: (b) A dike or dyke in geology is a type of sheet intrusion referring to any geologic body that cuts discordantly across: planar wall rock structures, such as bedding or foliation; and massive rock formations, like igneous/ magmatic intrusions and salt diapirs. Today, approximately 27 percent of the Netherlands is actually below sea level. This area is home to over 60 percent of the country’s population of 15.8 million people. The Netherlands, which is approximately the size of the U.S. states Connecticut and Massachusetts combined, has an approximate average elevation of 11 meters. With the help of dikes, the Netherlands (also known as Holland) was able to reclaim land for settlement and also control flooding.

Q11. Colorado in U.S.A. is famous for this landform _____

(a) Grand Canyon
(b) Grand Crators
(c) Great Valleys
(d) Great Basins
Ans: (a) The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in the United States in the state of Arizona. It is contained within and managed by Grand Canyon National Park, the Hualapai Tribal Nation, and the Havasupai Tribe. Nearly two billion years of the Earth’s geological history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut their channels through layer after layer of rock while the Colorado Plateau was uplifted. While the specific geologic processes and timing that formed the Grand Canyon are the subject of debate by geologists, recent evidence suggests the Colorado River established its course through the canyon at least 17 million years ago.

Q12. Where is “Ground Zero” ?

(a) Greenwich (b) New York
(c) Indira Point (d) Shriharikota
Ans: (b) The term ground zero describes the point on the Earth’s surface closest to a detonation. In the case of an explosion above the ground, ground zero refers to the point on the ground directly below the detonation. The World Trade Center site, previously known as “Ground Zero” after the September 11 attacks, sits on 16 acres in Lower Manhattan in New York City. The previous World Trade Center complex stood on the site until it was destroyed in the September 11 attacks; Studio Daniel Libeskind, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, Silverstein Properties, and the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation oversee the reconstruction of the site.

Q13. Which two countries are connected by an under-water tunnel?

(a) England and Spain
(b) Malaysia and Singapore
(c) England and Belgium
(d) France and England
Ans: (d) The Channel Tunnel is a 50.5-kilometre (undersea rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover. At its lowest point, it is 75 m (250 ft) deep. At 37.9 kilometres, the Channel Tunnel possesses the longest undersea portion of any tunnel in the world, although the Seikan Tunnel in Japan is both longer overall at 53.85 kilometres.

Q14. The deepest trench of the world-
‘The Mariana Trench’ is located in the :

(a) Indian Ocean
(b) Atlantic Ocean
(c) Arctic Ocean
(d) Pacific Ocean
Ans: (d) The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world’s oceans. It is located in the western Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands. The trench is about 2,550 kilometres long but has an average width of only 69 kilometres (43 mi). It reaches a maximum-known depth of 10.994 km. The trench is not the part of the seafloor closest to the center of the Earth. This is because the Earth is not a perfect sphere: its radius is about 25 kilometres less at the poles than at the equator. As a result, parts of the Arctic Ocean seabed are at least 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) closer to the Earth’s center than the Challenger Deep seafloor.

Q15. Which country is the world’s largest archipelago ?

(a) Philippines (b) Indonesia
(c) Sweden (d) Greenland
Ans: (b) An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain or cluster of islands. Archipelagos may be found isolated in bodies of water or neighboring a large land mass. Indonesia is the world’s largest archipelago with over 13,000 islands & totals around 18,000 islands. The Malay Archipelago (or Indonesian Archipelago) is often referred to as the largest archipelago in the world, but this is meant by area rather than number of islands. This title aptly represents its 25,000 – 30,000 or so islands which span 5,400 kilometres eastward from Sabang in northern Sumatra to Merauke in Irian Jaya (now known as Papua).

Q16. Which one of the following parts of the world does not receive rainfall any time of the year ?

(a) Central Europe
(b) Central North America
(c) Polar regions
(d) Sub-Saharan areas
Ans: (c) The amount of precipitation in a given region depends on the amount of available atmospheric water vapour (precipitable water), as well as on the processes that cause condensation, in particular the uplift of air associated with cyclones and fronts, as well as convection. If all the water vapour in the atmosphere were condensed, the earth’s surface would be covered, on average, with a 25 mm layer of water. However, since the amount of water vapor the atmosphere can hold decreases with decreasing temperature, the amount of water that can be condensed from the air generally decreases with latitude. In general, the amount of precipitable water in the humid tropics is more than 40 mm, while near the pole; it is often less than 5 mm. The Polar Regions are the coldest places on Earth and differ the most from every other habitat on the planet. During the summer months, the days receive 24 hours of pure sunshine, but during the winter, the sun is barely seen at all. There is very little rainfall in the Polar Regions, mainly because it is so cold, that there is very little water in the air. The average annual rainfall is less than 250 mm.

Q17. Which one of the following is the highest gravity dam in the world ?

(a) Beas Dam
(b) Nangal Dam
(c) Bhakra Dam
(d) Hirakud Dam
Ans: (c) Currently, the tallest dam in the world is the Nurek Dam, an embankment dam in Tajikistan at 300 m high. The tallest arch dam is the recently completed 292 m high Xiaowan Dam in China. For gravity dams, the tallest is the 285 m high Grande Dixence Dam in Switzerland. When completed, a 335 m tall Rogun Dam also in Tajikistan could be the tallest, depending on the chosen design. Next in line is the 312 m Shuangjiangkou Dam currently under construction in China. Natural landslide dams are also quite competitive in height but not listed here. In particular, the highest natural dam, Usoi Dam, is higher than the highest existing man-made one. The Bhakra Dam is a concrete gravity dam across the Sutlej River, and is near the border between Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in northern India. The dam, at (226 m), is one of the highest gravity dams in the world (compared to USA’s largest Hoover Dam at 743 ft).

Q18. “Climate is extreme, rainfall is scanty, and the people used to be nomadic hoarders”. For which region is this statement correct ?

(a) African Savanna
(b) Central Asian Steppes
(c) Siberian Tundra
(d) North American Prairies
Ans: (b) This statement is about the Central Asian Steppes. Central Asia is the core region of the Asian continent and stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north. It is also sometimes referred to as Middle Asia, and, colloquially, “the ‘stans” (as the five countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix “-stan”, meaning “land of”) and is within the scope of the wider Eurasian continent. Central Asia has historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road. Central Asia has the following geographic extremes: world’s northernmost desert (sand dunes), at Buurug Deliin Els, Mongolia; the Northern Hemisphere’s southernmost permafrost, at Erdenetsogt sum, Mongolia; world’s shortest distance between non-frozen desert and permafrost: 770 km; and the Eurasian pole of inaccessibility. A majority of the people earn a living by herding livestock. Industrial activity centers in the region’s cities.

Q19. Which one of the following is/ are wrongly matched ?
A. typhoons — China Sea
B. hurricanes— India Ocean
C. cyclone — West Indies
D. tornadoes — Australia

(a) A, B and C (b) A, B and D
(c) A, C and D (d) B, C and D
Ans: (d) A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean between 180° and 100°E. This region is referred to as the northwest Pacific basin. It is common in the China Sea. Hurricanes are common on the east coast of the North America and the adjoining islands. In meteorology, a cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth. It is common in the Indian Ocean. A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as twisters or cyclones. Tornadoes have been observed on every continent except Antarctica. However, the vast majority of tornadoes in the world occur in the so-called “Tornado Alley” region of the United States.

Q20. Black Forests are found in

(a) France (b) Germany
(c) Czechoslovakia
(d) Rumania
Ans: (b) The Black Forest is a wooded mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany. It is bordered by the Rhine valley to the west and south. Rivers in the Black Forest include the Danube (which originates in the Black Forest as the confluence of the Brigach and Breg rivers), the Enz, the Kinzig, the Murg, the Nagold, the Neckar, the Rench, and the Wiese. The Black Forest is part of the continental divide between the Atlantic Ocean drainage basin (drained by the Rhine) and the Black Sea drainage basin (drained by the Danube).

Q21. The largest island in the world is Greenland. It is an integral part of

(a) Norway
(b) North America
(c) Denmark (d) Canada
Ans: (c) Greenland is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. With a population of 56,749 (2012 estimate), it is the least densely populated dependency or country in the world. Greenland became a Danish colony in 1814 after being under the rule of Denmark- Norway for centuries. With the Constitution of Denmark of 1953, Greenland became part of the Danish Realm. In 1979, Denmark granted home rule to Greenland, and in 2008, Greenland voted to transfer more power from the Danish royal government to the local Greenlandic government.

Q22. The main reason for deforestation in Asia is

(a) excessive fuel wood collection
(b) excessive soil erosion
(c) floods
(d) construction of roads
Ans: (a) The main causes of total clearance are agriculture and in drier areas, fuelwood collection. The main cause of forest degradation is logging. Mining, industrial development and large dams also have a serious impact. Tourism is becoming a larger threat to the forests. The United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organisation estimates that ‘1.5 billion of the 2 billion people worldwide who rely on fuelwood for cooking and heating are overcutting forests’. This problem is worst in drier regions of the tropics.

Q23. Suez Canal connects

(a) Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean
(b) Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea
(c) Lake Huron and Lake Erie
(d) Lake Erie and Lake Ontario
Ans: (b) The Suez Canal is an artificial waterway in Egypt extending from Port Said to Suez and connecting the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea. It is one of the world’s most important waterways. The canal separates the African continent from Asia, and it provides the shortest maritime route between Europe and the lands lying around the Indian and western Pacific oceans. It is one of the world’s most heavily used shipping lanes. The canal extends 101 miles (163 kilometres) between Port Said in the north and Suez in the south, with dredged approach channels north of Port Said into the Mediterranean, and south of Suez.

Q24. In which country is the volcano Mount Gamkonora, the highest peak of Halmahera island, which erupted in July 2007 located?

(a) Japan (b) Indonesia
(c) Russia (d) France
Ans: (b) Mount Gamkonora is a strato-volcano on Halmahera island, Indonesia. With an elevation of 1,560 metres, it is the highest peak on the island. It has produced an elongated series of craters along the north-south rift. The largest eruption in 1673 was accompanied with tsunami which inundated the nearby villages. The volcano erupted again on July 10, 2007, with over 8,000 people reported to have fled their homes in the vicinity.

Q25. Which from the following is a landlocked sea ?

(a) Timor Sea (b) Arafura Sea
(c) Greenland Sea (d) Aral Sea
Ans: (d) The landlocked seas are Aral Sea, Caspian Sea, Dead Sea, Great Salt Lake, Salton Sea and Sea of Galilee. Landlocked seas may are also considered lakes as the definition of a lake is “a large body of freshwater surrounded by land”. A land locked sea would be one with no access to the rest of the world’s oceans.

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