Q1. The Sharda Act is related to
(a) Upliftment of scheduled tribes
(b) Upliftment of minorities
(c) Child Marriage
(d) Empowerment of women
Ans: (c) The Child Marriage Restraint Act 1929, passed on 28 September, 1929, is popularly known as the Sharda Act, after its sponsor Harbilas Sarda. It fixed the age of marriage for girls at 14 years and boys at 18 years which was later amended to 18 for girls and 21 for boys.
Q2. Gandhiji’s ‘Satyagraha’ meant an attachment to the following two elements
(a) Knowledge and religion
(b) Truth and non-violence
(c) Truth and chastity
(d) Love of motherland and hate for colonial masters
Ans: (b) To Gandhi, satyagraha meant attachment to truth, and, therefore, truth-force or love-force. It was a particular form of nonviolent resistance or civil resistance. It was critical to Gandhi’s understanding of and faith in non-violence and went far beyond mere “passive resistance”.
Q3. Who was the founder of Arya Samaj?
(a) Acharya Narendra Dev
(b) Dayanand Saraswati
(c) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(d) Acharya Vinoba Bhave
Ans: (b) The Arya Samaj (Noble Society) was founded in Bombay by Swami Dayanand Saraswati on 7 April 1875. Arya Samaj is a Hindu reform movement that promotes values and practices based on the infallibility of the Vedas. Denouncing the idolatry and ritualistic worship prevalent in Hinduism at the time, the movement worked towards reviving Vedic ideologies.
Q4. During whose Viceroyalty, the capital of India was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi?
(a) Lord Canning
(b) Lord Harding
(c) Lord Lytton
(d) Lord Clive
Ans: (b) During the Delhi Durbar on 12 December 1911, George V, the then ruling Emperor of India, along with Queen Mary, announced that the capital of India would be shifted from Kolkata to Delhi. Charles Hardinge who was the viceroy of India during 1910-1916 oversaw the actual transfer of capital in 1912.
Q5. The Working Committee of National Congress sanctioned the resolution named ‘Quit India’ at
(a) Wardha (b) Nagpur
(c) Mumbai (d) Delhi
Ans: (a) The Congress Working Committee meeting at Wardha on 14 July 1942 passed a resolution demanding complete independence from the British government. The draft proposed massive civil disobedience if the British did not accede to the demands. This resolution is known as Wardha Resolution and more popularly as “Quit India Resolution.”
Q6. Who coined the slogan “Inquilab Zindabad”?
(a) Subash Chandra Bose
(b) Balagangadhar Tilak
(c) Bhagat Singh
Ans: (c) Inquilab Zindabad is an Urdu phrase which translates to “Long Live the Revolution ” The slogan was coined by Hasrat Mohani. Its first use by a revolutionary was in 1929 when Bhagat Singh shouted it after bombing the Central Assembly in Delhi.
Q7. Who introduced Western education?
(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(b) Lal Bahadur Shastri
(c) Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose
(d) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Ans: (a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy, the founder of the Brahmo Sabha in 1828, introduced western education in India. He protested against the East India Company’s decision to support vernacular education and insisted that English replace Sanskrit and Persian in India.He supported induction of scientific learning and worked hard to promote the western education in India. His efforts led to the establishment of Hindu College at Calcutta in 1817.
Q8. The system of Budget was introduced in India during the Viceroyalty of
(a) Canning (b) Dalhousie
(c) Ripon (d) Elgin
Ans: (a) The budget was first introduced in India on 7 April, 1860 during the viceroyalty of Lord Canning. The budget was presented by the East-India Company to the British Crown. James Wilson presented the budget in 1860.
Q9. Who was the President of Indian National Congress at the time of Indian independence ?
(a) Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad
(b) J. B. Kriplani
(c) Jawahar Lal Nehru
(d) Rajendra Prasad
Ans: (b) J. B. Kripalani was an Indian politician, noted particularly for holding the presidency of the Indian National Congress during the transfer of power in 1947. Kripalani was a Gandhian socialist, environmentalist, mystic and independence activist.He was one of Gandhi’s most ardent disciples.
Q10. Who gave the title ‘Nightingale of India’ to Sarojini Naidu ?
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Rabindranath Tagore
(c) Rajendra Prasad
(d) Mahatma Gandhi
Ans: (d) Mahatma Gandhi gave the title ‘Nightingale of India’ (Bharat Kokila) to Sarojini Naidu on account of the beautiful and rhythmic words of her poems that could be sung as well. Some of her notable poems include: The Golden Threshold, The Bird of Time, The Broken Wing, The Wizard Mask, etc.
Q11. The Swadeshi Boycott Movement is related to
(a) Partition of Bengal in 1947
(b) Partition of Bengal in 1905
(c) Non cooperation movement in 1921
(d) Partition of Punjab in 1947
Ans: (b) The Swadeshi Movement was officially proclaimed on August 7, 1905 at the Calcutta Town Hall against the partition of Bengal by the British. Boycott movement was also launched along with the Swadeshi movement. The movements included using goods produced in India and burning British-made goods.
Q12. Mutiny of 1857 was described as the First Indian War of Independence by
(a) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(b) Subhash Chandra Bose
(c) Bhagat Singh
(d) V. D. Savarkar
Ans: (d) It was V D Savarkar, who, in his book The Indian War of Independence, described the revolt as the first Indian war of independence. This contrasted with British historians who described the revolt more as sepoy mutiny and rebellion rather than an war of independence.
Q13. “Abhinav Bharat” was founded in 1904 as a secret society of revolutionaries by :
(a) Damodar Chapekar
(b) V. D. Savarkar
(c) Praffula Chaki
(d) Khudiram Bose
Ans: (b) Abhinav Bharat Society (Young India Society) was a secret society founded by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and his brother Ganesh Damodar Savarkar in 1903. Initially founded at Nasik as Mitra Mela when Vinayak Savarkar was still a student Fergusson College at Pune, the society extended to various parts of India and London. It carried out a few assassinations of British officials, after which the Savarkar brothers were convicted and imprisoned.
Q14. Who propounded the “Doctrine of Passive Resistance”?
(a) Balgangadhar Tilak
(b) Aurobindo Ghosh
(c) Lala Lajpat Rai
(d) Bipin Chandra Pal
Ans: (b) The Doctrine of Passive Resistance was propounded by Aurobindo Ghosh in a series of articles that were published in the journal Bande Mataram in April 1907. As a political leader and writer Aurobindo made an intense and passionate appeal of passive resistance, or, as it could be more comprehensively termed, defensive resistance. He was against the Moderates’ theory of “politics of petition” and advocated the more radical policy of boycott.
Q15. The first Muslim to be elected President of ‘Indian National Congress’ was?
(a) Maulana Azad
(b) Mohammed Ali
(c) Badruddin Tyabji
(d) Shah Waliullah
Ans: (c) Badruddin Tyabji served as the first Muslim President of the Indian National Congress. He became the Congress President at its Madras session in 1887. One of the prominent leaders of the Congress in its earliest phase, he, along with Pherozshah Mehta, Kashinath Trimbak Telang and others, had formed the Bombay Presidency Association in 1885.
Q16. Gandhiji’s first Satyagraha in India was held at __________
(a) Champaran (b) Ahmedabad
(c) Kheda (d) Allahabad
Ans: (a) The Champaran Satyagraha of 1917 was Mahatma Gandhi’s first Satyagraha in India. Gandhi took up the cause of hapless indigo peasants under the ‘Tinkathia system’ and waged satyagraha against the European indigo planters. Champaran Satyagraha was the first to be started, but the word Satyagraha was used for the first time in Anti Rowlatt Act agitation.
Q17. Who was the founder of the Indian Reform Association in 1870?
(a) Debendranath Tagore
(b) Keshub Chandra Sen
(c) Rammohan Roy
(d) Dayanand Saraswati
Ans: (b) The Indian Reform Association was formed on 29 October 1870 with Keshub Chandra Sen as President. It represented the secular side of the Brahmo Samaj and included many who did not belong to the Brahmo Samaj. It was formed to promote “the social and moral reformation of the natives of India.”
Q18. Who was the founder of the Theosophical society of India?
(a) Annie Besant
(b) Womesh Chandra Bannerjee
(c) Ram Prasad Bismil
(d) Subhash Chandra Bose
Ans: (a) The Theosophical Society was first founded by a Russian lady, Madam H.P. Blavatsky and a former English army officer, Colonel H. S. Olcott in the United States of America in 1875. Under their inspiration, the Theosophical Society of India came into being at Adyar in Madras in 1886. Mrs. Annie Besant joined the society in 1889 and it infused new vigor and strength to it.
Q19. Who was the first Indian to be elected as the leader of the Communist International?
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) P.C. Joshi
(c) Sardar Vallabhai Patel
(d) M.N Roy
Ans: (d) M. N. Roy was a communist leader who was elected a full member of the Communist International in 1924, becoming the first Indian to achieve this honour. He was in charge of organizing the communist movement in Asia, including China. Roy also attempted to develop the revolutionary movement in India.
Q20. The ‘Cabinet Mission’ of 1946 was led by
(a) Lord Linlithgow
(b) Lord Mountbatten
(c) Sir Pethic Lawrence
(d) Sir Mountford
Ans: (c) The Cabinet Mission that came to India on 24 March, 1946 was led by Sir Pethick Lawrence, Secretary of State for India. It also consisted of Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade and Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty. It was formulated at the initiative of Clement Attlee, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
Q21. What did Gandhiji meant by ‘Sarvodaya’?
(b) Upliftment of untouchables or dalits
(c) The birth of a new society based on ethical values
Ans: (c) Sarvodaya is a Sanskrit term meaning ‘universal uplift’ or ‘progress of all’. The term was used by Gandhi as the title of his 1908 translation of John Ruskin’s tract on political economy, Unto This Last, and Gandhi came to use the term for the ideal of his own political philosophy. In the Gandhian philosophy, Sarvodaya is the true panacea for all types of social or political problems experienced by Indian society. It represents the ideal social orderby bringing about a countrywide decentralization of both political and economic powers and providing opportunity for the allround development of the individual and the society. In short. Sarvodaya envisaged a new humanistic, simple, non-violent and decentralized socialist society with man at its centre.
Q22. Which of the following was not actively engaged in social and religious reforms in India ?
(a) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(b) Pandit Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar
(c) Jotiba Phule
(d) Bharatendu Harishchandra
Ans: (d) Bharatendu Harishchandra was one of the greatest Hindi writers of modern India who is known as the father of modern Hindi literature as well as Hindi theatre. He was recognised poet, he was a trendsetter in Hindi prose-writing.
Q23. British achieved political power in India after which of the following ?
(a) Battle of Plassey
(b) Battle of Panipat
(c) Battle of Buxar
(d) Battle of Wandiwash
Ans: (a) After the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the British achieved political power in India. It marked a decisive victory of the British East India Company over the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies. The battle consolidated the Company’s presence in Bengal, which later expanded to cover much of India over the next hundred years.
Q24. Which Governor General decided to make English as the medium of instruction in India?
(a) Lord Wellesley
(b) Lord Hardinge
(c) Lord Dalhousie
(d) Lord William Bentinck
Ans: (d) Lord William Bentinck introduced English as the medium of instruction in India in 1835. Acting on the recommendations of Macaulay’s “Minute Upon Indian Education”, he decided that the government would give support only to institutions of higher education that used English as the medium of instruction. He was supported by Raja Rammohun Roy in this endeavor.
Q25. What was ‘Komagata Maru’?
(a) An army unit
(b) A harbour
(c) A ship
(d) An industrial township
Ans: (c) Komagata Maru was a Japanese ship that travelled from Hong Kong to Vancouver in 1914, carrying economic migrants who did not like their living conditions back in India. However, a majority of the passengers were not allowed to disembark in Canada, and the ship was forced to return to India.