Q1. Through which principle/device did Mahatma Gandhi strive to bridge economic inequalities?
(a) Abolition of machinery
(b) Establishment of village industries
(c) Adoption of non-violence
(d) Trusteeship theory
Ans: (d) Trusteeship is a socio-economic philosophy that was propounded by Mahatma Gandhi. It provides a means by which the wealthy people would be the trustees of trusts that looked after the welfare of the people in general. This concept was condemned by socialists as being in favor of the landlords, feudal princes and the capitalists.
Q2. Which one of the following was the first English ship that came to India ?
(a) Elizabeth (b) Bengal
(c) Red Dragon (d) Mayflower
Ans: (c) Formed on 31 December, 1600, the East India Company’s first voyage departed on 13 February 1601. The flagship of the five-vessel fleet was the Scourge of Malice, purchased from the Earl of Cumberland for 3700 pounds. On a more peaceful mission, the East India Company renamed the vessel the Red Dragon. The other vessels in the fleet were the Hector (300 tons), Ascension (260 tons), Susan (240 tons) and the Gift, a small victualler.
Q3. The All India Muslim League was founded by
(a) Maulana Ahmed Ali
(b) Mohammad Ali Jinnah
(c) Agha Khan
(d) Hakim Ajmal Khan
Ans: (c) The All-India Muslim League was founded by the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference at Dhaka (now Bangladesh), in 1906. Aga Khan III was one of the founders and the first president of the All- India Muslim League, and served as President of the League of Nations from 1937-38. He was nominated to represent India to the League of Nations in 1932. He was instrumental in the creation of Pakistan.
Q4. Gandhiji was influenced by the writings of
(a) Karl Marx
(b) Thomas Hobbes
(c) Charles Darwin
(d) Leo Tolstoy
Ans: (d) After coming to South Africa, Gandhi started a study of a wide range of literature and Tolstoy’s works were among those which influenced him the most. He went through a time of religious ferment, engaging in wide-ranging religious discussions and reading eclectically among the religious texts that came his way. One of these texts was Tolstoy’s book on living an authentic Christian life. Gandhi commented: “Tolstoy’s The Kingdom of God is Within You overwhelmed me. It left an abiding impression on me. Before the independent thinking, profound morality, and the truthfulness of this book, all the books given me by Mr. Coates seemed to pale into insignificance.”
Q5. The Governor-General who abolished the practice of Sati was
(c) William Bentinck
Ans: (c) Lord William Bentinck was responsible for the abolition of Sati and Thugee. Both of these customs involved death. The only difference was that in case of Sati the death took place voluntarily and in the case of Thugee it was inflicted by the Thugs on others. By regulation of December 1829, Bentinck declared the practise of Sati as illegal and punishable as “culpable homicide”. There was no strong opposition from the orthodox sections of society but Bentinck had the courage of a reformer and he carried out the reform.
Q6. In which year did Gandhiji start Satyagraha Movement ?
(a) 1919 (b) 1927
(c) 1934 (d) 1942
Ans: (a) The first Satyagraha revolutions inspired by Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Independence Movement occurred in Kheda district of Gujarat and the Champaran district of Bihar between the years of 1917 and 1919. Champaran Satyagraha was the first to be started but the word Satyagraha was used for the first time in Anti Rowlatt agitation.
Q7. Where was the Royal Durbar held on November 1st, 1858 to issue the Queen’s proclamation?
(a) Lucknow (b) Cawnpore
(c) Delhi (d) Kanpur
Ans: (*) On November 1, 1858, a grand Darbar was held at Allahabad. Lord Canning sent forth the royal proclamation which announced that the queen had assumed the government of India. This proclamation declared the future policy of the British Rule in India. The document was called “Magna Carta of the People of India” and was declared in eloquent words the principles of justice and religious toleration as the guiding policy of the queen’s rule. The document also granted amnesty to all except those who had directly taken part in the murder of British subjects. Peace was proclaimed throughout India on July 8, 1859. The armies of the East India Company ceased to exist and the forces in India were incorporated as an integral part of the British army.
Q8. Who is called as the ‘Prophet of New India’ ?
(a) Dayanand Saraswati
(b) Sri Ramakrishna
(c) Raja Ram Mohan Roy
(d) Swami Vivekananda
Ans: (b) Swami Vivekananda called Swami Ramkrishna as the “Prophet of New India’. Ramakrishna, born Gadadhar Chattopadhyay, was a famous mystic of 19thcentury India. His religious school of thought led to the formation of the Ramakrishna Mission by his chief disciple Swami Vivekananda.
Q9. Who declared “Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it”?
(a) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
(b) Bal Gangadhara Tilak
(c) Lala Lajpat Rai
(d) K.T. Telang
Ans: (b) Bal Gangadhar Tilak was one of the first and strongest advocates of “Swaraj” (self-rule) and a strong radical in Indian consciousness. His famous quote, “Swaraj is my birthright, and I shall have it ” is wellremembered in India even today. Known as the father of the Indian unrest, Tilak was the first popular leader of the Indian Independence Movement.
Q10. The Indian council Act of 1909 was popularly known as :
(a) Parliament Act
(b) Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
(c) Minto-Morely Reforms
(d) The Judiciary Act
Ans: (c) The Indian Councils Act 1909, commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India. It effectively allowed the election of Indians to the various legislative councils in India for the first time.
Q11. Federal form of Government at the centre was introduced in India under :
(a) Government of India Act of 1919
(b) Indian Councils Act of 1909
(c) Government of India Act of 1935
(d) Indian Independence Act of 1947
Ans: (c) The Government of India Act 1935 made provision for the establishment of a “Federation of India”, to be made up of both British India and some or all of the “princely states.” The parts of the Act intended to establish the Federation of India never came into operation, due to opposition from rulers of the princely states.
Q12. ‘Royal Asiatic Society’ was founded by
(a) Sir William Jones
(b) Sir John Marshall
(c) R. D. Banerjee
(d) Sir William Bentick
Ans: (a) The Asiatic Society was founded by Sir William Jones on January 15, 1784 in a meeting presided over by Sir Robert Chambers, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court at the Fort William in Calcutta, then capital of the British Raj, to enhance and further the cause of Oriental research. In 1832 the name was changed to “The Asiatic Society of Bengal” and again in 1936 it was renamed as “The Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal.”
Q13. The Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) fought in the Second World War against–
(a) Germany (b) Japan
(c) Italy (d) Great Britain
Ans: (d) Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj) was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in Southeast Asia during World War II. The aim of the army was to secure Indian independence with Japanese assistance.
Q14. Indian Universities Act, 1904 was passed during the governorship of
(a) Lord Lytton
(b) Lord Curzon
(c) Lord Ripon
(d) Lord Hardinge-I
Ans: (b) Lord Curzon was the first person to appoint a commission on University education. On January 27, 1902, the Indian University Commission was appointed under the Chairmanship of Sir Thomas Ralley to enquire into the conditions of the Universities established in British India, and to consider and report upon the proposals for improving their constitution and working. The Indian Universities Act of 1904, passed on March, 21 was formulated on the basis of the recommendations of the Indian University Commission of 1902.
Q15. The hero of the Kakori ‘Dacoity’ case was
(a) Ramprasad Bismil
(b) Bhagat Singh
(c) Batukeshwar Datta
Ans: (a) In the Kakori Rail Dacoity which took place on August 9, 1925, Ramprasad Bismil along with his nine revolutionary followers looted the British government’s money from the guard’s carriage. The incident jolted the government and they issued arrest warrants against the participants and other leaders of the Hindusthan Republican Association. Ramprasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Rajendra Lahiri and Roshan Singh were sentenced to death by the British.
Q16. The person responsible for introducing the conception of Dyarchy in the1919 Act was
(b) Tez Bahadur Sapru
(c) Lionel Curtis
Ans: (a) Dyarchy was introduced as a constitutional reform by Edwin Samuel Montagu (secretary of state for India, 1917–22) and Lord Chelmsford (viceroy of India, 1916–21). It marked the first introduction of the democratic principle into the executive branch of the British administration of India. Though much-criticized, it signified a breakthrough in British Indian government and was the forerunner of India’s full provincial autonomy (1935) and independence (1947).
Q17. Tricolour was adopted as the National Flag in—
(a) Lahore Congress
(b) Belgaum Congress
(c) Allahabad Congress
(d) Haripura Congress
Ans: (a) Jawaharlal Nehru became the youngest President of the Indian National Congress at its annual session in Lahore on 29 December, 1929. At that session, the Indian National Congress adopted the attainment of Poorna Swaraj as the immediate objective of India and the tricolor was unfurled on the banks of Ravi River. A consensus on the tricolour flag was reached at the AICC meet at Karachi in 1931. The flag was interpreted as saffron for courage, white for truth and peace, and green for faith and prosperity.
Q18. Who presided over the first Session of the Indian National Congress?
(a) A.O. Hume
(b) W.C. Bannerjee
(c) Surendranth Bannerjee
(d) Badruddin Tyabji
Ans: (b) Womesh Chandra Banerjee was an Indian barrister and was the first president of Indian National Congress in 1885. He was the first Indian to contest the election for British House of Commons. However he lost the election.
Q19. When was the Dandi March undertaken?
(a) 31st December, 1929
(b) 12th March, 1930
(c) 5th April, 1930
(d) 5th May, 1930
Ans: (b) On March 12, 1930, Gandhi and 78 satyagrahis many of them were scheduled castes, set out on foot for the coastal village of Dandi, Gujarat, over 390 kilometres (from their starting point at Sabarmati Ashram. Salt March was also called the White Flowing river because all the people were joining the procession wearing white khadi.
Q20. Who was the first propounder of the Doctrine of Passive Resistance?
(a) B.G. Tilak
(b) Aurobindo Ghosh
(c) Lajpat Rai
(d) G. K. Gokhale
Ans: (b) Sri Aurobindo wrote The Doctrine of Passive Resistance as a series of articles first appearing in the Indian daily Bande Mataram under the general title of New Thought from April 11 to April 23, 1907. It was here that the doctrine was enunciated and explained. It was brought out in 1948 in book form and named The Doctrine of Passive Resistance.
Q21. Who was the Congress President during 1940-46?
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
(c) Maulana Azad
(d) Rajendra Prasad
Ans: (c) Abul Kalam Azad served as Congress President from 1940 to 1945, during which the Quit India rebellion was launched and Azad was imprisoned with the entire Congress leadership for three years. Azad became the most prominent Muslim opponent of the demand for a separate Muslim state of Pakistan and served in the interim national government. Following India’s independence, he became the first Minister of Education in the Indian government. He was posthumously awarded India’s highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna in 1992.
Q22. What are the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909 known for?
(a) Separate Electorates
(b) Provincial Dyarchy
(c) Provincial Autonomy
Ans: (a) Separate electorates were given statutory recognition in the Indian Councils Act of 1909. Muslims were accorded not only the right to elect their representatives by separate electorates, but also the right to vote in general constituencies. In addition, they were also given weightage in representation.
Q23. What was meant by the Secretary of State for India during the British rule?
(a) An official who worked as the Secretary to the Viceroy of India
(b) A Secretary level official appointed in each Presidency of India
(c) A British minister given full control over the Government of India
(d) A senior officer appointed by the Viceroy to look into the internal administration in India
Ans: (c) The Secretary of State for India was the British Cabinet minister responsible for the government of India, Burma and Aden, and the political head of the India Office. The post was created in 1858 when the East India Company’s rule in India ended and British India was brought under the direct administration of the government in London, beginning a period often called the British Raj. Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby, was the first Secretary of State for India.
Q24. ‘Lucknow Pact’ was a deal between
(a) Indians and the British about legislative seats
(b) Hindus and Muslims regarding seat sharing in legislatures
(c) Depressed castes and Brahmins about job reservations
(d) Hindus and Sikhs about job reservations
Ans: (b) The Lucknow Pact was an agreement made by the Indian National Congress headed by Maratha leader Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the All-India Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah which was adopted by the Congress at its Lucknow session on December 29 and by the league on December 31, 1916. The meeting at Lucknow marked the reunion of the moderate and radical wings of the Congress. The pact dealt both with the structure of the government of India and with the relation of the Hindu and Muslim communities.
Q25. The joint session of the Congress and Muslim League was held in 1916 at—
(a) Delhi (b) Kanpur
(c) Lucknow (d) Madras
Ans: (c) The joint session of the Indian National Congress headed by Maratha leader Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the All-India Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah was held in Lucknow in 1916.