Q1. Which one of the following coasts of India is most affected by violent tropical cyclones ?
(a) Malabar (b) Andhra
(c) Konkan (d) Gujarat
Ans: (b) The frequency of severe cyclonic storms is maximum for Andhra Pradesh while that of cyclone is maximum for Orissa. Considering west coast only, Gujarat is most vulnerable. The average annual frequency of tropical cyclones in the north Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea) is about 5 (about 5-6 % of the Global annual average) and about 80 cyclones form around the globe in a year. The frequency is more in the Bay of Bengal than in the Arabian Sea, the ratio being 4:1.
Q2. ‘Kalbaisakhi’ is a kind of
(a) cropping pattern
(b) ritual practised in Kerala
(c) cyclonic storm
(d) None of these
Ans: (c) Often during early summer, dusty squalls followed by spells of thunderstorm and heavy rains lash Assam and West Bengal, bringing relief from the humid heat. These thunderstorms are convective in nature and are locally known as Kal Baisakhi or calamity of the month of Baisakh.
Q3. Which one of the following is the driest region in India?
(a) Telengana (b) Marwar
(c) Vidarbha (d) Marathwada
Ans: (b) Marwar is a region of southwestern Rajasthan state in western India. It lies partly in the Thar Desert which is the driest region of India. It includes the present-day districts of Barmer, Jalore, Lakshman Nagar, Jodhpur, Nagaur, and Pali. This desert tract, nicknamed Marwar or Marusthali – the Land of Death, lives up to its name with its scorching heat, thorny cactus and scrub, and scanty water.
Q4. The period by which the entire country in India comes under southwest monsoon is
(a) l st – l0th June
(b) l0th – 20th June
(c) 20th – 30th June
(d) lst – 15th July
Ans: (d) The southwestern summer monsoons occur from June through September. June 1 is regarded as the date of onset of the monsoon in India, as indicated by the arrival of the monsoon in the southernmost state of Kerala. It usually arrives in Mumbai approximately 10 days later, reaches Delhi by the end of June, and covers the rest of India by mid-July.
Q5. Western disturbances cause rainfall in the following Indian states during winter
(a) Punjab and Haryana
(b) Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh
(c) Kerala and Karnataka
(d) Bihar and West Bengal
Ans: (a) The term ‘Western Disturbance’ is used to describe an extra tropical storm, which brings winter rain and sometimes snow to the northwestern parts of the India. When the Western Disturbance moves across northwest India before the onset of monsoon, a temporary advancement of monsoon current appears over the states including Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir etc. When it passes across north India, it helps to increase monsoon activity over Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.
Q6. Which of the following two States are prone to cyclones during retreating Monsoon season?
(a) Karnataka and Kerala
(b) Punjab and Haryana
(c) Bihar and Assam
(d) Andhra Pradesh and Orissa
Ans: (d) The retreat of the Monsoon which generally occurs between September and November brings with it another peak in cyclone origination, noted for its predilection toward violent cyclone strikes. The cyclones develop in the Bay of Bengal and move from the northeast to the southwest, causing heavy rainfall and loss of life and property in Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and West Bengal. Tamil Nadu receives heavy rainfall from these winds as the retreating monsoon winds are moisture laden.
Q7. Tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal are most frequent during
Ans: (d) They are most frequent during the summer (June- September) over the northern part of the Bay of Bengal and over Eastern parts of Arabian Sea. They are more frequent in the Bay and in Arabian Sea in the region between 6 degree North to 15 degree North during the pre-monsoon (March-May) and post-monsoon (October-November) seasons and are least frequent during the winter.
Q8. ‘Summer Monsoons’ in India bring rainfall to
(a) Southern-eastern tip
(b) Western Coast
(c) North-western India
(d) Eastern Coast
Ans: (b) Summer monsoon (May to September) experiences South Western monsoon. The Western Ghats are the first highlands of India that the SW Monsoon winds encounter. The presence of abundant highlands like the Western Ghats and the Himalayas right across the path of the SW Monsoon winds are the main cause of the substantial orographic precipitation all over the Indian subcontinent. The Western Ghats rise very abruptly from the Western Coastal Plains of the subcontinent making effective orographic barriers for the Monsoon winds.
Q9. Which showers are favourable to the rabi crops in Punjab during winter ?
(a) Showers caused by Jet streams
(b) Mango showers
(c) Showers caused by western disturbances
Ans: (c) Western Disturbance causes winter and pre monsoon season rainfall across northwest India. Winter months Rainfall has great importance in agriculture, particularly for the rabi crops. Wheat among them is one of the most important crops, which helps to meet India’s food security.
Q10. Nagpur gets scanty rainfall because it is located with reference to Sahyadri Mountains, towards
(a) windward side
(b) seaward side
(c) onshore side
(d) leeward side
Ans: (d) Nagpur falls in a rain-shadow region (leeward side of mountain) of the Sahyadri mountain range (Western Ghats). The windward side receives abundant rainfall from the moisture laden winds, while dry moisture- less winds characterize the other side.
Q11. October and November months give more rainfall to :
(a) Malwa Plateau
(b) Chota Nagpur Plateau
(c) Eastern Hills
(d) Coromandal Coast
Ans: (d) The Coromandal Coast of Tamil Nadu receives heavy rainfall from the retreating monsoon winds as the retreating winds are moisture laden. It falls in the rain shadow of the Western Ghats, and receives a good deal less rainfall during the summer southwest monsoon, which contributes heavily to rainfall in the rest of India. The region averages 800 mm/year, most of which falls between October and December.
Q12. Heavy rainfall during the months of October and November is received by
(a) Gharo, Khasi and Jaintia hills
(b) Chota Nagpur Plateau
(c) Coromandel Coast
(d) Malwa Plateau
Ans: (c) The Coromandal Coast of Tamil Nadu receives heavy rainfall from the retreating monsoon winds as the retreating winds are moisture laden. It falls in the rain shadow of the Western Ghats, and receives a good deal less rainfall during the summer southwest monsoon, which contributes heavily to rainfall in the rest of India.
Q13. The burst of monsoons in the month of June brings rain to
(a) Kerala and Karnataka
(b) Kerala and Southern coast of Tamil Nadu
(c) Kerala, Tamil Nadu and parts of Andhra Pradesh
(d) Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka
Ans: (b) The burst of monsoons in the month of June brings rain to Kerala and Southern coast of Tamil Nadu.
Q14. Delhi gets winter rainfall due to
(a) south west monsoons
(b) north east monsoons
(c) conventional rain
(d) western disturbance
Ans: (d) Delhi gets winter rainfall due to western disturbance.
Q15. Which of the following is the area of lowest pressure over Indian subcontinent during the hot dry weather season ?
(c) North-West India
Ans: (c) The southwestern summer monsoons occur from June through September. The Thar Desert and adjoining areas of the northern and central Indian subcontinent heats up considerably during the hot summers. This causes a low pressure area over the northern and central Indian subcontinent. To fill this void, the moisture-laden winds from the Indian Ocean rush in to the subcontinent.
Q16. The driest part of India is
(a) Western Rajasthan
(b) Jammu and Kashmir
(d) Madhya Pradesh
Ans: (a) Western Rajasthan is the driest region in India. Jaisalmer in western Rajasthan is the driest place which receives the lowest rainfall (less than 10 cm). It is due to its distance from the monsoon winds of the Bay of Bengal and location in the sub-tropical high pressure belt.
Q17. One of the regions that receives rainfall from the North–Easterly monsoon is :
(a) West Bengal (b) Assam
(c) Kerala (d) Tamil Nadu
Ans: (d) The period October to December is referred to as Northeast Monsoon season over peninsular India. It is the major period of rainfall activity over Tamil Nadu as it receives 48% of its annual rainfall during the Northeast monsoon season. Coastal districts of the State get nearly 60% of the annual rainfall and the interior districts get about 40-50% of the annual rainfall.
Q18. If 20% or more area of the country suffers from rain deficits during monsoon season, it is termed as
(a) flood year
(b) drought year
(c) famine year
(d) self sufficient year
Ans: (b) According to Indian Meteorological Department, when the rainfall deficiency for the country as a whole is more than 10% of normal and more than 20% of the country’s area is affected by drought conditions (rainfall deficit), the situation is defined as an all-India drought year.
Q19. What is the major cause of ‘October Heat’?
(a) Hot and dry weather
(b) Very low velocity winds
(c) Low pressure systems over the Indo–Gangetic plains
(d) High temperatuire associated with high humidity
Ans: (d) The months of October-November mark a period of transition from hot rainy season to cold dry winter conditions. This period is known as Retreating Monsoon or Transition season because the southwest monsoons weaken and withdraw or retreat from India. The retreat of monsoon is marked by clear skies and rise in temperature. While days are warm, nights are cool and pleasant. Owing to high temperature and high humidity, weather becomes oppressive. This phenomenon is known as ‘October heat.
Q20. Why does the west coast of India receive more rainfall from southwest monsoon than the east coast?
(a) Unlike the east coast this coast is straight
(b) The Western Ghats obstruct the winds causing rainfall
(c) The east coast is broader than the west coast
(d) The Eastern Ghats extend parallel to wind direction
Ans: (b) The western side of the Western Ghats rise majestically to over 2500 meters above mean sea level to capture the Arabian sea branch of moisture laden southwest monsoon winds. The location of these mountain ranges is such that the South-West Monsoon that break over the southernmost tip of the peninsula during the last week of May, block the winds and they steadily rise against the mountain to condense rapidly and give copious rains on the western side. Consequently, the eastern side is typically known as the rain shadow region.
Q21. Though there is no single theory which can explain the origin of south west monsoon, however it is believed that the main mechanism is the differential heating of land and sea during:
(a) Winter months
(b) Summer months
(c) Cyclonic storms
(d) South-west trade wind flow
Ans: (b) According to the thermal theory, during the hot subtropical summers, the massive landmass of the Indian Peninsula heats up at a different rate than the surrounding seas, resulting in a pressure gradient from south to north. This causes the flow of moisture- laden winds from sea to land. On reaching land, these winds rise because of the geographical relief, cooling adiabatically and leading to Orographic rains, better known as the southwest monsoon.
Q22. Which of the following causes rainfall during winters in the north-western part of India ?
(a) Western disturbances
(b) Cyclonic depression
(c) Southwest monsoon
(d) Retreating monsoon
Ans: (a) A Western Disturbance is an extratropical storm originating in the Mediterranean region that brings sudden rain to the northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent during the winter season. It is a nonmonsoonal precipitation pattern driven by the westerlies. Western Disturbances are important for the development of the Rabi crop (wheat).
Q23. The Daily Weather Map of India is prepared and printed at
(a) Kolkata (b) Mumbai
(c) New Delhi (d) Pune
Ans: (d) Daily Weather Map of India is prepared and printed at the National Data Centre of India Meteorological Department (IMD) at Pune. Daily weather reports and daily weather maps for India in printed form are available since 1878.
Q24. What should be the proportion of forest cover for India to maintain her ecological balance?
(a) 11.1 percent
(b) 22.2 percent
(c) 33.3 percent
(d) 44.4 percent
Ans: (c) The minimum area of forests to maintain a good ecological balance has been regarded to be 33%. India lags on this front. The Green India campaign has been announced by the Prime Minister for the afforestation of 6 million hectares. The current area under forests is 23%.
Q25. Which one of the following areas is noted for mangrove vegetation ?
(a) Lava forest of Kalimpong.
(b) Sajnekhali forest of South 24 Parganas.
(c) Dandakaranya forest of Orissa
(d) Carbet National Park of U.P.
Ans: (b) The Sajnekhali Bird Sanctuary is located in the Sunderbans Forests and is home to a wide variety of birds. The most popular among the birds are the Spotted Billed Pelican, Fish Eagle, Caspian Tern, Cotton Teal, Osprey Herring Gull, Purple Heron, Greenbacked Heron, Grey Heron, Egret, Grey Headed Fishing Eagle, Night Heron, Open Billed Stork, White Ibis, White Bellied Sea Eagle, Common Kingfisher, Brahmini Kite and Paradise Flycatcher.
Q1. Which one of the following coasts of India is most affected by violent tropical cyclones ?