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Part 031 – History Previous Year Questions

Q1. Who wrote “Sarfaroshi Ki Tamanna Ab Hamaare Dil Mein Hai” ?
(a) Mohammed Iqbal
(b) Ramprasad Bismil
(c) Kazi Nazrul Islam
(d) Firaq Gorakhpuri
Ans: (b)
Sarfaroshi ki Tamanna is a patriotic poem in Urdu, written by Pandit Ram Prasad, (pen name: Bismil) he was an Indian Independence Movement leader, known popularly with Kakori Train Robbery, during British Raj in India. The poem was written as an ode to young freedom fighters of the Indian independence movement. It has also been associated with the younger generation of inter-war freedom fighters such as Ashfaqullah Khan, Shaheed Bhagat Singh and Chandrashekhar Azad.

Q2. Which of the following Acts gave representation to the Indians for the first time in legislation ?
(a) Indian Councils Act, 1909
(b) Indian Councils Act, 1919
(c) Government of India Act, 1919
(d) Government of India Act, 1935
Ans: (a)
The Indian Councils Act 1909, commonly known as the Morley-Minto Reforms, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India. It effectively allowed the election of Indians to the various legislative councils in India for the first time. Previously some Indians had been appointed to legislative councils. The majorities of the councils remained British government appointments. Moreover the electorate was limited to specific classes of Indian nationals. The introduction of the electoral principle laid the groundwork for a parliamentary system even though this was contrary to the intent of Morley.

Q3. Punjab was annexed to the British empire during the reign of Governor-General
(a) Lord Bentick
(b) Lord Dalhousie
(c) Lord Cornwallis
(d) Lord Canning
Ans: (b)
The Marquis of Dalhousie, the new governor-general, who arrived in India in January 1848 scarcely approved of Hardinge’s “annexation without encumbrances. “ In April 1848 Diwan Mul Raj’s revolt at Multan opened the prospect of a fresh war in the Punjab. On the very day (4 May) Dalhousie received Resident Frederick Currie’s report of the incident at Multan, he wrote to the Home government: “I shall feel it my duty as the servant of the Company and Crown to exact national reparation from the State of Lahore. The Second Anglo-Sikh War took place in 1848 and 1849, between the Sikh Empire and the British East India Company. It resulted in the subjugation of the Sikh Empire, and the annexation of the Punjab and what subsequently became the North-West Frontier Province by the East India Company.

Q4. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer :
List-I
A. Lord Clive
B. Lord Wellesley
C. Lord Dalhousie
D. Lord Curzon List-II
1. Subsidiary Alliance
2. Indian Universities Act
3. Doctrine of Lapse
4. Dual Government in Bengal

(a) A-2, B-3, C-4, D-1
(b) A-4, B-1, C-3, D-2
(c) A-4, B-3, C-2, D-1
(d) A-1, B-4, C-2, D-3
Ans: (b)
The doctrine of subsidiary alliance was introduced by Marquess Wellesley, British Governor-General of India from 1798 to 1805. Lord Curzon after becoming the governor general of India sought to introduce the reforms in all fields of administration and also in education. In September 1901, Curzon summoned the highest educational officers of the Government throughout India and representatives of universities at a round table Conference at Shimla. The Conference adopted 150 resolutions which touched almost every conceivable branch of education. This was followed by the appointment of a Commission under the presidency of Sir Thomas Raleigh on 27 January, 1902 to enquire into the condition and prospects of universities in India and to recommend proposals for improving their constitution and working. As a result of the report of the recommendations of the Commission the Indian Universities Act was passed in 1904. The Doctrine of Lapse was an annexation policy purportedly devised by Lord Dalhousie, who was the Governor General for the East India Company in India between 1848 and 1856. The Dual Government of Bengal was a double system of administration, which was introduced by Robert Clive. The British East India Company obtained the actual power; where as the responsibility and charge of administration was entrusted to the Nawab of Bengal.

Q5. Who from the following leaders was not assassinated ?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Liaqat Ali Khan
(c) Muhammed Ali Jinnah
(d) Lord Louis Mountbatten
Ans: (c)
Muhammad Ali Jinnah died at age 71 in September 1948, just over a year after Pakistan gained independence from the British Raj. He died from tuberculosis.

Q6. Place chronologically the following treaties :
(a) Treaty of Amritsar
(b) Treaty of Bassein
(c) Treaty of Seringapatam
(d) Treaty of Salbai
(a) (a), (c), (b), (d)
(b) (d), (c), (a), (b)
(c) (d), (c), (b), (a)
(d) (b), (a), (d), (c)
Ans: (c)
The Treaty of Amritsar was signed on March 16, 1846, to settle a dispute over territory in Kashmir after the First Sikh War with the United Kingdom, ceding some land to Maharaja Gulab Singh Dogra. The Treaty of Bassein (Now called Vasai) was a pact signed on December 31, 1802 between the British East India Company and Baji Rao II, the Maratha Peshwa of Pune (Poona) in India after the Battle of Poona. The Third Mysore War ended with the Treaty of Srirangapatnam concluded between Mysore and the English in 1792. The Treaty of Salbai was signed on May 17, 1782, by representatives of the Maratha Empire and the British East India Company after long negotiations to settle the outcome of the First Anglo- Maratha War.

Q7. The Government of India, 1919 is also known as
(a) Morley-Minto Reforms
(b) Montague – Chelmsford Reforms
(c) Regulating Act
(d) Pitts India Act
Ans: (b)
The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British Government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India. The reforms take their name from Edwin Samuel Montagu, the Secretary of State for India during the latter parts of World War I and Lord Chelmsford, Viceroy of India between 1916 and 1921. The reforms were outlined in the Montagu-Chelmsford Report prepared in 1918 and formed the basis of the Government of India Act 1919.

Q8. Who is called the ‘Father of the Indian National Congress’?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) A.O. Hume
(c) Lokmanya Tilak
(d) Surendra Nath Banerjee
Ans: (b)
Allan Octavian Hume was a civil servant, political reformer and amateur ornithologist and horticulturalist in British India. He was one of the founders of the Indian National Congress for which he is known as the ‘Father of the Indian National Congress’. A notable ornithologist, Hume has also been called “the Father of Indian Ornithology.”

Q9. Who founded the Home Rule League in Calcutta in 1916 A.D.?
(a) Bipin Chandra Pal
(b) Arvind Ghosh
(c) Lokmanya Tilak
(d) Mrs. Annie Besant
Ans: (d)
The All India Home Rule League was a national political organization founded in 1916 to lead the national demand for self-government, termed Home Rule, and to obtain the status of a Dominion within the British Empire as enjoyed by Australia, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and Newfoundland at the time. On April 23, 1916 Bal Gangadhar Tilak formed The Home Rule League in Bombay. Six months later Mrs. Annie Besant founded the league in Madras. While Tilak’s Home Rule League was confined to Maharashtra, Home Rule Leagues were started in the rest of the country under the guidance of Annie Besant.

Q10. Mahatma Gandhi owed his inspiration for civil disobedience and non-payment of taxes to
(a) Thoreau
(b) Leo Tolstoy
(c) John Ruskin
(d) Gopal Krishna Gokhale
Ans: (a)
It was from Thoreau’s essay, Civil Disobedience, that Gandhi borrowed the phrase used widely to describe his program. Thoreau himself was influenced by the writings of the forest wise men of India who wrote the Upanishads. These ancient Hindu writings were translated into English in the early 1800s. Thoreau read and pondered them in the Harvard College library. Thus this political technique of boycott and non-violent protest has already crossed and re-crossed the ocean to strengthen hearts and to influence minds in South Asia, South Africa and in Alabama, U.S.A.

Q11. Which of the following statements best explains the nature of revolt of 1857 ?
(a) The last effort of the old political order to regain power.
(b) Mutiny of a section of sepoys of the British Army
(c) A struggle of the common people to overthrow common rule
(d) An effort to establish a limited Indian nation
Ans: (a)
Till the end of the 19th century, the British officials continued to look upon the rebellion primarily as a ‘sepoy mutiny’. But, another British tendency was to look upon the event as a ‘Muslim’ reaction. Upon this view, British had taken over power from the Muslims who made the last consolidated effort to regain their lost power and glory through the revolt of 1857. Thus ‘sepoy mutiny’ and ‘Muslim reaction’ were the main components of the way in which the British chose to understand the reality of 1857.

Q12. Match the following
A. Brahmo Samaj 1. Bombay
B. Veda Samaj 2. Bengal
C. Arya Samaj 3. Madras
D. Prarthana 4. North Samaj India A B C D

(a) 1 3 2 4
(b) 3 2 4 1
(c) 2 4 1 3
(d) 2 3 4 1
Ans: (d)
The Brahmo Samaj was conceived at Kolkata in 1830 by Devendranath Tagore and Ram Mohan Roy as reformation of the prevailing Brahmanism of the time (specifically Kulin practices) and began the Bengal Renaissance of the 19th century. The Veda Samaj was an extremely important social reform in the Southern India established in Madras in the year 1864. Arya Samaj is a Hindu reform movement founded by Swami Dayananda on 10 April 1875 and its area of activity was mainly northern India. Prarthna Samaj, or “Prayer Society” in Sanskrit, was a movement for religious and social reform in Maharashtra based on earlier reform movements and traditions of Maharashtra. It started in Bombay and was inspired by the Brahmo Samaj.

Q13. Land Revenue under Tipu—
(a) was mainly collected through revenue officers.
(b) was mainly collected by Government officials appointed by Tipu
(c) was collected by interme-diaries
(d) was not allowed to go into the hands of Sultan
Ans: (b)
Tipu Sultan while managing his land revenue system introduced the system of collecting the rent in cash. Farming out the land was abolished and the state undertook the task of collecting the tax directly from the peasants. State officers were strictly instructed not to harass the ryots (peasants or cultivators of the soil). They were not to interfere in their daily affairs except at the time of collecting taxes when they should adopt peaceful methods of collection.

Q14. Who was the advocate at the famous INA Trials ?
(a) Bhulabhai Desai
(b) Asaf Ali
(c) Subhash Chandra Bose
(d) C. Rajagopalachari
Ans: (a)
Bhulabhai Desai was an Indian freedom fighter and acclaimed lawyer. He is well-remembered for his defense of the three Indian National Army soldiers accused of treason during World War II, and for attempting to negotiate a secret power-sharing agreement with Liaquat Ali Khan of the Muslim League. When three captured Indian National Army (INA) officers, Shahnawaz Khan, Prem Kumar Sahgal and Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon were put on trial for treason, the Congress formed a Defence committee composed of 17 advocates including Bhulabhai Desai. The courtmartial hearing began in October 1945 at the Red Fort. Bhulabhai was the leading counsel for the defense.

Q15. Which year did Bankim Chandra Chatopadhyay write Anandmath?
(a) 1858 (b) 1892
(c) 1882 (d) None of these
Ans: (c)
Anandamath (The Abbey of Bliss) is a Bengali novel, written by Bankim Chandra Chatterji and published in 1882. Set in the background of the Sanyasi Rebellion in the late 18th century, it is considered one of the most important novels in the history of Bengali and Indian literature. Its importance is heightened by the fact that it became synonymous with the struggle for Indian independence from the British Empire. The national song of India, Vande Mataram was first published in this novel.

Q16. The Governor-General of India who initiated the introduction of English in India was—
(a) Lord Curzon
(b) Lord Macaulay
(c) Lord Bentinck
(d) Lord Hastings
Ans: (c)
English education was officially introduced in India in 1835 by Governor-General William Bentinck. The English Education Act was a legislative Act of the Council of India in 1835 giving effect to a decision in 1835 by William Bentinck, 4th Duke of Portland, the then Governor-General of British India to reallocate funds the East India Company was required by the British Parliament to spend on education and literature in India.

Q17. Who among the following visited Gandhiji in South Africa ?
(a) B. G. Tilak
(b) Vallabhbhai Patel
(c) G.K. Gokhale
(d) J.L. Nehru
Ans: (c)
Gokhale was famously a mentor to Mahatma Gandhi in his formative years. In 1912, Gokhale visited South Africa at Gandhi’s invitation. As a young barrister, Gandhi returned from his struggles against the Empire in South Africa and received personal guidance from Gokhale, including a knowledge and understanding of India and the issues confronting common Indians. By 1920, Gandhi emerged as the leader of the Indian Independence Movement. In his autobiography, Gandhi calls Gokhale his mentor and guide.

Q18. In which year Salt Satyagraha took place ?
(a) 1929 (b) 1930
(c) 1931 (d) 1932
Ans: (b)
The Salt Satyagraha started on March 12, 1930, with the undertaking of the Dandi Yatra (Dandi March). It was the next significant non-violent protest against the British, after the Non-Cooperation movement of 1920-22 and India’s First War of Independence 1857. The triggering factor for this movement was the British monopoly of salt trade in India and the imposition of a salt tax.

Q19. Through which Educational Report Calcutta University came into existence ?
(a) Macaulay’s Minute
(b) Hunter Commission
(c) Charter Act
(d) Wood’s Despatch
Ans: (d)
Charles Wood, the President of the Board of Control of the East India Company, did a yeoman’s job in spreading education in India when in 1854 he sent a despatch to Lord Dalhousie, the then Governor-General of India. It was recommended therein that universities on the model of the London university be established in big cities such as Bombay, Calcutta and Madras. In accordance with the wood’s despatch, Education Departments were established in every province and universities were opened at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1857 and in Punjab in 1882 and at Allahabad 1887.

Q20. Cabinet Mission came to India in the year
(a) 1946 (b) 1945
(c) 1942 (d) 1940
Ans: (a)
The British Cabinet Mission of 1946 to India aimed to discuss and plan for the transfer of power from the British Government to Indian leadership, providing India with independence. Formulated at the initiative of Clement Attlee, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, the mission consisted of Lord Pethick-Lawrence, the Secretary of State for India, Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade, and A. V. Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty. However, Lord Wavell, the Viceroy of India, did not participate.

Q21. Muslim League was founded in the year
(a) 1900 (b) 1905
(c) 1906 (d) 1902
Ans: (c)
The All-India Muslim League was a political party during the period of the British Rule which advocated the creation of a separate Muslim-majority nation. It was founded by the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference at Dhaka (now Bangladesh), in 1906, in the context of the circumstances that were generated over the partition of Bengal in 1905

Q22. The famous revolutionary song ‘Sarfaroshi ki tamanna ab hamare dil mein hai …’ was composed by
(a) Bhagat Singh
(b) Khudiram Bose
(c) Chandrasekhar Azad
(d) Ramprasad Bismil
Ans: (d)
Sarfaroshi ki Tamanna is a patriotic poem in Urdu, written by Pandit Ram Prasad, (pen name: Bismil) he was an Indian Independence Movement leader, known popularly with Kakori Train Robbery, during British Raj in India.

Q23. The first Viceroy of India was
(a) Lord Canning
(b) Lord Hardinge
(c) Lord Dalhousie
(d) Lord Elgin
Ans: (a)
Charles John Canning, known as The Viscount Canning from 1837 to 1859, was an English statesman and Governor-General of India during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. In 1858 he was rewarded by being made the first Viceroy of India. In April 1859 he received the thanks of both Houses of Parliament for his great services during the rebellion. He was also made an extra civil grand cross of the Order of the Bath, and in May of the same year he was raised to the dignity of an Earl, as Earl Canning.

Q24. From which of the following Upanishads the words ‘Satyameva Jayate’ inscribed in Devanagari Script below the abacus of the State Emblem are ?
(a) Prashna (b) Mundaka
(c) Mandukya(d) Ishavasya
Ans: (b)
Satyameva Jayate (Truth Alone Triumphs) is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka Upanishad which is one of the earlier, “primary” (mukhya) Upanishads, a genre of Hindu scriptures commented upon by Shankara. It is associated with the Atharva Veda. Upon independence of India, it was adopted as the national motto of India. The origin of the motto is a well-known mantra 3.1.6 from the Mundaka Upanishad.

Q25. Lahore was Ranjeet Singh’s Political Capital. Which city was called his Religious Capital ?
(a) Amritsar
(b) Anandpur Shahib
(c) Gujranwala
(d) Peshawar
Ans: (a)
Ranjit Singh, chief of the Sukerchakia misl, who first occupied Lahore (1799), the traditional capital of the Punjab, declaring himself Maharaja in 1801, extended his hegemony to Amritsar in 1805 when he took over the town from his traditional rivals, the Bhangi chiefs. Already in 1809 he had constructed the Gobindgarh Fort outside Lahauri Gate complete with a formidable moat, three lines of defence and several bastions and emplacements for heavy guns. Amritsar thus had already become his second capital. Ranjit Singh devoutly provided liberal funds to have the dome and exterior of the holy Harimandar goldplated and to have the interior ornamented with fine filigree and enamel work and with decorative murals and panels in marble inlaid with coloured stone.

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