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Part 020 – History Previous Year Questions

Q1. Which Rajput ruler drew up a set of tables called Zij Muhammadshuhi to enable the people to make astronomical observations?
(a) Ajit Singh
(b) Raja Sawai Jai Singh
(c) Bhara Mal
(d) Man Singh
Ans: (b)
The ‘Zij Muhammad Shahi’ is a set of astronomical tables prepared under the direction of Jai Singh II and named after the Emperor, Muhammad Shah. It is notable for employing the use of telescopic observations. The ruler had complimented him (Sawai Jai Singh) for his knowledge of astronomy, as is evidenced from a paragraphs of ‘Zij-i- Muhammad Shahi ’ which, Sawai Jai Singh had dedicated in the name of the ruler in the year 1728.

Q2. Who built the ‘Gol Gumbaj’ at Bijapur, famous for the world’s second largest dome and the whispering gallery?
(a) Mahmud Gawan
(b) Yusuf Adil Shah
(c) Ismail Adil Shah
(d) Muhammad Adil Shah )
Ans: (b)
Gol Gumbaz is the mausoleum of Mohammed Adil Shah, Sultan of Bijapur. The tomb, located in Bijapur, Karnataka in India, was completed in 1656 by the architect Yaqut of Dabul. With an area of 1,700 square meters, the mausoleum has one of the biggest single chamber spaces in the world.

Q3. Match the capitals of the ruling dynasties of early Medieval India :
I II
A. Pratiharas 1. Kannauj
B. Chandellas 2. Khajuraho
C. Parmars 3. Dhar
D. Chalukyas 4. Anhilwad

(a) A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4
(b) A-1, B-3, C-4, D-2
(c) A-2, B-4, C-1, D-3
(d) A-2, B-1, C-3, D-4
Ans: (a)
Kannauj: Kannuaj remained a focal point for the three powerful dynasties, namely the Gurjara Pratiharas, Palas and Rashtrakutas, between the 8th and 10th centuries; Khaujraho: was the cultural capital of Chandel Rajputs, a Hindu dynasty that ruled this part of India from the 10-12th centuries; Dhar: seat of rule of the Parmar Rajputs; and Ahilwara: Chalukyas.

Q4. The Mughal Emperor who discouraged ‘Sati’ was-
(a) Babur (b) Humayun
(c) Akbar (d) Jehangir
Ans: (c)
Akbar encouraged widow re-marriage, discouraged child marriage, outlawed the practice of sati, and persuaded Delhi merchants to set up special market days for women, who otherwise were secluded at home. His attempt to ban voluntary sati also met with opposition by some prominent Hindus of his kingdom, including some of his ministers, and he agreed not to pursue the matter further.

Q5. Who was called the ‘Second founder of the Maratha Kingdom’?
(a) Raja Ram
(b) Balaji Viswanath
(c) Baji Rao I
(d) Balaji Baji Rao
Ans: (c)
Baji Rao-I was a noted general who served as Peshwa (Prime Minister) to the fourth Maratha Chhatrapati (Emperor) Shahu from 1720 until Baji Rao’s death. Acknowledged as the most influential of the nine Peshwas, the later Kingdoms of Scindias of Gwalior, Holkars of Indore, Gaekwads of Baroda, and Pawars of Dhar were created by Baji Rao as part of a Maratha Empire, as he wreaked havoc on the disintegrating Mughal Empire and set up his jagirdars (fiefdoms). He fought over 41 major battles and many others, is reputed never to have never lost one battle.

Q6. Which Battle laid the foundation of Mughal rule in India?
(a) Battle of Plassey
(b) Battle of Talikota
(c) First Battle of Panipat
(d) Battle of Haldighati
Ans: (c)
The Battle of Panipat was fought between the invading forces of Babur and the Lodi Empire, which took place on 21 April 1526 in North India. It marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire. This was one of the earliest battles involving gunpowder firearms and field artillery.

Q7. Mughal painting reached its zenith under
(a) Shah Jahan (b) Akbar
(c) Jahangir (d) Aurangzeb
Ans: (c)
Mughal painting reached its zenith under Jahangir, a great connoisseur and outstanding patron of painting. As a young prince, Jahangir had founded his own atelier, under the supervision of master Aqa Riza.

Q8. Who of the following was the biographer of Akbar?
(a) Abul Fazl
(b) Faizi
(c) Abdul Nabi Khan
(d) Birbal
Ans: (a)
The Ain-i-Akbari is the third volume of the Akbarnama by Abul Fazl which contains information regarding Akbar’s reign in the form of, what would be called in modern times, administration reports, statistical compilations, or gazetteers. It contains the áín (i.e., mode of governing) of Akbar, and is, in fact, the administration report and statistical Return of his government.

Q9. Who among the following Sultans of Delhi has been described by the historians as the ‘mixture of opposites’?
(a) Balban
(b) Alauddin Khilji
(c) Muhammad Bin Tughlaq
(d) Ibrahim Lodi
Ans: (c)
Probably, the best definition of Muhammed bin Tughlaq was “a mixture of opposites”. While he was a very learned man, he was not much of a statesmen, nor was he in complete touch with reality. A number of his economic and administrative reforms, which though beneficial was perhaps too drastic and too far ahead of the time to ever hope to succeed. During his time, while there was territorial expansion, the Sultanate was badly damaged.

Q10. Who was the last ruler of Lodi Dynasty?
(a) Bahlul Lodi
(b) Ibrahim Lodi
(c) Daulat Khan Lodi
(d) Sikandar Lodi
Ans: (b)
Ibrahim Lodi was the Sultan of Delhi in 1526 after the death of his father Sikandar. He became the last ruler of the Lodi dynasty, reigning for nine years between 1517 until being defeated and killed by Babur’s invading army in the First Battle of Panipat 1526.

Q11. Which of the fol lowing Mughal monarchs has vividly described Indian flora & fauna, seasons, fruits etc., in his diary?
(a) Akbar (b) Jahangir
(c) Babur (d) Aurangzeb
Ans: (*)
A very notable feature of Mughal times was the development of interest in natural history. Both Babur’s account of Indian fauna and flora (Baburnama) and Jahangir’s investigations in Natural History (Tuzuk-i Jahangiri) are well known. Babur offers his description of fauna of India in a very systematic style. Jahangir’s interest in animals, birds and fauna shows even a greater scientific bent of mind than his great grandfather. He had perhaps greater leisure than Babur had to satisfy his sense of curiosity, but that he had such a sense surely is much to his credit

Q12. The greatness of Sher Shah lies in his
(a) victories against Humayun
(b) superior generalship
(c) administrative reforms
(d) religious tolerance
Ans: (c)
Sher Shah is regarded as one of the greatest figures in Indian history, chiefly on account of his administrative reforms. He was the first Muslim ruler of India who displayed a real aptitude for civil government. His short rule was marked by many beneficent reforms in every branch of administration. For administrative convenience Sher Shah divided his whole empire into 47 divisions called sarkars.

Q13. The temple built in 1 100 A. D.
and dominating all other temples in Bhubaneshwar is

(a) Raja Rani temple
(b) Kandariya Mahadev
(c) Tribhuvaneswara Lingaraja
(d) Mukhteswara
Ans: (c)
Lingaraj Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Harihara, another name for Shiva and is one of the oldest temples of Bhubaneswar. Shiva is here worshipped as Tribhuvaneshwara (Master of three worlds, i.e. Heaven, Earth and Netherworld). The temple is more than 1100 years old, dating back in its present form to the last decade of the eleventh century, though there is evidence that parts of the temple have been there since sixth century CE as the temple has been emphasized in some of the seventh century Sanskrit texts.

Q14. Who defeated whom in the Second Battle of Tarain (AD 1192)?
(a) Prithviraj defeated Mohammad Ghauri
(b) Mahmud Ghazni defeated Prithviraj
(c) Prithviraj defeated Mahmud Ghazni
(d) Mohammad Ghauri defeated Prithviraj
Ans: (d)
In 1192, Ghori after returning to his capital Ghazni challenged Prithviraj at the Second Battle of Tarain where the latter was comprehensively beaten. The victory of Mohammad of Ghur was decisive, and laid the foundation of the Sultanate of Delhi.

Q15. Who issued a token currency in copper coins between AD 1329 and 1330?
(a) Alauddin Khilzi
(b) Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq
(c) Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq
(d) Feroz Tughlaq
Ans: (c)
Muhammad Bin Tughlaq introduced beautiful and various types of coins during his reign and fixed up their relative values. . The remarkable feature of the coinage system was the introduction of token currency and issue of copper and brass coins. The Sultan made these token coins legal tenders and kept their value at par with gold and silver coins. He launched the coins without taking any precaution against forgery.

Q16. ‘Chauth’ was
(a) a religious tax imposed by Aurangzeb
(b) toll tax imposed by Shivaji
(c) irrigation tax charged by Akbar
(d) land tax levied by Shivaji on neighbouring States
Ans: (d)
Chauth (from Sanskrit meaning one-fourth) was regular a tax or tribute imposed, from early 18th century, by the Maratha Empire in India. It was nominally levied at 25% on revenue or produce, hence the name. It was levied on the Mughalai lands which was under Mughal rule. The right to assess and collect this tax was asserted first by Shivaji in the later 17th century, on spurious grounds that his family was hereditary tax collectors in Maharashtra.

Q17. Tansen, a great musician of his times, was in the Court of
(a) Jehangir (b) Akbar
(c) Shah Jahan(d)Bahadur Shah
Ans: (b)
Tansen, the magical musician, was one of the ‘Navratna’ (nine gems) at the court of the Mughal Emperor Akbar.

Q18. The court language of the Mughals was—
(a) Urdu (b) Hindi
(c) Arabic (d) Persian
Ans: (d)
The language of the Mughals was Chagatai and later Farsi. The language of the court was Persian which is known as Farsi. The language advanced into the language Urdu. It is characteristic of the Mughals that, next to Persian, the language which received the greatest patronage at court was Hindi. The practice started in Akbar’s days.

Q19. Name the river on the banks of which the city of Vijayanagar is located.
(a) Kaveri (b) Krishna
(c) Wainganga (d) Tungabhadra
Ans: (d)
Most of the city lies on the south bank of the Tungabhadra River. The city was built around the original religious centre of the Virupaksha temple at Hampi.

Q20. “Din-i-Ilahi” was the new religion started by
(a) Humayun (b) Jahangir
(c) Akbar (d) Shahjahan
Ans: (c)
Din-i-Ilahi was a syncretic religious doctrine propounded by the emperor Jalalu d-Din Muhammad Akbar in year 1582 A.D., who ruled the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1605, intending to merge the best elements of the religions of his empire, and thereby reconcile the differences that divided his subjects. The elements were primarily drawn from Islam and Hinduism, but some others were also taken from Christianity, Jainism and Zoroastrianism.

Q21. The capital of the Bahamani Kings was
(a) Gulbarga (b) Bijapur
(c) Belgaum (d) Raichur
Ans: (a)
The city of Gulbarga was founded by the Bahmani Sultans in the 14th century as their capital. It remained the capital of the Bahamani Saltanate from 1347 to 1425 when Bidar was made the capital. Bidar continued as the capital till 1527.

Q22. Under the administration of Shivaji, “Peshwa” was referred to as
(a) Minister of Religious Affairs
(b) Minister of Defence
(c) Chief Minister
(d) Minister of Justice
Ans: (c)
A Peshwa is the titular equivalent of a modern Prime Minister. Emperor Shivaji created the Peshwa designation in order to more effectively delegate administrative duties during the growth of the Maratha Empire.

Q23. The first battle of Tarain took place between ?
(a) Alauddin khilji and Prithviraj Chauhan
(b) Mohammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan
(c) Mahmud Ghazni and Prithviraj Chauhan
(d) Mohammad Shah and Prithviraj Chauhan
Ans: (b)
The Battles of Tarain were fought in 1191 and 1192 between a Turkic Ghurid raiding force led by Sultan Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghauri and a Rajput army led by Prithviraj Chauhan. In the first of the two battles, Muhammad Ghauri was defeated, but left to flee by the Chauhan king.

Q24. Which Khilji ruler killed his father-
in law to ascend the throne of Delhi ?

(a) Qutb-ud-din Aibak
(b) Jalal-ud- din khilji
(c) Ghiyas – ud-din
(d) Ala-ud-din Khilji
Ans: (d)
Jalal-ud-din Khalji was the first Khalji ruler of the Delhi Sultanate. He was killed by his cruel nephew and son-in-law Ala-ud-din Khilji when he arrived to dinner with him.

Q25. The city of Dhillika (Delhi) was founded by
(a) Chauhans (b) Tomars
(c) Pawars (d) Pratiharas
Ans: (b)
Dhilika is the ancient name for the city of Delhi. It was believed to be the capital of Pandavas and later Dhilli was founded by Tomars in AD 736.

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