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Part 015 – Physical Geography Previous Year Questions

Q1. The smallest ocean is :
(a) Atlantic (b) Pacific
(c) Indian (d) Arctic
Ans: (d) The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the world’s five ocean basins. With an area of about 5.4 million square miles, the Arctic Ocean is about 1.5 times as big as the United States. It is bordered by Greenland, Canada, Norway, Alaska, and Russia. It is almost completely covered with ice for the majority of the year.

Q2. How much of world’s surface is covered by water?

(a) 55% (b) 70%
(c) 80% (d) 25%
Ans: (b) Water makes up 70.8% of the Earth’s surface, while the other 29% consists of continents and islands. To break the numbers down, 96.5% of all the Earth’s water is contained within the oceans as salt water, while the remaining 3.5% is freshwater lakes and frozen water locked up in glaciers and the polar ice caps.

Q3. The largest reservoir of fresh water is :

(a) Glaciers (b) Ground Water
(c) Ponds (d) Lakes
Ans: (a) The largest water reservoir is the ocean, containing 97.3% of all water on Earth. Only 2.8 % of all the water on Planet Earth is fresh water. Three-quarters of all fresh water on Earth is frozen in glacier ice. So glacier ice is the second largest reservoir of water on Earth and the largest reservoir of fresh water on Earth

Q4. A semi enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea is called

(a) Estuary (b) Fjord
(c) Cove (d) Ria coast
Ans: (a) An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water which has a free connection with the open sea and within which sea water is measurably diluted with fresh water derived from land drainage. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments. They are subject both to marine and riverine influences.

Q5. The ‘EL Nino’ phenomena which sparks climatic extreme around the globe, originates in the

(a) Sea of China
(b) Pacific Ocean
(c) Indian Ocean
(d) Atlantic Ocean
Ans: (b) El Niño (Little Boy, or Christ Child in Spanish) refers to the large-scale ocean-atmosphere climate interaction linked to a periodic warming in sea surface temperatures across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific. It was originally recognized by fishermen off the coast of South America in the 1600s, with the appearance of unusually warm water in the Pacific Ocean.

Q6. Terrigenous deposits are found in

(a) Deep Sea Plain
(b) Ocean Trenches
(c) Rift Valley
(d) Continental Shelf and Slope
Ans: (d) In oceanography, terrigenous sediments are those derived from the erosion of rocks on land; that is, they are derived from terrestrial (as opposed to marine) environments. Consisting of sand, mud, and silt carried to sea by rivers, they are mainly deposited on the continental shelfand slopes. Terrigenous sediments that reach the continental shelf are often stored in submarine canyons on the continental slope. Turbidity currents carry them down into the deep sea.

Q7. ‘El Nino’ that affects our Monsoons, has its origins in

(a) The Indian Ocean
(b) The Himalayan Plateau
(c) The Pacific Ocean
(d) The Arabian Peninsula
Ans: (c) El Niño is a climate cycle in the Pacific Ocean that causes global changes of both temperatures and rainfall. It is characterized by unusually warm ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific, as opposed to La Niña, which is characterized by unusually cold ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific.

Q8. Where is the Great Barrier Reef located ?

(a) Pacific Ocean
(b) Indian Ocean
(c) Atlantic Ocean
(d) Arctic Ocean
Ans: (a) The Great Barrier Reef is located off the northeastern coast of Queensland, Australia in the Coral Sea in the western edge of the Pacific Ocean. It is the world’s largest coral reef system, composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,300 kilometres over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres.

Q9. A wide inlet of the sea usually concave in shape, is termed as a:

(a) Strait (b) Sound
(c) Bay (d) Fjord
Ans: (c) Bay is inlet of the sea or other body of water usually smaller than a gulf. It refers to the concavity of a coastline or reentrant of the sea, formed by the movements of either the sea or a lake. A bay is usually located where more easily eroded rocks are bounded by harder and more resistant formations made from igneous rocks.

Q10. The gentle ‘seaward sloping’ surface from the coasts is called __________.

(a) Continental shelf
(b) Continental rise
(c) Abyssal plains
(d) Submarine ridges
Ans: (a) Continental Shelf is a gentle seaward sloping surface extending from the coasts towards the open sea. In all, about 7.5% of the total area of the oceans is covered by the continental shelves. The shelf is formed by the drowning of a part of a continent with a relative rise in sea level or marine deposition beneath the water.

Q11. Ring of Fire is found commonly in _____

(a) Pacific Ocean
(b) Atlantic Ocean
(c) Indian Ocean
(d) Arctic Ocean
Ans: (a) The Ring of Fire is an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean. It has 452 volcanoes and is home to over 75% of the world’s active and dormant volcanoes. It is sometimes called the circum- Pacific belt.

Q12. “Great Barrier Reef”, the world’s largest Coral reef is located in

(a) Caribbean Islands
(b) Australia
(c) Philippines
(d) Indonesia
Ans: (b) The Great Barrier Reef is situated off the coast of Queensland in northeastern Australia. It is the world’s largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,300 kilometres over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres.

Q13. The deepest trench of the Indian Ocean is

(a) Java trench
(b) Aleutian trench
(c) Atacama trench
(d) Tizard trench
Ans: (a) The Sunda Trench, earlier known as the Java Trench, is the deepest point in the Indian Ocean. It is located in the northeastern Indian Ocean, with a length of 3,200 kilometres. The trench is considered to be part of the Pacific Ring of Fire as well as one of a ring of oceanic trenches around the northern edges of the Australian Plate.

Q14. “Tsunami” is the name given to which of the following?

(a) Earthquake
(b) Cyclone
(c) Tidal Waves
(d) Undersea Waves
Ans: (d) A tsunami or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake. Unlike normal ocean waves which are generated by wind, or tides which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water.

Q15. The tides in the sea are primarily due to

(a) the atmospheric effect of the Earth
(b) the gravitational effect of Venus on the Earth
(c) the gravitational effect of the Sun on the Earth
(d) the gravitational effect of the Moon on the Earth
Ans: (d) A tide is the periodic rising and falling of Earth’s ocean surface caused mainly by the gravitational pull of the Moon acting on the oceans.The height of tides varies somewhat with the phases of the Moon. At New Moon and Full Moon, tides are higher because the Sun’s tidal force adds to the Moon’s. This is called “spring tide”.

Q16. A stretch of sea water, partly or fully separated by a narrow strip from the main sea is called

(a) Bay (b) Isthmus
(c) Lagoon (d) Strait
Ans: (c) Lagoon is a shallow stretch of water which is partly or completely separated from the sea by a narrow strip of land. In the case of coral reef, it is a channel of sea water between the reef and the main land. Lagoons are common coastal features around many parts of the world.

Q17. Laterite soil develops as a result of :

(a) deposits of alluvial
(b) deposits of loess
(c) leaching
(d) continued vegetation cover
Ans: (c) Laterite has been derived from the Latin word ‘later’ which means brick. The laterite soil develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall. This is the result of intense leaching due to heavy rain. Humus content of the soil is low because most of the micro organisms, particularly the decomposers, like bacteria, get destroyed due to high temperature.

Q18. The soil water which is of the greatest importance to the plant life is

(a) Gravitational water
(b) Capillary water
(c) Hygroscopic water
(d) Combined water
Ans: (b) Capillarity is the primary force that enables the soil to retain water, as well as to regulate its movement. The phenomenon of capillarity also occurs in the soil. In the same way that water moves upwards through a tube against the force of gravity; water moves upwards through soil pores, or the spaces between soil particles. Gravitational water occupies the larger soil pores (macro pores) and moves down readily under the force of gravity. Water in excess of the field capacity is termed gravitational water. Gravitational water is of no use to plants because it occupies the larger pores. It reduces aeration in the soil.

Q19. The colour of loamy soil is

(a) Greenish brown
(b) Bluish green
(c) Yellowish brown
(d) Blackish brown
Ans: (d) Loam encompasses a variety of soil types, some granulated and nicely draining, while others may be thicker and have the consistency of mud. Most loam soils are a brown or black colour, making them ideal for gardens. It is often the most preferred type for plant growth and does well with just about any species. Large plants and trees, including maples and poplars, are both commonly found growing in loam soil. Loam is a combination of small rock particles, organic matter and nutrients, often in ideal combinations for healthy plant growth. The granular soil retains water very easily, yet the drainage is well. Loamy soil is composed of 40 % sand, 40% silt and 20% clay.

Q20. Laterite soils are found in area where–

(a) normal temperature and rain fall is less
(b) temperature is high and rainfall is heavy
(c) temperature is low and rainfall is nominal
(d) temperature is high and rainfall is normal
Ans: (b) Laterites are soil types rich in iron and aluminium, formed in hot and wet tropical areas. Nearly all laterites are rusty-red because of iron oxides. They develop by intensive and long-lasting weathering of the underlying parent rock. Tropical weathering (laterization) is a prolonged process of chemical weathering which produces a wide variety in the thickness, grade, chemistry and ore mineralogy of the resulting soils.

Q21. The soil conservation method in which mountain slope is cut into step is

(a) Contour ploughing
(b) Cover planting
(c) Strip cropping
(d) Terracing
Ans: (d) In agriculture, a terist is a piece of sloped plane that has been landscaped into a series of successively receding flat surfaces or platforms, which resemble steps, for the purposes of more effective farming. This type of landscaping, therefore, is called terracing. Graduated terrace steps are commonly used to farm on hilly or mountainous terrain. Terraced fields decrease erosion and surface runoff, and are effective for growing crops requiring much water, such as rice.

Q22. For the cultivation of Tobacco the soil should be rich in

(a) calcareous matter
(b) nitrogen
(c) organic content
(d) potash
Ans: (d) Tobacco is a crop that needs significant amounts of potassium. It is a fast growing plant, between 80 and 150 days, with a high daily potassium requirement. Potash is the common name for various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form. In some rare cases, potash can be formed with traces of organic materials such as plant remains, and this was the major historical source for it before the industrial era.

Q23. Which of the following types of soil is best suited for cotton cultivation ?

(a) Black (b) Red
(c) Laterite (d) Mountain
Ans: (a) Cotton needs a soil with a excellent water holding capacity and aeration and good drainage as it cannot withstand excessive moisture and water logging. The major groups of soils for cotton cultivation are the alluvial soils, black soils, and red sand loam. Black cotton soils are inorganic clays of medium to high compressibility and form a major soil group in India. They are characterized by high shrinkage and swelling properties. This Black cotton soils occurs mostly in the central and western parts and covers approximately 20% of the total area of India.

Q24. The soil which originate under tall-grass prairie vegetation is called

(a) Black soils
(b) Chestnut soils
(c) Chernozem soils
(d) Terra rosa soils
Ans: (c) Chernozem or black earth variety of soil is rich in organic matter in the form of humus. It is generally a modified type of loess. True chernozem is black in color, but there are various grades, shading off into gray and chestnut-brown soils. It forms in areas that have cold winters, hot summers, and rapid evaporation of precipitation; generally only tall grass is found native on chernozem.

Q25. Mountain soil contains a lot of—

(a) humus
(b) clay
(c) coase material
(d) iron and aluminium salt
Ans: (a) The distribution of mountain soils is subject mainly to a vertical (elevation) zonation; the soils change with ascent into the mountains depending on changes in climatic conditions. Most mountain soils form on very steep slopes where, as a result of denudation processes, their shallowness, gravel-like quality, and wealth of primary minerals may be observed. Mountain soils are those which are found in depressions and valley basins or on slightly inclined mountain slopes. It consists of sandstones, clay, shales and limestones. It has the maximum humus content and is thus, very fertile. It is found in Himalayan regions and north-east india..

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