Q1. The humidity of air depends on
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d) Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Humidity depends on water vaporization, and condensation, which, in turn, mainly depends on temperature. Temperature, in turn, is affected by weather and location.
Q2. The temperature increases rapidly above
(a) Ionosphere (b) Exosphere
(c) Stratosphere (d) Troposphere
Ans: (b) Above Troposphere, temperature increases rapidly with height in the Stratosphere layer as it houses the ozone layer which absorbs ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. Again, temperature increases rapidly with height in Thermosphere which comprises Ionosphere (lower part) and Exosphere (upper part)). Temperature in Exosphere which is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere reaches up to more than 4500o Celsius.
Q3. Our atmosphere is divided into layers.
(a) Two (b) Three
(c) Four (d) Five
Ans: (d) Earth has five primary layers, which are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere. From the Earth upwards, those layers are: Troposphere: 0 to 12 km; Stratosphere: 12 to 50 km; Mesosphere: 50 to 80 km; Thermosphere: 80 to 700 km; Exosphere: 700 to 10,000 km.
Q4. The forests which act as barriers against cyclones are :
(a) Alpine forests
(b) Mangrove forests
(c) Evergreen forests
(d) Monsoon forests
Ans: (b) Mangrove Forest acts as barriers against cyclones and other natural disasters like tidal waves and tropical storms. They act as live sea walls against disasters and help minimise damage done to property and life. They also slow soil erosion and stabilize tidal banks against rising sea level, another climate change hazard.
Q5. Cloud burst means
(a) Formation of artificial rain
(b) Abnormally heavy downpour of rain, associated with thunderstorm
(c) Presence of scattered flakes of cloud in the sky
(d) Sowing of seeds of a crop in a cloudy weather
Ans: (b) A cloudburst is sudden copious rainfall. It is a sudden aggressive rainstorm falling for a short period of time limited to a small geographical area. Generally cloudbursts are associated with thunderstorms.
Q6. Which of the following is FALSE with respect to rain water harvesting ?
(a) It is a device of water conservation.
(b) It helps raising water table.
(c) It helps meet rising water demand.
(d) It increases run-off losses.
Ans: (d) Rainwater harvesting is a technique used for collecting, storing, and using rainwater for landscape irrigation and other uses. It reduces water runoff, improve infiltration and increase the water storage capacity of the soil. By reducing the runoff, it reduces flooding of water on the roads, improves the quality of water and reduces the chances of soil erosion.
Q7. The South-East trade winds are attracted towards the Indian subcontinent in the rainy season due to
(a) the development of cyclone over the equator
(b) the effect of easterlies
(c) the effect of Northern-East trade winds
(d) the presence of low atmospheric pressure over North-
Ans: (d) During the Rainy Season in India (Mid-June to the end of September), the intense heat that prevails in the Indian subcontinent causes a low pressure region over the Northern Plains in the Northwestern parts of the country. It is intense enough to attract the moisture-bearing winds from the Indian Ocean. Thus, the south-east trade winds from the Southern Hemisphere are attracted towards India. On crossing the equator, they are deflected to their right and blow over the Indian subcontinent as the south-west monsoon winds.
Q8. The Mediterranean region are characterized by heavy rain in:
(a) Winter (b) Spring
(c) Autumn (d) Summer
Ans: (a) During summer season, regions of Mediterranean climate are dominated by subtropical high pressure cells, making rainfall impossible or unlikely except for the occasional thunderstorm. During winter the polar jet stream and associated periodic storms bring heavy rain. Precipitation is heavier during the colder months.
Q9. The layer of atmosphere close to the earth’s surface is called
Ans: (b) The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth’s atmosphere and site of all weather on Earth. It is bonded on the top by a layer of air called the Tropopause, which separates the troposphere from the stratosphere, and on bottom by the surface of the Earth.
Q10. Choose the correct option which represents the arrangement of atmospheric layers.
(a) Ionosphere, Ecosphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere, Troposphere
(b) Ecosphere, Troposphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere
(c) Mesosphere, Ionosphere. Ecosphere, Troposphere, Stratosphare
(d) Troposphare, Ionosphere, Ecosphere
Ans: (d) From top to bottom, the Earth’s atmosphere is divided into five main layers, the exosphere, the thermosphere, the mesosphere, the stratosphere and the troposphere. The atmosphere thins out in each higher layer until the gases dissipate in space. The five main layers are: l Exosphere: 700 to 10,000 km l Thermosphere: 80 to 700 km l Mesosphere: 50 to 80 km l Stratosphere: 12 to 50 km l Troposphere: 0 to 12 km
Q11. ‘Cloud burst’ means
(a) Sowing of seeds of a crop in cloudy weather.
(b) Abnormally heavy downpour of rain, associated with a thunderstorm.
(c) Formation of artificial rain.
(d) Presence of scattered flakes of cloud in the sky.
Ans: (b) A cloudburst is an extreme amount of precipitation, sometimes accompanied by hail and thunder, that normally lasts no longer than a few minutes but is capable of creating flood conditions. A cloudburst can suddenly dump large amounts of water. However, cloudbursts are infrequent as they occur only via orographic lift or sudden condensation.
Q12. All vital atmospheric processes leading to various climatic and weather conditions take place in the :
(c) Ionosphere (d) Exosphere
Ans: (b) Troposphere, that extends up to a height of 12 km on an average from the surface of the earth, is the locale of all the vital atmospheric processes which create the climatic and weather conditions on the earth’s surface. About half of the mass of air comprising the entire atmosphere is concentrated in this zone. This is the lowermost layer of the atmosphere.
Q13. Which is the warmest layer of the atmosphere?
Ans: (a) The thermosphere is the hottest layer of the atmosphere. It extends from 80 kilometers above the surface of the Earth up to 600 kilometers and can heat up to 1,500 degrees Celsius because it’s very sensitive to solar activity. The air is thin and extremely hot, and there are sparse air molecules in this layer.
Q14. Most of the ozone in the earth’s atmosphere is found in the :
Ans: (b) Most ozone (about 90%) resides in a layer that begins between 10 and 17 kilometers above the Earth’s surface and extends up to about 50 kilometers. This region of the atmosphere is called the stratosphere. The ozone layer absorbs most of the Sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
Q15. Which of the following is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere?
Ans: (d) The exosphere is the outermost layer of Earth’s atmosphere. It extends from the exobase, which is located at the top of the thermosphere at an altitude of about 700 km above sea level, to about 10,000 km where it merges into the solar wind. This layer is mainly composed of extremely low densities of hydrogen, helium and several heavier molecules.The exosphere is located too far above Earth for any meteorological phenomena to be possible.
Q16. Match List I and List II and mark the correct answer.
List I List II
a. Chinook 1. Alps
b. Foehn 2. India
c. Sirocco 3. USA
d. Loo 4. Egypt
(a) a = 4, b = 2, c = 1, d = 3
(b) a = 3, b = 4, c = 2, d = 1
(c) a = 3, b = 1, c = 4, d = 2
(d) a = 4, b = 3, c = 1, d = 2
Ans: (b) Chinook: a warm, westerly wind of Canada and USA; Foehn: a warm, dry, gusty wind of the Alps; Sirocco: blows by the local name of Khamsin in Egypt; Loo: hot and dry summer afternoon wind that blows in Indo-Gangetic Plain region of North India during May-June.
Q17. In which of the following layer of atmosphere the absorption and scattering of the solar ultraviolet radiation takes place?
Ans: (b) Solar ultraviolet radiation undergoes absorption and scattering as it passes through the stratospheric layer of the earth’s atmosphere. The ozone layer, a region of Earth’s stratosphere, absorbs 97-99% of the Sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation. As a result, no UV radiation at wavelengths shorter than 290 nm reaches the surface of the earth.
Q18. A level of atmosphere which is composed partly of electrons and positive ions is called
Ans: (b) Ionosphere is composed partly of electrons and positive ions. It is a region of Earth’s upper atmosphere, from about 60 km to 1,000 km altitude, that is ionized by solar radiation. This layer is also called thermosphere as its temperature rises with height.
Q19. The amount of insolation received at a place on the surface of the earth depends upon:
(a) its climate
(b) the longitude of the place
(c) its latitude
(d) the altitude of the place
Ans: (c) Insolation is a measure of solar radiation energy received on a given surface area in a given time. It mainly depends on two factors: (a) the angle at which the Sun’s rays strike the Earth, and (b) the length of time of exposure to the rays. Both of these factors are controlled by the latitude of the location and time of the year (Physical Geography Strahler &Strahler).
Q20. Which of the following wind is blowing from the Mediterranean sea to the North Western parts of India ?
(a) Western disturbances
(d) Mango showers
Ans: (a) Western Disturbance is an extratropical storm originating in the Mediterranean region that brings sudden winter rain to the northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent.Jet streams play an important role in bringing these disturbances to India. Western disturbances are generally active from December to February.
Q21. Which layer of the earth’s atmosphere contains the ozone layer ?
Ans: (d) The ozone layer is a region of Earth’s stratosphere. it is mainly found in the lower portion of the stratosphere, from approximately 20 to 30 kilometres (12 to 19 mi) above Earth. The ozone layer absorbs 97 to 99 percent of the Sun’s medium-frequency ultraviolet light (200 nm to 315 nm wavelength), which otherwise would be harmful to exposed life forms on the earth.
Q22. Rainfall caused by intense evaporation in equatorial areas is called _______
(a) Orographic rainfall
(b) Cyclonic rainfall
(c) Frontal rainfall
(d) Convectional rainfall
Ans: (d) The equatorial regions are known for convectional rainfall that occurs due to the thermal convection currents caused due to the heating of ground due to insolation. In these, the warm air rises up and expands then, reaches at a cooler layer and saturates, then condenses mainly in the form of cumulus or cumulonimbus clouds. The equatorial regions receive convectional rainfall almost on a daily basis. The rainfall is of very short duration but in the form of heavy showers.
Q23. Ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere is absorbed by
(a) SO2 (b) Ozone
(c) Oxygen (d) Argon
Ans: (b) The ozone layer of Earth’s stratosphere absorbs most of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. It absorbs 97 to 99 percent of the Sun’s medium-frequency ultraviolet light (from about 200 nm to 315 nm wavelength), which otherwise would potentially damage exposed life forms on the earth.
Q24. The layer where the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude is totally absent is
Ans: (c) The stratosphere defines a layer in which temperatures rises with increasing altitude. At the top of the stratosphere the thin air may attain temperatures close to 0oC. This rise in temperature is caused by the absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the Sun by the ozone layer. Such a temperature profile creates very stable atmospheric conditions. Consequently, the stratosphere is almost completely free of clouds or other forms of weather.
Q25. Precipitation in the form of a mixture of rain and snow is called
(a) Drizzle (b) Hail
(c) Sleet (d) Snow
Ans: (c) Sleet is precipitation composed of rain and partially melted snow. It forms when rain, while falling to the earth, passes through a layer of cold air and freezes. Sleet occurs when the temperature in the lowest part of the atmosphere is slightly above the freezing point of water (0 °C).