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Part 008 – Polity & Constitution Previous Year Questions

Q1. What is the chief source of political power in India ?
(a) The people
(b) The Constitution
(c) The Parliament
(d) The Parliament and the State Legislatures
Ans: (a) The preamble makes it very clear when it says that We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens.” The enacting words “We, the people of India… in our constituent assembly… do here by adopt, enact and give to ourselves this constitution”, signifies the democratic principle that power ultimately rests in the hands of the people. It also emphasizes that the constitution is made by and for the Indian people and is not given to them by any outside power (such as the British Parliament).

Q2. A court enforces enjoyment of a Fundamental Right by issuing
(a) a decree
(b) an ordinance
(c) a writ
(d) a notification
Ans: (c) Right to constitutional remedies empowers the citizens to move a court of law in case of any denial of the fundamental rights. The courts can issue various kinds of writs. The Supreme Court, the highest in the country, may issue writs under Article 32 of the Constitution for enforcement of Fundamental Rights and under Articles 139 for enforcement of rights other than Fundamental Rights, while High Courts, the superior courts of the States, may issue writs under Articles 226.

Q3. Political right does not include which of the following ?
(a) Right to vote
(b) Right to life
(c) Right to contest in election
(d) Right to lodge complaint with executive bodies of the Government
Ans: (b) Political rights are those rights by which citizens are given share in the political life of the community including that of the management of government. They generally consist of the following rights: Right to vote; Right to be elected; Right to public offices; Right to petition; Right to criticize government; Right to residence; Right to public meeting, etc. Right to life is a phrase that describes the belief that a human being has an essential right to live, particularly that a human being has the right not to be killed by another human being.

Q4. What is the minimum age prescribed in India for its citizens to cast their vote ?
(a) 18 years (b) 21 years
(c) 16 years (d) 20 years
Ans: (a) Every citizen of India who is over 18 years of age, irrespective of gender, caste, religion or race, who is otherwise not disqualified, is eligible to vote.

Q5. Which of the following rights is not granted by the Constitution of India at present as a fundamental right ?
(a) Right to equality
(b) Right to freedom
(c) Right to property
(d) Right against exploitation
Ans: (c) The Constitution originally provided for the right to property under Articles 19 and 31. The Forty- Forth Amendment of 1978 deleted the right to property from the list of fundamental rights. So it is now a legal right, not a fundamental right.

Q6. When were the Fundamental Duties of the Indian citizens incorporated in the constitution?
(a) 1952 (b) 1976
(c) 1979 (d) 1981
Ans: (b) The Fundamental Duties of citizens were added to the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, upon the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee that was constituted by the government earlier that year. Originally ten in number, the Fundamental Duties were increased to eleven by the 86th Amendment in 2002.

Q7. Which is the competent body to prescribe conditions for acquisition of citizenship ?
(a) Election Commission
(b) President
(c) Parliament
(d) Parliament & Assemblies
Ans: (c) The Constitution of India provides a single citizenship for the entire country. The Citizenship Act enacted by the Parliament in 1955 provides for acquisition, renunciation, termination, deprivation and determination of Indian citizenship. The Act provides for acquisition of Indian Citizenship by birth, descent, registration and naturalization.

Q8. The Constitution of India assures economic justice to citizens through
(a) Fundamental Rights
(b) Fundamental duties
(c) Preamble
(d) Directive Principles of State Policy
Ans: (c) The preamble contains the socio-economic goals of Indian polity. These are: to secure all its citizens social , economic and political justice; liberty of thought; equality of status and opportunity, and to promote among them fraternity so as to secure the dignity of the Individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation.

Q9. ‘The Right to Public Office’ is a
(a) Civil right
(b) Economic right
(c) Moral right
(d) Political right
Ans: (a) Civil rights include the ensuring of peoples’ physical and mental integrity, life and safety; protection from discrimination on grounds such as physical or mental disability, gender, religion, race, national origin, age, status as a member of the uniformed services, sexual orientation, or gender identity; and individual rights such as privacy, the freedoms of thought and conscience, speech and expression, religion, the press, and movement. Right to public offices means that no citizen should be prohibited to hold any public office under the State on the grounds of religion, caste, race, sex or language or any of them. It is a civil right.

Q10. “Not to destroy the Government property” is a
(a) Positive duty
(b) Legal duty
(c) Civil duty
(d) Negative duty
Ans: (c) Civic duty is the respon-sibilities of a citizen. Such duties expect one to be a good citizen, obey the laws, serve in the military in time of need, pay taxes, be active in community activities that are supportive of something positive. These are the types of things that enable masses of people to live in close proximity and prosper.

Q11. Who proposed the Preamble before the drafting committee of the Constitution ?
(a) Jawaharlal Nehru
(b) B.R. Ambedkar
(c) B.N. Rao
(d) Mahatma Gandhi
Ans: (a) When the Constituent Assembly started the work of drafting the Constitution, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru proposed the ‘Objectives Resolution’ on December 13, 1946. The ‘Resolution’ highlighted the objectives and laid down the ‘national goals’. The ‘Objective Resolution’ passed by the Constituent Assembly on January 22, 1947, ultimately became the Preamble to the Constitution of India.

Q12. ‘Dual citizenship’ is a feature of
(a) Unitary government
(b) Federal government
(c) Parliamentary government
(d) Presidential government
Ans: (b) The concept of dual nationality means that a person is a citizen of two countries at the same time. Each country has its own citizenship laws based on its own. Such type of nationality is very common in federal states such as the USA.

Q13. The essential feature of democracy is giving prominence to the
(a) Executive (b) Judiciary
(c) Citizen (d)Civil Society
Ans: (c) The essential feature of democracy is giving prominence to the citizen. One of the key features of democracy is that by the people, from the people and to the people. People occupy the centre stage here.

Q14. Which of the following writs can lie only against a person holding a public office ?
(a) Habeas corpus
(b) Mandamus
(c) Prohibition
(d) Certiorari
Ans: (b) Mandamus is a judicial remedy which is in the form of an order from a superior court to any government subordinate court, corporation or public authority to do or forbear from doing some specific act which that body is obliged under law to do or refrain from doing, as the case may be, and which is in the nature of public duty and in certain cases of a statutory duty.

Q15. India is a secular state because in our country :
(a) state has no religion
(b) religion has been abolished
(c) state patronises a particular religion
(d) None of these
Ans: (a) India is a secular country as per the declaration in the Preamble to the Indian Consti-tution. It prohibits discrimination against members of a particular religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. Every person has the right to preach, practice and propagate any religion they choose. Besides, there is no state religion.

Q16. Which case is related to Fundamental Rights?
(a) Golakhnath vs. State of Punjab (1967)
(b) West Bengal vs. Union of India (1963)
(c) Sharma vs. Krishna (1959)
(d) State of Bombay vs. Balsara
(1951)
Ans: (a) In the famous case of Golaknath V. State Of Punjab, in 1967 the Court ruled that Parliament could not curtail any of the Fundamental Rights in the Constitution. the issues involved in this case were: whether Amendment is a “law” under the meaning of Article 13(b) and whether Fundamental Rights can be amended or not.

Q17. Directive Principles of State Policy in the Indian Constitution were taken from the Constitution of
(a) Britain (b) Ireland
(c) USA (d) Canada
Ans: (b) The makers of the Constitution of India were influenced by the Irish nationalist movement. Hence, the Directive Principles of the Indian constitution have been greatly influenced by the Directive Principles of State Policy as enshrined in the Irish Constitution.

Q18. As per Indian Constitution, the Right to Property is a
(a) Fundamental Right
(b) Natural Right
(c) Legal Right
(d) Moral Right
Ans: (c) The Forty-Forth Amendment of 1978 deleted the right to property from the list of fundamental rights. So it is now a legal right, not a fundamental right.

Q19. The success of democracy depends upon the
(a) Right to criticise
(b) Right to association
(c) Right to personal liberty
(d) Right to property
Ans: (c) Right to personal liberty is the bedrock of any democratic set up. In India, the right to life and personal liberty is available to all people and so is the right to freedom of religion. Time and again, the Supreme Court has reiterated that the word liberty is a very comprehensive word.

Q20. Which one of the following ceased to be a fundamental right under the Constitution?
(a) Right to Education
(b) Right to work
(c) Right to property
(d) Right to Equality before Law
Ans: (c) The Constitution originally provided for the right to property under Articles 19 and 31. The Forty- Forth Amendment of 1978 deleted the right to property from the list of fundamental rights.

Q21. Directive Principles of State Policy in the Indian Constitution were taken from the Constitution of
(a) Britain (b) Ireland
(c) USA (d) Canada
Ans: (b) The Constitution lays down certain Directive Principles of State Policy which though not justiceable, are ‘fundamental in governance of the country’. The concept of Directive Principles of State Policy was borrowed from the Irish Constitution.

Q22. As per Indian Constitution, the Right to property is a
(a) Fundamental Right
(b) Natural Right
(c) Legal Right
(d) Moral Right
Ans: (c) The Constitution originally provided for the right to property under Articles 19 and 31. The Forty- Forth Amendment of 1978 deleted the right to property from the list of fundamental rights. It is a legal right.

Q23. The success of democracy depends upon the
(a) Right to criticise
(b) Right to association
(c) Right to personal liberty
(d) Right to property
Ans: (c) The Constitution guarantees that one has a right to liberty and freedom, except in accordance with the law. This means that, in general, one is entitled to own personal freedom but legislation may provide for arrest and detention in certain circumstances. Right to personal liberty is considered one of the foundations of democracy.

Q24. Citizens of India can vote at the age of
(a) 18 years (b) 21 years
(c) 22 years (d) 25 years
Ans: (a) The minimum age of voting in India was lowered from 21 to 18 years by the 61st Amendment Act in 1988 read with Act 21 of 1989.

Q25. According to Preamble, the ultimate power lies in the hands of :
(a) Parliament (b) Constitution
(c) President (d) People
Ans: (d) According to the Preamble, the ultimate power lies in the hands of people of India.

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