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Part 006 – Physical Geography Previous Year Questions

Q1. The temperature of water at the bottom of a large waterfall is higher than that of the water at the top. because
(a) the falling water absorbs heat from the Sun.
(b) the water at the bottom has greater potential energy.
(c) the kinetic energy of the falling water is converted into heat.
(d) rocks on the bed of the river give out heat.
Ans: (c) The water gains kinetic energy as it falls down and loses its potential energy. Assuming no other losses, part of the kinetic energy gain of water is converted into heat, raising the temperature of water.

Q2. Which one of the following is an igneous rock?

(a) Sandstone (b) Shale
(c) Quartzite (d) Granite
Ans: (d) Igneous rock is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic rock. In terms of modes of occurrence, igneous rocks can be either intrusive (plutonic), extrusive (volcanic) or hypabyssal. Granite is an intrusive igneous rock which is formed from magma that cools and solidifies within the crust of a planet. They form central cores of major mountain ranges.

Q3. The greatest erosive power of a river is associated with

(a) gorges
(b) meanders
(c) inter-locking spurs
(d) V-shaped valley
Ans: (b) Erosive power of a stream is proportional to the square of the velocity. Thus, when discharge increases, the depth increases and the velocity increases, resulting in dramatic increase of erosive power. As the volume flowing in a stream increases, the stream’s erosive power also increases. At a bend in a stream the water’s momentum carries the mass of the water against the outer bank. The greater depth on the outer side of the bend also leads to higher velocity at the outer bank. The greater velocity combined with the greater inertial force on the outer bank erodes a deeper channel. The result of all these actions is a meander

Q4. Prime Meridian passes through

(a) Greenwich (b) Ujjain
(c) New York (d) Tokyo
Ans: (a) A prime meridian is a meridian, i.e. a line of longitude, at which longitude is defined to be 0°. An international conference in 1884 decided the prime meridian passes through the Royal Observatory, Greenwich in southeast London, United Kingdom, known simply as the prime meridian.

Q5. What is the epicentre of an Earthquake?

(a) The point at which earthquake originates
(b) The point which is prone to volcanoes
(c) The point from which the intensity of seismic waves declines
(d) The point on the earth’s surface vertically above the seismic focus
Ans: (d) The epicenter is the point on the Earth’s surface that is directly above the hypocenter or focus, the point where an earthquake or underground explosion originates. In the case of earthquakes, the epicenter is directly above the point where the fault begins to rupture, and in most cases, it is the area of greatest damage.

Q6. The main cause of recurring flood is

(a) Soil erosion
(b) Deforestation
(c) Silting of river beds
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d) Floods are caused by a variety of factors, both natural and man-made. Apart from soil erosion and silting of river beds which force the water of rivers/ streams to spill over, deforestation has lately been a key factor in fostering recurrent floods. The presence of trees act as checks against water flow and in turn protect the underlying soil from getting eroded and then getting washed away.

Q7. Which one of the following is the greatest circle ?

(a) Tropic of Cancer
(b) Tropic of Capricorn
(c) Equator
(d) Arctic Circle
Ans: (c) An equator is the intersection of a sphere’s surface with the plane perpendicular to the sphere’s axis of rotation and containing the sphere’s center of mass. This imaginary line on the Earth’s surface is equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole, dividing the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. It is one of the five notable circles of latitude on Earth, with the others being the two Polar Circles and the two Tropical Circles: the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.

Q8. In the context of ‘time’, GMT means

(a) General Meridian Time
(b) Greenwich Mean Time
(c) Global Mean Time
(d) None of these
Ans: (b) Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is a time system originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, which later became adopted as a global time standard. It is the term in common use in the United Kingdom and countries of the Commonwealth, including Australia, South Africa, India, Pakistan and Malaysia, as well as many other countries in the Old World.

Q9. Which of the following is a typical feature of river erosion in youthful stage ?

(a) Ox-bow lake
(b) Gorge
(c) Valley in valley
(d) Cut-bank
Ans: (b) Youthful rivers or streams are typically found in the highland or mountainous areas. They are characterized by steep slopes, a relatively small volume of water and rapid flow. Soil particles carried by youthful streams flow along the ground, wearing down hill slopes as the water flows down. In this youthful stage of the river, such features as small lakes, waterfalls, rapids, V-shaped valleys, gorges and interlocking spurs are frequently found.

Q10. Which one of the following is not the result of underground water action?

(a) Stalactites (b) Stalagmites
(c) Sinkholes (d) Fiords
Ans: (d) Geologically, a fjord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created in a valley carved by glacial activity. A fjord is formed when a glacier cuts a U-shaped valley by ice segregation and abrasion of the surrounding bedrock.

Q11. Which one of the following is an unpredictable natural disaster ?

(a) Earthquake (b) Cyclone
(c) Tornado (d) Hurricane
Ans: (a) Despite rapid advances in earth sciences and technology, it is hard to predict the exact timing of an earthquake. The suddenness associated with earthquakes is the main reason behind severe damage to life and property. Due to the general unpredictability of earthquakes, it is best to stress the importance of planning ahead.

Q12. The natural gaps across the mountains which provide routes are called

(a) Peaks (b) Dunes
(c) Plateaus (d) Passes
Ans: (d) A Mountain pass is a route through a mountain range or over a ridge. Since many of the world’s mountain ranges have presented formidable barriers to travel, passes have been important since before recorded history, and have played a key role in trade, war, and migration.

Q13. ‘Flash floods’ are associated with

(a) Thunderstorms
(b) Cyclonic storms
(c) Tsunami
(d) Tornado
Ans: (b) A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas: washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins. It may be caused by heavy rain associated with a severe thunderstorm, hurricane, tropical storm or cyclone, or melt-water from ice or snow flowing over ice sheets or snowfields.

Q14. Tundras are

(a) Deciduous forests
(b) Tropical rain forests
(c) Cold deserts
(d) Hot deserts
Ans: (c) In physical geography, tundra is a biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. There are three types of tundra: Arctic tundra, alpine tundra, and Antarctic tundra where the subsoil is permafrost, or permanently frozen soil. Rainfall and snowfall are generally slight due to the low vapor pressure of water in the chilly atmosphere, but as a rule potential evapotranspiration is extremely low, allowing soggy terrain of swamps and bogs even in places that get precipitation typical of deserts of lower and middle latitudes.

Q15. The rapid sliding of large masses of bed rocks is called :

(a) Landslide (b) Earthquake
(c) Weathering (d) Mass wasting
Ans: (a) The rapid sliding of large masses of bed rocks is called Landslide.

Q16. Which type of lake is formed by volcanic activities ?

(a) Caldera lake
(b) Karst lake
(c) Lagoon
(d) Fresh water lake
Ans: (a) Caldera refers to a large basin-shaped Crater that is bound by steep cliffs. The Caldera best known in North America is Crater Lake.

Q17. Earthquakes are generally associated with :

(a) Joints (b) Faults
(c) Folds (d) Schistosity
Ans: (b) Earthquake is a sudden and violent movement, or fracture, within the earth followed by the series of shocks resulting from this fracture. Earthquake is more likely to be of Tectonic origin and probably because of existence of a Fault.

Q18. The Tropic of Cancer does not pass through

(a) Myanmar (b) Nepal
(c) Bangladesh (d) China
Ans: (b) The Tropic of Cancer passes through Algeria, Niger, Libya, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Oman, India, Bangaladesh, Myanmar, China, Mexico, Bahamas, Mauritinia, Mali etc.

Q19. Mounds of sand formed by wind action are called

(a) Cliffs (b) Cirques
(c) Dunes (d) Hamadas
Ans: (c) Cliff is a high and extremely steep rock face that approaches the vertical, either inland or along a coastline. Cirque refers to a deep rounded hollow having steep sides, formed through erosion by snow and ice. Dune is a hill or ridge of sand accumulated and sorted by wind action.

Q20. The rate of deforestation is high in

(a) Tropical zone
(b) Desert areas
(c) Temperate zone
(d) Boreal forest
Ans: (c) The rate of deforestation is high in Temperate Zone.

Q21. Ice glacier’s melting is a common phenomenon linked to the rise in seawater level. The glaciers are predominantly present in

(a) Greenland (b) Antarctica
(c) Himalayas (d) Arctic
Ans: (b) One of today’s prevalent water issues is the rise in sea level. It is mainly caused by two phenomena: global warming and ozone depletion. Polar ice caps in Antarctica and other places are melting fast. This has led to increase in sea level over the years.

Q22. The angle between the magnetic meridian and the geographical meridian at a place is

(a) Azimuth (b) Dip
(c) Declination(d) Latitude
Ans: (c) Magnetic declination is the angle between compass north (the direction the north end of a compass needle points) and true north (the direction along the earth’s surface towards the geographic North Pole.

Q23. Lake formed in a cut off river, meander is called:

(a) Playa Lake
(b) Meteoric Lake
(c) Ox-Bow Lake
(d) Crater Lake
Ans: (c) An oxbow lake is a U-shaped body of water formed when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off to create a lake. This landform is called an oxbow lake for the distinctive curved shape, named after part of a yoke for oxen.

Q24. Sandstone is metamorphosed to:

(a) Shale (b) Slate
(c) Quartzite (d) Marble
Ans: (c) Sandstone can be turned into a metamorphic rock by being either heated up to a point where it undergoes a significant change or subjected to high pressures, or subjected to chemically active fluids, or some combination thereof. A common result of the metamorphosis of sandstone is the creation of quartzite.

Q25. Moraines are formed in

(a) River deltas
(b) Arid regions
(c) Glacial regions
(d) Monsoon region
Ans: (c) A moraine is material left behind by a moving glacier. This material is usually soil and rock. Just as rivers carry along all sorts of debris and silt that eventually builds up to form deltas, glaciers transport all sorts of dirt and boulders that build up to form moraines.

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