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Part 003 – Polity & Constitution Previous Year Questions

Q1. Which one of the following is not an element of the State ?
(a) Population (b) Land
(c) Army (d) Government
Ans: (c) The state has four essential elements. These are: (a) population, (b) territory (land), (c) government, (d) sovereignty (or independence). The first two elements constitute the physical or material basis of the state while the last two form its political and spiritual basis. In modern times relations among nations have grown and many international organizations and institutions have come into being. Therefore some scholars have argued that international recognition be an essential element of state.

Q2. Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly ?
(a) Dr. B. R. Ambedkar
(b) C. Rajagopalachari
(c) Dr. Rajendra Prasad
(d) Jawaharlal Nehru
Ans: (a) On 29 August, 1947, the Drafting Committee was appointed, with Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as the Chairman along with six other members assisted by a constitutional advisor.

Q3. The concept of Sovereign Parliament originated in :
(a) England (b) India
(c) France (d) Japan
Ans: (a) The concept of Parliamentary sovereignty holds that the legislative body may change or repeal any previous legislation, and so that it is not bound by written law (in some cases, even a constitution) or by precedent. It is a principle of the UK constitution. It makes Parliament the supreme legal authority in the UK, which can create or end any law. Generally, the courts cannot overrule its legislation and no Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change.

Q4. Who is considered the Architect of the Indian Constitution ?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) B.R. Ambedkar
(c) Jawaharlal Nehru
(d) B.N. Rao
Ans: (b) B. R. Ambedkar was the chief architect of the Indian Consti-tution. Granville Austin has described the Indian Constitution drafted by Ambedkar as ‘first and foremost a social document’. … ‘The majority of India’s constitutional provisions are either directly arrived at furthering the aim of social revolution or attempt to foster this revolution by establishing conditions necessary for its achievement.”

Q5. The concurrent list in the Indian Constitution is adopted from the Constitution of
(a) U.S.A. (b) Canada
(c) Germany (d) Australia
Ans: (d) The Constitution of India borrowed the following features from Australia: concurrent list; language of the preamble; and provisions regarding trade, commerce and intercourse.

Q6. When was the Indian Constitution adopted ?
(a) 15th August, 1947
(b) 26th November, 1949
(c) 26th January, 1950
(d) 2nd October,1952
Ans: (b) The Constitution was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November, 1949, and came into effect on 26 January, 1950. With its adoption, the Union of India officially became the modern and contemporary Republic of India and it replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country’s fundamental governing document.

Q7. The mind and ideals of the framers of Constitution are reflected in the
(a) Preamble
(b) Fundamental Duties
(c) Fundamental Rights
(d) Directive Principles of State Policy
Ans: (a) The mind and ideals of the framers of the Constitution are reflected in the Preamble.

Q8. Which of the following is not a feature of Indian Constitution ?
(a) Parliamentary form of Government
(b) Independence of Judiciary
(c) Presidential form of Government
(d) Federal Government
Ans: (c) ‘Presidential Form of Government’ is not a feature of Indian Constitution.

Q9. What is the basis of classification of governments as unitary and federal?
(a) Relationship between legislature and executive
(b) Relationship between executive and judiciary
(c) Relationship between the Centre and States
(d) Relationship between the legislature, executive and judicial wings of government
Ans: (c) The basic principles of federalism are the distribution of powers between the Centre and the States.

Q10. Indian Constitution is :
(a) Federal (b) Quasi Federal
(c) Unitary (d) Presidential
Ans: (b) The Indian constitution which envisages parliamentary form of government is federal in structure with unitary features. Thus, it is quasi-federal.

Q11. Constitution of India came into force in
(a) 1951 (b) 1956
(c) 1950 (d) 1949
Ans: (c) The Constitution of India was adopted by Constituent Assembly on November 26,1949 and came into force on January 26,1950.

Q12. The state possesses
(a) only external sovereignty
(b) only internal sovereignty
(c) both internal and external sovereignty
(d) neither external nor internal sovereignty
Ans: (c) At its core, sovereignty is typically taken to mean the possession of absolute authority within a bounded territorial space. There is essentially an internal and external dimension of sovereignty. Internally, a sovereign government is a fixed authority with a settled population that possesses a monopoly on the use of force. It is the supreme authority within its territory. Externally, sovereignty is the entry ticket into the society of states.

Q13. The Government of India Act, 1935 was based on :
(a) Simon Commission
(b) Lord Curzon Commission
(c) Dimitrov Thesis
(d) Lord Clive’s report
Ans: (a) The provincial part of the Government of India Act, 1935 basically followed the recommendations of the Simon Commission. Simon Commission had proposed almost fully responsible government in the provinces. Under the 1935 Act, provincial dyarchy was abolished; i.e. all provincial portfolios were to be placed in charge of ministers enjoying the support of the provincial legislatures.

Q14. Who described the Government of India Act, 1935 as a new charter of bondage ?
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Rajendra Prasad
(c) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
(d) B.R. Ambedkar
Ans: (c) At the Faizpur Session of the Congress in December 1936, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, in his Presidential Address, referred to the Government of India Act 1935 as “The new Charter of Bondage” which was being imposed upon them despite complete rejection. He said that the Congress was going to the Legislatures to combat the Act and seek to end it.

Q15. Who is custodian of the Indian Constitution ?
(a) President of India ?
(b) Chief Justice of India
(c) Prime Minister of India
(d) Chairman of Rajya Sabha
Ans: (b) The Constitution has made the Supreme Court as the custodian and protector of the Constitution. The Supreme Court decides disputes between the Centre and the Units as well as protects the Fundamental Rights of the citizens of India.

Q16. Which of the following is an essential element of the state?
(a) Sovereignty (b) Government
(c) Territory (d) All these
Ans: (d) The state has four essential elements: population, territory, government and sovereignty. Absence of any of these elements denies to it the status of statehood.

Q17. Which is the most important system in Democracy ?
(a) Social (b) Political
(c) Economic (d)Governmental
Ans: (b) Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens have an equal say in the decisions that affect their lives. Democracy allows eligible citizens to participate equally in creation of laws and enables the free and equal practice of political selfdetermination. So the political aspect can be considered to the most important.

Q18. Where do we find the ideals of Indian democracy in the Constitution ?
(a) The Preamble (b) Part III
(c) Part IV (d) Part I
Ans: (a) The Preamble to the Constitution of India is ‘Declaration of Independence’ statement & a brief introductory that sets out the guiding principles & purpose of the document as well as Indian democracy. It describes the state as a “sovereign democratic republic”. The first part of the preamble “We, the people of India” and, its last part “give to ourselves this Constitution” clearly indicate the democratic spirit.

Q19. The state operates through :
(a) Political Party
(b) Party President
(c) Government
(d) President
Ans: (c) A government is the system by which a state or community is governed. It is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining the policy of the state. A form of Government refers to the set of political systems and institutions that make up the organisation of a specific government.

Q20. When was the first Central Legislative Assembly constituted ?
(a) 1922 (b) 1923
(c) 1921 (d) 1920
Ans: (d) The Central Legislative Assembly was a legislature for India created by the Government of India Act 1919 from the former Imperial Legislative Council, implementing the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms. It was formed in 1920.

Q21. The Constitution of India, describes India as :
(a) A Federation
(b) A quasi-federal
(c) Unitary
(d) Union of states
Ans: (d) Article 1 in the Constitution states that India that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States. The territory of India shall consist of: The territories of the states, The Union territories and any territory that may be acquired.

Q22. The concept of “Rule of Law” is a special feature of constitutional system of
(a) Britain (b) U.S.A.
(c) France (d) Switzerland
Ans: (a) The Rule of Law is an aspect of the British Constitution that has been emphasised by A V Dicey and it, therefore, can be considered an important part of British Politics. It involves: the rights of individuals are determined by legal rules and not the arbitrary behaviour of authorities; there can be no punishment unless a court decides there has been a breach of law; and everyone, regardless of your position in society, is subject to the law.

Q23. The method of amending the Constitution by popular veto is found in
(a) Britain (b) Switzerland
(c) Russia (d) India
Ans: (b) Switzerland has made provisions for referendums or popular votes on laws and constitutional decrees or issues on which citizens are asked to approve or reject by a yes or a no. The Swiss Federal Constitution 1891 permits a certain number of citizens to make a request to amend a constitutional article, or even to introduce a new article into the constitution.

Q24. Which of the following is the inalienable attribute of the parliamentary system of government ?
(a) Flexibility of the Constitution
(b) Fusion of Executive and Legislature
(c) Judicial Supremacy
(d) Parliamentary Sovereignty
Ans: (b) A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament). The executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.

Q25. Grassroots democracy is related to
(a) Devolution of powers
(b) Decentralisation of powers
(c) Panchayati Raj System
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d) Grassroots democracy is a tendency towards designing political processes involving the common people as constituting a fundamental political and economic group. It focuses on people or society at a local level rather than at the center of major political activity. Devolution and decentralization of power and Panchayati raj system are essential elements of such a system.

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