Chapter 4 History Art & Culture

1. In which of the following relief sculpture inscriptions is ‘Ranyo Ashoka’ (King Ashoka) mentioned along with the stone portrait of Ashoka?
(a) Kanganahalli (b) Sanchi
(c) Shahbazgarhi (d) Sohgaura
Ans. (a) 1993: A team of archeologists surveyed Sannai, Karnataka. The most dramatic evidence came from Kanagahalli. The discoveries at the site included a broken relief sculpture showing a king and queen flanked by female attendants. An inscription in brahmi letter read “Ranyo Ashoka”
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2019]

2. Building ‘Kalyaana Mandapas’ was a notable feature in the temple construction in the kingdom of
(a) Chalukya (b) Chandela
(c) Rashtrakuta (d) Vijayanagara
Ans. (d) -Vijayanagara School: More than one mandaps were built in each temple. The central mandap came to be known as Kalyan Mandap.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2019]

3. With reference to the Mian Tansen, which one of the following statement is not correct
(a) Tansen was the title given to him by Emperor Akbar
(b) Tansen composed Dhrupads on Hindu god and goddesses
(c) Tansen composed songs on his patrons
(d) Tansen invented many Ragas
Ans. (a) 2018-March, TheHindu. – Tansen invented the night raga Darbari Kanhra, morning raga Mian Ki Todi, mid-day raga, Mian ki Sarang, seasonal raga Mian ki Malhar. He composed many dhrupads on Ganesha, Shiva, Parvati and Rama. He also composed songs on his patrons. Tansen was the title given to him by Raja Vikramjit of Gwalior. So, A is wrong, and therefore it’s the answer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2019]

4. With reference to the religious practices in India, the “Sthanakvasi” sect belongs to(Pre18 Set-D)
(a) Buddhism (b) Jainism
(c) Vaishnavism (d) Shaivism
Ans. (b) Sthanakvasi don’t differ much from the other Svetambara Jainas, hence now-a-days they invariably call themselves as Svetambara Sthanakvasi.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2018]

5. With reference to the cultural history of India, consider the following statements :(Pre18 Set-D)
1. White marble was used in making Buland Darwaza and Khankah at Fatehpur Sikri.
2. Red sandstone and marble were used in making Ilara Imambara and Rumi Darwaza at Lucknow.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (a) • ICSE Class 9 textbook Page 150 : Buland Darwaza constructed in red and yellow standstones with white marble inlay in the span of the arches. Khankah too contains white marbles. So, statement 1 is right. • Second statement is wrong. “Rumi Darwaza, Bara Imambara, Chhatar Manzil …. monuments in the Lucknow city are fragile in terms of structural strength (because) The common material used for raising most of the monuments in Lucknow was brick and plaster. The two ingredients used are unique in their own sense but their strength when compared with rock solid stones is much less.” says TimesofIndia
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2018]

6. Consider the following pairs Craft vs Heritage of:
1. Puthukkuli shawls: Tamil Nadu
2. Sujni embroidery: Maharashtra
3. Uppada Jamdani saris: Karnataka Which of the pairs given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2
(c) 3 only (d) 2 and 3
Ans. (a) • Sujni embroidery- Incorrect. It belongs to Bihar. • Upada Jamdani Sarees- Incorrect. It belongs to Andhra Pradesh. • So, by elimination, we are left with answer A: 1 only.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2018]

7. Consider the following pairs of Tradition vs State:
1. Chapchar Kut festival: Mizoram
2. Khongjom Parba ballad: Manipur
3. Thang-Ta dance: Sikkim Which of the pairs given above is/are correct ?
(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2
(c) 3 only (d) 2 and 3
Ans. (b) • Khongjom Parva is an important folk music from the state of Manipur. It is a popular ballad genre which is a musical narration of the battle of Khongjom fought between the British army and the Manipuri resistance forces in 1891. So, statement 2 is right, this eliminates A and (C) • Thang Ta is the exclusive martial dance form of Manipur. Thang means sword and Ta means spear. So, statement 3 is wrong, this eliminates (D) Therefore answer must be B: only 1 and 2.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2018]

8. The well-known painting “Bani Thani” belongs to the
(a) Bundi school (b) Jaipur school
(c) Kangra school (d) Kishangarh school
Ans. (d) Paintings at Kishangarh is associated with the most romantic legends – Sawant Singh and his beloved Bani Thani. and of the intertwining of lives and myths, romance and bhakti. It is sometimes argued that the women in ‘bani thani’ is said to resemble the character of Radh(a)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2018]

9. With reference to cultural history of India, consider the following statements :
1. Most of the Tyagaraja Kritis are devotional songs in praise of Lord Krishn(a)
2. Tyagaraja created several new ragas.
3. Annamacharya and Tyagaraja are contemporaries.
4. Annamacharya kirtanas are devotional songs in praise of Lord Venkateshwar(a) Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only (b) 2 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) 2, 3 and 4
Ans. (d) ICSE Class 9 textbook Page 150 says Buland Darwaza constructed in red and yellow standstones with white marble inlay in the span of the arches. Other random google books reveal that Khankah too contains white marbles. So, statement 1 ought to be right. Second statement is wrong. “Rumi Darwaza, Bara Imambara, Chhatar Manzil are monuments are fragile in terms of structural strength (because) The common material used for raising most of the monuments in Lucknow was brick and plaster, says TimesofIndia. So, accordingly answer should have been “a” but UPSC has kept ‘d’ as the official answer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2018]

10. Consider the following pairs:
Traditions- Communities

1. Chaliha Sahib Festival- Sindhis
2. Nanda Raj JaatYatra- Gonds
3. Wari-Warkari- Santhals Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched ?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) 1. Chaliha Sahib: Sindhi festival regarding Jhulelal. So first pair is right. 2. Nanda Raj JaatYatra: Nanda Devi related festival in Uttarakhand. Gonds are not native to this state, 3. Wari-Warkari: Wari is a pilgrimage for the Warkari sect related to Pandharpur god Vithobain Maharashtra, and it’s part of Bhakti movement rather than festival of a particular tribal group. Besides, Santhals are not native to this state, Accordingly, answer “A”: 1 only.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2017]

11. Which of the following is/are famous for Sun temples?
1. Arasavalli
2. Amarakantak
3. Omkareshwar Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (a) • Andhra Pradesh state Govt. website says Arasavalli in Srikakulam district has sun temple. • Sri Omkareshwar temple in Mysore is for Lord Shiva and it’s not a Sun Temple. • Amarakantak in Madhya Pradesh has temples, but not any Sun temple. Hence, by elimination, answer “A” only 1.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2017]

12. With reference to Manipuri Sankirtana, consider the following statements:
1. It is a song and dance performance.
2. Cymbals are the only musical instruments used in the performance.
3. It is performed to narrate the life and deeds of Lord Krishna.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3. (b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1 only
Ans. (b) • In Manipuri Sankirtana, two drummers and ten singer dancers are usually present. Meaning either cymbals are not the only instrument OR they’re using drums instead of cymbals. In either interpretationstatement 2 is wrong. Hence answer “B” 1 and 3 only. • says Males dancers play Pung and Kartal during Manipuri Sankirtana.]

in either case, 2 is wrong so answer remains “B”.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2017]

13. Consider the following pairs: Famous place Region
1. Bodhgaya : Baghelkhand
2. Khajuraho : Bundelkhand
3. Shirdi : Vidarbha
4. Nasik (Nashik) : Malwa
5. Tirupati : Rayalaseema
Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?
(a) 1, 2 and 4 (b) 2, 3, 4 and 5
(c) 2 and 5 only (d) 1, 3, 4 and 5
Ans. (c) Bodhgaya is in Bihar not Baghelkhand which is in Central India. • Khajuraho is in Bundelkhand. • Shirdi is in Ahmednagar District, Maharashtra and not in Vidarbha region. • Nashik is at the foothills of Western Ghats and not Malwa. • Tirupati is in Chittoor District which lies in Rayalseema.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016]

14. What is/are common to the two historical places known as Ajanta and Mahabalipuram?
1. Both were built in the same period.
2. Both belong to the same religious denomination.
3. Both have rock-cut monuments.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) None of the statements given above is correct
Ans. (d) The Ajanta Caves were carved in the 2nd century BC out of a horseshoe-shaped cliff along the Waghora River. • The Ajanta Caves are a series of 29 Buddhist cave temples. Encompassing both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhist traditions, the Ajanta caves preserve some of the best masterpieces of Buddhist art in India whereas Mahabalipuram caves were dedicated to Saivites and local Hindu Gods. • Ajanta caves were rock-cut caves, whereas the temples of Mahabalipuram were built by stone, not part of a hill.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016]

15. With reference to art and archaeological history of India, which one among the following was made earliest?
(a) Lingaraja Temple at Bhubaneswar
(b) Rock-cut Elephant at Dhauli
(c) Rock-cut Monuments at Mahabalipuram
(d) Varaha Image at Udayagiri
Ans. (b) Rock-cut Elephant at Dhauli: It is the oldest rock edict of Ashoka of 250 BC. Dhauli is located on the bank of river Daya, about 8 km from Bhubaneswar.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2015]

16. Kalamkari painting refers to
(a) a hand-painted cotton textile in South India
(b) a handmade drawing on bamboo handicrafts in North-East India
(c) a block-painted woollen cloth in Western Himalayan region of India
(d) a hand-painted decorative silk cloth in North-
Western India
Ans. (a) Kalamkari is an ancient Indian art that originated about 3000 years ago. It derives its name from Kalam meaning Pen, and Kari meaning work, literally Penwork. In ancient India, the art of painting using organic colors and dyes was very popular, but this style of painting originated at Kalahasti (80 miles north of Chennai) and at Masulipatnam (200 miles east of Hyderaba(d). The paintings then used to depict Hindu Deities and the scenes from Hindu mythology.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2015]

17. Which one of the following was given classical language status recently?
(a) Odia (b) Konkani
(c) Bhojpuri (d) Assamese
Ans. (a) A classical language is a language with a literature (art of written work) that is classical. Classical languages are those which are ancient, of an independent nature and not a derivative of any other tradition. • In 2006, the Union Minister for Tourism and Culture announced in the Rajya Sabha the creation of a new category of languages as classical languages based on 4 norms: (
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2015]

18. With reference to the famous Sattriya dance, consider the following statements :
1. Sattriya is a combination of music, dance and drama.
2. It is a centuries-old living tradition of Vaishnavites of Assam.
3. It is based on classical Ragas and Talas of devotional songs composed by Tulsidas, Kabir and Mirabai
Which of the statements given above is /are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (b) Sattriya or Sattriya Nritya , is one among the eight principal classical Indian dance traditions. Recognized in 2000 as a classical dance by Sangeet Natak Akademi, the Sattriya is the most recent entrant in this list. • The Sattriya dance form was introduced in the 15th century A.D by the great Vaishnava saint and reformer of Assam, Mahapurusha Sankaradeva as a powerful medium for propagation of the Vaishnava faith.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

19. With reference to India’s culture and tradition, what is ‘Kalaripayattu’?
(a) It is an ancient Bhakti cult of Shaivism still prevalent in South India.
(b) It is an ancient style bronze and brasswork still found in southern part of Coromandel area
(c) It is an ancient form of dance-drama and a living tradition in the northern part of Malabar
(d) It is an ancient martial art and a living tradition in some parts of South India
Ans. (d) Kalaripayattu is perhaps the most ancient martial art in the world. Religions have incorporated Kalaripayattu into their realm. alaripayattu reached its pinnacle of glory during the 100-years-war between the Cholas, Cheras, and Pandyas in the early part of the first millennium.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

20. With reference to the Indian history of art and culture, consider the following pairs: Famous work of sculpture Site
1. A grand image of Buddha’s Mahaparinirvana with numerous celestial musicians above and the sorrowful figures of his followers below Ajanta
2. A huge image of Varaha Avatar (boar incarnation) of Vishnu, as he rescues Goddess Earth from the deep and chaotic waters, sculpted on rock Mount Abu
3. “Arjuna’s Penance” /”Descent of Ganga” sculpted on the surface of huge boulders Mamallapuram
Which of the pairs given above is/ are correctly matched?
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 only,
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (c) The Varaha Temple at Khajuraho enshrines a colossal monolithic image of Varaha, the boar incarnation of Lord Vishnu. So Statement 2 is wrong.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

21. With reference to Buddhist history, tradition and culture in India, consider the following pairs :
Famous shrine Location
1. Tabo monastery and : Spiti Valley temple complex
2. Lhotsava Lhakhang : Zanskar Valley temple, Nako
3. Alchi temple complex : Ladakh
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (c) Tabo Monastery (or Tabo Chos-Khor Monastery) is located in the Tabo village of Spiti Valley, Himachal Pradesh, northern India. It was founded in 996 CE. • The Buddhist temples from the 12th century at Nako, in the Kinnaur region of Himachal Pradesh – Western Himalayas of India, have been identified as one of the 100 most endangered heritage sites by the Worlds Monuments Fund. • Alchi Monastery or Alchi Gompa is a Buddhist monastery, known more as a monastic complex (chos- ’khor) of temples in Alchivillage in the Leh District, of the Indian state under the Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council of Jammu and Kashmir.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

22. Consider the following pairs :
1. Garba : Gujarat
2. Mohiniattam : Odisha
3. Yakshagana : Karnataka
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (c) Garba is a form of dance which was originated in the state of Gujarat in India. The name is derived from the Sanskrit term Garbha (“womb”) and Deep (“a small earthen ware lamp”). • Mohiniyattam, also spelled Mohiniattam , is a classical dance form from Kerala, India. Believed to have originated in 16th century CE, it is one of the eight Indian classical dance forms recognized by the Sangeet Natak Akademi. • Yakshagana is a folk theater form that combines dance, music, dialogue, costume, make-up, and stage techniques with a unique style and form. This folk theater style is mainly found in the coastal districts and the Malenadu region of Karnataka, India.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

23. With reference to the cultural history of India, the term ‘Panchayatan’ refers to
(a) an assembly of village elders
(b) a religious sect
(c) a style of temple construction
(d) an administrative functionary
Ans. (c) An hindu temple is a Panchayatana one when the main shrine is surrounded by four subsidiary shrines. The origin of the name are the sanskrit words Pancha(five) et ayatana (containing). Generally, the Hindu temple are built along a west-east axis. So the four subsidiary shrines are at the north-east, southeast, south-west, north-west.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

24. A community of people called Manganiyars is wellknown for their
(a) martial arts in North-East India
(b) musical tradition in North-West India
(c) classical vocal music in South India
(d) pietra dura tradition in Central India
Ans. (b) The Manganiyars are professional Muslim folk musicians belonging to Jaisalmer, Barmer, parts of Jalor, Bikaner and Jodhpur districts in Western Rajasthan.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

25. Which one of the following pairs does not form part of the six systems of Indian Philosophy?
(a) Mimamsa and Vedanta
(b) Nyaya and Vaisheshika
(c) Lokayata and Kapalika
(d) Sankhya and Yoga
Ans. (c) Nyaya – The Nyaya school was founded by sage Gautama. Sixteen major topics were discussed in this system, the most important of which is pramana, the source of valid knowledge. Actually, Nyaya is a school of logic. • Vaisesika – Kannada is the founder of this school, which is associated with the Nyaya system. This school discusses seven major topics: substance, quality, action, generality, uniqueness, inherence and non-existence. This school is called Vaisesika because it considers, uniqueness, as an aspect of reality and studies it as a separate category.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

26. Some Buddhist rock-cut caves are called Chaityas, while the others are called Viharas. What is the difference between the two?
(a) Vihara is a place of worship, while Chaitya is the dwelling place of the monks
(b) Chaitya is a place of worship, while Vihara is the dwelling place of the monks
(c) Chaitya is the stupa at the far end of the cave, while Vihara is the hall axial to it
(d) There is no material difference between the two
Ans. (b) Both early Chaityas and Viharas were made by woods and later stone-cut Chaityas and Viharas were made. Chaitya was a rectangular prayer hall with a stupa placed in the centre, the purpose was prayer. The Chaitya was divided into three parts, and had an apsidal ending, that is, a semicircular rear end, the central part of the hall was separated from the two aisles by two rows of pillars, the chaityas also had polished interior walls, semicircular roofs and horseshoe shaped windows called the Chaitya windows. Viharas were the residences of the monks.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2013]

27. With reference to the history of Indian rock-cut architecture, consider the following statements :
1. The caves at Badami are the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India.
2. The Barabar rock-cut caves were originally made for Ajivikas by Emperor Chandragupta Maurya.
3. At Ellora, caves were made for different faiths.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (b) The Barabar Caves are the oldest surviving rock-cut caves in India,mostly dating from the Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE. So Statement 1 is wrong.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2013]

28. With reference to the history of philosophical thought in India, consider the following statements regarding Sankhya school :
1 . Sankhya does not accept the theory of rebirth or transmigration of soul.
2. Sankhya holds that it is the self-knowledge that leads to liberation and not any exterior influence or agent.
Which of the statements given above is /are correct?
(a) 1only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (c) Samkhya school of philosophy teaches each person is an eternal spirit, a pure consciousness, utterly different from Nature and any of its products. Bondage and suffering arise when the person fails to distinguish her spiritual reality and identifies herself with products evolved from Nature – the intellect, ego, mind-organ, sense-organs, organs of action.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2013]

29. Consider the following historical places :
1. Ajanta Caves
2. Lepakshi Temple
3. Sanchi Stupa
Which of the above places is / are also known for mural paintings?
(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) None
Ans. (b) A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface. • The Mural decorations of Ajanta are pervaded by a spirit of sweet reasonableness. • The Lepakshi temple also has the finest specimens of mural paintings of the Vijayanagar kings. However Sanchi Stupa not decorated with Murals.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2013]

30. In the context of cultural history of India, a pose in dance and dramatics called ‘Tribhanga’ has been a favourite of Indian artists from ancient times till today. Which one of the following statements best describes this pose?
(a) One leg is bent and the body is slightly but oppositely curved at waist and neck
(b) Facial expressions, hand gestures and make-up are combined to symbolize certain epic or historic characters
(c) Movements of body, face and hands are used to express oneself or to tell a story
(d) A little smile, slightly curved waist and certain hand gestures are emphasized to express the feelings of love or eroticism
Ans. (a) Tribhanga is a standing body stance or position used in the conventional Indian sculptor, art and Indian classical dance forms like Odissi. Tribhanga, as compared to contrapposto pose, literally meaning three parts break, consists of three bends in the body; at the neck, waist and knee, hence the body is oppositely curved at waist and neck which gives it a gentle “S” shape and is considered the most graceful and sensual of the Odissi positions. It is closely associated with Lord Krishna, the Hindu mythology.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2013]

31. The Nagara, the Dravida and the Vesara are the
(a) Three main racial groups of the Indian subcontinent.
(b) Three main linguistic divisions in to which the languages of India can be classified
(c) Three main styles of Indian temple architecture
(d) Three main musical Gharanas prevalent in India
Ans. (c) Already Mentioned.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2012]

32. How do you distinguish between Kuchipudi and Bharatnatyam dances?
1. Dancers occasionally speaking dialogues is found in Kuchipudi dance but not in Bharatnatyam.
2 . Dancing on the brass plate by keeping the feet on its edges is a feature of Bharatnatyam but Kuchipudi does not have such a form of movements.
Which of the following statements given above is/ are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (a) 1. Bharatnatyam is termed the fire dance replicating the inner fire within the human body. On the other hand, Kuchipudi replicates man’s undying desire to unite with God. 2. The main difference lies in the abhinaya. bharatanatyam does not have vachikaabhinaya (lip movement) whereas kuchipudi has lip movement, the performer sings while dancing. 3. Bharatnatyam has more sculptured poses whereas Kuchipudi has more rounded poses. 4. Kuchipudi involves dancing on copper plate called tarangam, whereas in bharatnatyam no such thing has observed. 5. Bharatanatyam devotes a lot of focus to the “aramandi” position, or half-sit. Kuchipudi dancers do not sit as low to the ground.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2012]

33. With reference to Dhrupad, one of the major traditions of India that has been kept alive for centuries, which of the following statements are correct?
1. Dhrupad originated and developed in the Rajput kingdoms during the Mughal Period.
2. Dhrupad is primarily a devotional and spiritual music.
3. Dhrupad Alap uses Sanskrit syllables from Mantras.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) None of the above is correct
Ans. (b) Dhrupad is accepted to be the oldest existing form of North Indian classical music. The Dhrupad tradition is invariably a major heritage of Indian culture. The origin of this music is linked to the recitation of Sama Veda, the sacred Sanskrit text. Dhrupad is the oldest vocal and instrumental style, and the form from which the extant Indian classical music originated. • A vocal Dhrupad performance begins with a meditative Alap in which the artist develops except the drone of the tanpura the Raga, note-bynote, without any instrumental accompaniment. The emphasis is on developing each note with purity and clarity.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2012]

34. There are only two known examples of cave paintings of the Gupta period in ancient India. One of these is paintings of Ajanta caves. Where is the other surviving example of Gupta paintings?
(a) Bagh caves (b) Ellora caves
(c) Lomas Rishi cave (d) Nasik caves
Ans. (a) Located on the bank of Baghani river in the Dhar district of Madhya Pradesh. These rock cut caves posses the most amazing paintings known to be made by ancient man. Out of the initial 9 caves only 5 have been extant. The legend says that these caves were established by Buddhist monk Dataka. The caves were carved in late 4th century – 6th century AD. Bagh Caves are known for Mural Paintings. Murals of Bagh certainly represent “golden age” of Indian classical art.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2010]

35. Where is the famous Virupaksha temple located?
(a) Bhadrachalam (b) Chidambaram
(c) Hampi (d) Srikalahasti
Ans. (c) The Virupaksha or the Pampapathi temple is the main center of pilgrimage at Hampi.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2009]

36. Consider the following Pairs :
Tradition : State
1. Gatka, a traditional martial art : Kerala
2. Madhubani, a traditional painting : Bihar
3. Singhey Khababs Sindhu Darshan Festival : Jammu and Kashmir
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (c) Gatka is a traditional South Asian form of combattraining, developed by Sikhs, in which wooden sticks are used to simulate swords in sparring matches. In modern usage, it commonly refers to the northwestern Indian martial arts, which should more properly be called shastara vidiya. • Madhubani painting originated in a small village, known as Maithili, of the Bihar state of India. • Three day long tourism promotional Ladakh Singhey Khababs Sindhu (also known as Sindhu Darshan) Festival has begun in Jammu and Kashmir’s Ladakh region.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2009]

37. In which State is the Buddhist site Tabo Monastery located?
(a) Arunachal Pradesh (b) Himachal Pradesh
(c) Sikkim (d) Uttarakhand
Ans.(b) A monastery that is next only to the Tholing Gompa in Tibet and is considered a historic treasure of India – that’s Tabo Monastery. Tabo is a small village, situated on the left bank of river Spiti in the Spiti Valley of Himachal Pradesh.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2009]

38. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
List-I (Famous Temple) List-II (State)
A. Vidyashankara 1. Andhra Pradesh
B. Rajarani Temple 2. Karnataka
C. Kandariya Mahadeo Temple 3. Madhya Pradesh
D. Bhimesvara Temple 4. Orissa
Codes :
(a) 2 4 3 1 (b) 2 3 4 1
(c) 1 4 3 2 (d) 1 3 4 2
Ans. (a)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2009]

39. Consider the following statements :
1. The National School of Drama was set up by Sangeet Natak Akademi in 1959.
2. The highest honour conferred by the Sahitya Akademi on a writer is by electing him its Fellow.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (c) National School of Drama is premier theatre institute established by the Sangeet Natak Akademi in 1959.It is an autonomous organization under Ministry of Culture, Government of India. Sahitya Akademi is an autonomous body under the ministry of Culture. The Akademi has recognised 24 Indian languages.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2009]

40. Near Which one of the following cities are Palitana Temples located?
(a) Bhavnagar (b) Mount Abu
(c) Nasik (d) Ujjain
Ans. (a) The Palitana temples of Jainism are located on Shatrunjaya hill by the city of Palitana in Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, India.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2008]

41. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists :
List-I (Author) List-II (Work)
A. Bankimchandra : 1.Shatranj ke Khilari
B. DinabandhuMitra : 2. Debi Chaudhurani
C. Premchandra : 3. Nil-Darpan : 4. Chandrakanta A B C
(a) 2 4 1
(b) 3 4 2
(c) 2 3 1
(d) 3 1 4
Ans. (c) Devi Chaudhurani is a Bengali novel written by Bankim Chandra Chatterji and published in 1884. • Nil Darpan (The Indigo mirror) is a Bengali play written by Dinabandhu Mitra in 1858–1859. The play was essential to Nilbidraha, or Indigo revolt of February–March 1859 in Bengal. • “Shatranj Ke Khiladi” (The Chess Players) is a 1924 Hindi short-story written by Munshi Premchand. Premchand also made the Urdu version titled “Shatranj ki bazi”.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2008]

42. What is the number of spokes in the Dharma chakra in the National Flag of India?
(a) 16 (b) 18 (c) 22 (d) 24
Ans. (d)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2008]

43. Where is the famous Vijayavitala temple having its 56 carved pillars emitting musical notes located?
(a) Belur (b) Bhadrachalam
(c) Hampi (d) Srirangam
Ans. (c) Vittala Temple is the most extravagant architectural showpiece of Hampi. Vittala, after whom the temple is known, is a form of lord Vishnu. The renowned Vittala Temple dates back to the 15th century. It was built during the reign of King Devaraya II (1422 – 1446 A.D.), one of the rulers of the Vijayanagara Empire.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2007]

44. Who among the following wrote the book Babuvivah?
(a) Raja Rammohan Roy
(b) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar
(c) Pandita Rambai
(d) Rabindranath Tagore
Ans. (b) Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar is considered as one of the pillars of Bengal renaissance. He also wrote many books like ‘Shakuntala’, ‘Sitar Banabas’ , ‘Bahuvivah” and ‘Barna Parichaya’.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2007]

45. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the code given below the lists :
List-I : List-II
(Centre of Handicrafts) : (State)
A. Mon : 1. Arunachal Pradesh
B. Nalbari : 2. Assam
C. Pasighat : 3. Meghalaya
D. Tura : 4. Nagaland A B C D
(a) 4 2 1 3 (b) 4 3 2 1
(c) 1 3 4 2 (d) 1 2 4 3
Ans. (a)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2006]

46. Who among the following is a Hindustani classical singer?
(a) Geeta Chandran (b) Leela Samson
(c) Gangubai Hangal (d) Swapnasundari
Ans. (c) Gangubai Hangal : Was an Indian singer of the khyal genre of Hindustani classical music, who belonged to the Kirana gharana.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2006]

47. Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?
(a) Vikramsila Monastery: Uttar Pradesh
(b) Hemkund Gurudwara : Himachal Pradesh
(c) Udayagiri Caves : Maharashtra
(d) Amaravati Buddhist Stupa :Andhra Pradesh
Ans. (d) Vikramasila University : Was one of the two most important centers of Buddhist learning in India, along with Nalanda University during the Pala dynasty in Bengal. • Hemkund Sahib : Is a Sikh place of worship and pilgrimage site in Chamoli district, Uttarakhand, India. It is devoted to Guru Gobind Singh Ji (1666– 1708), the tenth Sikh Guru, and finds mention in Dasam Granth, a work dictated by Guruji himself. • The Udayagiri Caves: Feature some of the oldest Hindu images and cave temples located near the city of Vidisha, northeast of Bhopal in the state of Madhya Pradesh. • The great stupa or Mahachaitya at Amaravati: was one of the biggest in Andhra Pradesh.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2006]

48. The initial design and construction of which massive temple took place during the reign of Suryavarman II?
(a) Sri Mariamman Temple
(b) Angkor Vat
(c) Batu Caves Temple
(d) Kamakhya Temple
Ans. (b) Suryavarman II was a Khmer king of the Khmer Empire from 1113 AD to 1145-1150 AD and the builder of Angkor Wat, the largest religious monument in the world which he dedicated to the Hindu God Vishnu.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2006]

49. Who among the following was presented with the Sangeet Natak Akadami Ratna Award, 2005 for her lifetime achievement in dance?
(a) Chandralekha
(b) Tanjavur Balasaraswati
(c) Uma Sharma
(d) Yamini Krishnamurthy
Ans. (a)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2006]

@50. Which one of the following revolts was made famous by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in his novel Anand Math ?
(a) Bhil uprising
(b) Rangpur and Dinapur uprising
(c) Bishnupur and Birbhum rebellion
(d) Sanyasi rebellion
Ans. (d) Anandamath is a Bengali novel, written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and published in 1882. Set in the background of the Sannyasi Rebellion in the late 18th century, it is considered one of the most important novels in the history of Bengali and Indian literature.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2006]

51. Between which of the following was the ancient town of Takshasila located?
(a) Indus and Jhelum (b) Jhelum and Chenab
(c) Chenab and Ravi (d) Ravi and Beas
Ans. (a) Taxila is a town and an important archaeological site in Rawalpindi District of Punjab, Pakistan, situated about 32 km north-west of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, just off the famous Grand Trunk Road. Takshasila was the capital of Ambhi who was an ally of Alexander the Great lies between river Indus and Jhelum.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2006]

52. Lectures from Colombo to Almora is based on the experiences of which one of the following?
(a) Veer Savarkar
(b) Annie Besant
(c) Ramkrishna Paramhansa
(d) Swami Vivekanand
Ans. (d) “Lectures from Colombo to Almora” (1897) is a book of Swami Vivekananda based on his various lectures. In 1893 Swami Vivekananda went to the United States to join the Parliament of the World’s Religions where he got overwhelming success and public attention.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2006]

53. The Allahabad Pillar inscription is associated with which one of the following?
(a) Mahapadma Nanda
(b) Chandragupta Maurya
(c) Ashoka
(d) Samudragupta
Ans. (d) Samudragupta was the fourth ruler of the Gupta Empire. Much of the knowledge of Samudragupta’s military exploits comes from the Allahabad Pillar of Ashoka which includes a prashasti (a eulogy) extolling the deeds and virtues of the Gupta emperor.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2006]

54. Consider the following statements :
1. Champaner – Pavagadh Archaeological Park
2. Chhatrapati Shivaji Railway Station, Mumbai
3. Mamallapuram
4. Sun Temple (Konark Temple)
Which of the above are included in the World Heritage List of UNESCO?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 3 and 4
(c) 2 and 4 (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Ans. (d) Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is located in Panchmahal district in Gujarat, India. • Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST), formerly Victoria Terminus (VT), is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and an historic railway station in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India which serves as the headquarters of the Central Railways. • Mamallapuram, also known as Mahabalipuram, is a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. By the 7th century it was a port city of South Indian dynasty of the Pallavas. • Konark Sun Temple is a 13th-century AD Sun Temple at Konark in Odisha, India. It is believed that the temple was built by king Narasimhadeva I of Eastern Ganga Dynasty in 1255 AD.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2005]

55. Recently, to which of the following countries did India offer to build a Buddha Temple?
(a) China (b) Myanmar
(c) Thailand (d) Vietnam
Ans. (a) The governments of India and China have declared in an official memorandum to jointly construct an Indian-style Buddhist temple on the western side of the historic White Horse Temple, in Luoyang, Henan Province, China. The project is planned as part of an ongoing effort to increase the ties of friendship and shared culture between the two countries.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2005]

56. The Archaeological Survey of India is an attached office of the Department/Ministry of:
(a) Culture
(b) Tourism
(c) Science and Technology
(d) Human Resource Development
Ans. (a) The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), under the Ministry of Culture, is the premier organization for the archaeological researches and protection of the cultural heritage of the nation.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2004]

57. Consider the following statements:
1. The Islamic Calendar is twelve days shorter than the Gregorian Calendar.
2. The Islamic Calendar began in AD 632.
3. The Gregorian Calendar is a solar calendar.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2
(c) 1 and 3 (d) 3 only
Ans. (c) Since the Islamic lunar year is eleven to twelve days shorter than the solar Gregorian year, the Islamic New Year does not come on the same day of the Gregorian calendar every year. • The first year was the Islamic year beginning in AD 622 during which the emigration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra, occurred. • The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world today. It is a solar calendar based on a 365-daycommon year divided into 12 months of irregular lengths.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2004]

58. Consider the following statements:
1. Kitab-I-Nauras, a collection of songs in praise of Hindu deities and Muslim saints, was written by Ibrahim Adil Shah II.
2. Amir Khusrau was the originator in India of the early form of the musical style known as Qawali.
Which of these statements is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 (b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (c) Here both the option regarding Kitab-i-Nauras and Amir Khusrau is correct so both the statement is correct so correct answer is (c) • Ibrahim II wrote the book Kitab-e-Navras (Book of Nine Rasas) in Dakhani. • Ab’ul Hasan Yamin al-Din Khusrau, better known as Amir Khusrau Dehlavi, is one of the greatest poets of India.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2003]

59. ‘Mrichchhakatika’ an ancient Indian book written by Shudraka deals with:
(a) the love affair of a rich merchant with the daughter of a courtesan
(b) the victory of Chandragupta II over the Shaka Kshatrapas of western India
(c) the military expeditions and exploits of Samudragupta
(d) the love affair between a Gupta King and a princess of Kamarupa
Ans. (a) The correct option for the question is (a) The main story is about a young man named Charudatta of Pataliputra (Patna), and his love for Vasantasena, a rich courtesan or nagarvadhu. The love affair is complicated by a royal courtier, who is also attracted to Vasantasena. The plot is further complicated by thieves and mistaken identities, thus making it a hilarious and entertaining play.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2003]

60. Which one of the following statements if NOT correct?
(a) The National Song Vande Mataram was composed by Bankimchandra Chatterji originally in Bengali
(b) The National Calendar of India based on Saka era has its 1st Chaitra on 22nd March normally and 21st March in a leap year
(c) The design of the National Flag of India was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 22nd July, 1947
(d) The song ‘Jana-gana-mana’, composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore was adopted in its Hindi version by the Constituent Assembly on 24th January, 1950 as the national Anthem of India
Ans. (a) The correct option is (a) Vande Mataram is a poem from Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay’s 1882 novel Anandamath. It was written in Bengali and Sanskrit.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2003]

61. Chapchar Kut is a festival celebrated in the state of
(a) Arunachal Pradesh (b) Assam
(c) Mizoram (d) Sikkim
Ans. (c) The Chapchar Kut is one of the oldest festivals of Mizoram and has a great cultural significance. It is an annual harvest festival celebrated in the month of March. It is a weeklong festival and celebrated with great pomp and gaiety.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2002]

62. Which one of the following statements is not correct?
(a) The status of Gomateshwara at Sravanabelagola represents the last Tirthankara of Jains
(b) India’s largest Buddhist monastery is in Arunachal Pradesh
(c) The Khajuraho temples were built under Chandela Kings
(d) The Hoysalesvara temple is dedicated to Siva
Ans. (a) Lord Gomateshwara (Lord Bahubali) was son of the first Jain tirthankara named Lord Adinatha.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2002]

63. Who amongst the following Englishmen, first translated Bhagavad- Gita into English?
(a) William Jones
(b) Charles Wilkins
(c) Alexander Cunningham
(d) John Marshall
Ans. (b)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2001]

64. In which one of the following cities is the Lingaraja Temple located?
(a) Bhubaneswar (b) Bijapur
(c) Kolkata (d) Shravanabelagola
Ans. (a) The Lingaraja temple is said to have been built first by the ruler Yayati Kesari in the 7th century who shifted his capital from Jaipur to Bhubaneshwar. Bhubaneshwar remained as the Kesari capital, till Nripati Kesari founded Cuttack in the 10th century.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2001]

65. Which of the following pairs is NOT correctly matched?
(a) India’s first technicolour : Jhansi Ki Rani film
(b) India’s first 3-D film : My Dear Kuttichat
(c) India’s first insured film : Taal
(d) India’s first actress to win the Bharat Ratna : Meena Kumari
Ans. (d) First Bharat Ratna was awarded to Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, Sir C.V. Raman, and Chakravarti Rajagopalachari in 1954. • None film actress has been conferred Bharat Ratna.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2001]

66. Hoysala monuments are found in
(a) Hampi and Hospet
(b) Halebid and Belur
(c) Mysore and Bangalore
(d) Sringeri and Dharwar
Ans. (b) Art historians recognize the exceptionally intricate sculptural artistry of the Chennakeshava temple at Belur and the Hoysaleshwara temple at Halebid to be among the masterpieces of South Asian art making the name of Hoysala synonymous with artistic achievement.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2001]

67. Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?
(a) Harappan Civilisation : Painted Grey Ware
(b) The Kushans : Gandhara School of Art
(c) The Mughals : Ajanta Paintings
(d) The Marathas : Pahari School of Painting
Ans. (b) Kushan was associated with Mathura school and not with Gandhara School.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2001]

68. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists:
List I : List II
(Dancer) : (Dance)
A. Kalamandalam Kshemavaty : 1. Kathakali
B. Kottakkal Sivaraman : 2. Manipuri
C. Lakshmi Viswanathan : 3. Mohiniyattam
D. N. Madhabi Devi : 4. Bharatanatyam
Codes :
(a) 1 3 2 4 (b) 3 1 4 2
(c) 1 3 4 2 (d) 3 1 2 4
Ans. (b)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2001]

69. Consider the following statements regarding the Chakiarkoothu form of dance :
1. It is performed by Chakiar caste.
2. It cannot be traditionally witnessed by the higher caste Hindus.
3. Mizhavu is the accompanying instrument.
4. Its theatre form is called koothambalam.
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1, 3 and 4 (b) 1, 2 and 3
(c) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 2 and 4
Ans. (a) This dance form is believed to have been introduced to Kerala by the early Aryan immigrants & is performed only by the members of the Chakiar caste. A highly orthodox type of entertainment, it can be staged inside temples only & witnessed by the Hindus of the higher castes. The theatre is known as Koothambalam. The story is recited in a quasidramatic style with emphasis on eloquent declarations with appropriately suggestive facial expressions & hand gestures. The only accompaniments are the cymbals & the drum known as the mizhavu, made of copper with a narrow mouth on which is stretched a piece of parchment.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2000]

70. The Raga which is sung early in the morning is
(a) Todi (b) Darbari
(c) Bhopali (d) Bhimpalasi
Ans. (a) Raga Todi belongs to Todi Thaat. It is a morning Raga, and uses all seven notes in the ascent and descent. Rishabh, Gandhar and Dhaivat are komal (flat), Madhyam is Tivra while Nishad is Shuddha. The derivative ragas out of this structure are grouped under the broad head of Todi Thaat.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2000]

71. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists:
List I : List II
(Artist) : (Medium of music delivery)
A. Balamurali Krishna : 1. Hindustani vocal
B. Mita Pandit : 2. Ghatam
C. Kanyakumari : 3. Sitar
D. Nikhil Bannerjee : 4. Violin : 5. Carnatic vocal
(a) 5 1 2 3 (b) 4 3 1 5
(c) 3 1 5 2 (d) 5 4 1 3
Ans. (a)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2000]

72. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
(a) Bakti ltihas : Badal Sarkar
(b) Sita Swayamvar : Vishnu Das Bhave
(c) Yayati : Girish Karnad
(d) Giddha : Jabbar Patel
Ans. (d) Bakti Itihas written by Badal Sirkar is a beautifully narrated story of man and mankind. How man in trying to give a meaning to his life tortures the rest of mankind. • Vishnudas Bhave was the leading dramatist of Maharashtra in India and the pioneer of Marathi theatre, as he staged the first Marathi-language play Sita Swayamvar in Sangli 1843. • Girish Karnad has been the playwright who impacted the Indian English Drama in a big positive manner. Through his first play-Yayati in the year 1961, Karnad embarked on what was going to be a splendid set of contribution to the Indian English Drama. • Giddha was written by Vijay Tendulkar
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2000]

73. The first writer to use Urdu as the medium of poetic expression was
(a) Amir Khusru (b) Mirza Ghalib
(c) Bahadur Shah Zafar (d) Faiz
Ans. (a) Amir Khusrau (1252-1325) was the famous Persian writer of this period. He wrote a number of poems.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1999]

74. Consider the following statements:
The striking feature of the Jama Masjid in Kashmir completed by Zain-ul-Abidin include(s)
(a) turret
(b) similarity with Buddhist pagodas
(c) Persian style
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 alone (b) 1, 2 and 3
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3
Ans. (b) The Jama Masjid of Srinagar is situated at Nowhatta, in the middle of the old city. An important mosque in Srinagar, it was built by Sultan Sikandar in 1400 AD. Later, the son of Sultan Sikandar, Zain-ul-Abidin got the mosque extended. • The mosque is a quadrangle and roughly square in plan, its northern and southern sides being 384′ in length. Its principal features are the four minars, one in the middle of each side (Plate IX). They are covered by a series of pyramidal roofs, which terminate in an open turret crowned by a high pinnacle.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1999]

75. Which one of the following pairs of folk dance forms and states is not correctly matched?
(a) Korku : Maharashtra
(b) Jhummar : Haryana
(c) Thali : Himachal Pradesh
(d) Mukna : Manipur
Ans. (a) The people of Korku tribe live in Chhindawara, adjoining the forests of Satpura ranges in Bhainsdehi, Chicholi tahasils of Betul ditrict and Harda, Timarni and Khirkiya tahasils of Hoshangabad district.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1999]

76. The paintings of Abanindranath Tagore are classified as
(a) realistic (b) socialistic
(c) revivalistic (d) impressionistic
Ans. (c) Abanindranath Tagore, the famous artist of modern India, was born in Calcutta on August 7, 1871. Leader of the Revivalist Movement in the field of Modern Indian Painting in Bengal, Abanindranath Tagore is also credited with a key contribution towards ushering in the renaissance in Indian painting.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1999]

77. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists :
List-I : List-II
A. Pandit Vishnu Digambar Paluskar : 1. Introduced the scheme of Raga classification in Indian Music
B. Venkatamahi : 2. Proponent of the Carnatic music
C. Shyama Shastri : 3. Proponent of the Khayal form of Hindustani music
D. Amir Khusru : 4. Wrote the music for the song ‘Vande Mataram’
Codes :
(a) 4 1 3 2 (b) 4 1 2 3
(c) 1 4 3 2 (d) 1 4 2 3
Ans. (b)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1999]

78. Which one of the following statements is not correct?
(a) ‘Neel Darpan’ was a play based on the exploitation of the indigo farmers
(b) The author of the play ‘Ghashiram Kotwal’ is Vijay Tendulkar
(c) The play ‘Navanna’ by Nabin Chandra Das was based on the famine of Bengal
(d) Urdu theatre used to depend heavily on Parsi theatre
Ans. (c) Nabanna is a Bengali language drama written by Bijon Bhattacharya and staged by the Indian People’s Theatre Association (IPTA) in 1944 under the direction of Sombhu Mitra and later, in 1948, by Bohurupee under the direction of Kumar Roy.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1999]

79. Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?
1. Mrichchakatikam — Shudraka
2. Buddhacharita — Vasuvandhu
3. Mudrarakshasha — Vishakhadatta
4. Harshacharita — Banabhatta
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
Codes :
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 (b) 1, 3 and 4
(c) 1 and 4 (d) 2 and 3
Ans. (b) Mrichchakatikam : It is a ten-act Sanskrit drama attributed to Sudraka an ancient playwright generally thought to have a Kshatriya king and a devotee of Siva who lived for 100 years. Three Sanskrit plays are ascribed to him -Mricchakatika (The Little Clay Cart) is the play written in the 2nd century BC). • Buddhacharita: It is ascribed to Asvaghosa. • The Mudrarakshasa: (Signet Ring of the Rakshasa,the chief minister of the last Nanda king), a historical play in Sanskrit by Vishakhadatta narrates the ascent of the king Chandragupta Maurya to power in Northern India with the aid of Chanakya, his Guru and Chief Minister. • Harshacharita: Banabhatta was the author of the Harshacharita which is a eulogistic history of the reign of Emperor Harshavardhana and a very reliable source of our information regarding the reign of the monarch, excluding of course the pompous rhetoric’s used by the poet.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1998]

80. Which one of the following dances involves solo performance?
(a) Bharatanatyam (b) Kuchipudi
(c) Mohiniattam (d) Odissi
Ans. (a) Bharatanatyam is a classical dance form of South India, said to be originated in Thanjavoor of Tamil Nadu. It was known as Daasiyattam since performed by Devadasies in temples of Tamil Nadu long ago.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1997]

81. Which one of the following pairs of composers in different languages and their works on the Mahabharata theme is correctly matched?
(a) Sarladasa — Bengali
(b) Kasirama — Oriya
(c) Tikkana — Marathi
(d) Pampa — Kannada
Ans. (d) Pampa, who came of a family of Vengi, flourished in the court of Arikesari, who was feudatory under Rashtrakuta Krishna III. At the age of 39, (949 A.D.), Pampa composed two great poems, one a Jaina work and the other, the story of Mahabharata.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1997]

82. The famous dialogue between, Nachiketa and Yama is mentioned in the
(a) Channdogyapanishad (b) Mundkapanishad
(c) Kathopanishad (d) Kenopanishad
Ans. (c) There is a shakha (branch) of the Krishna Yajurveda called ‘Katha’. This Upanishad is within that shakha, therefore it is called the ‘Katha Upanishad’. This Upanishad is spread across two chapters, called adhyayas, each with three sub-chapters, called vallis. It is listed as number 3 in the Muktika canon of 108 Upanishads. The Upanishad is the legendary story of a little boy, Nachiketa – the son of sage Vajasravasa, who meets Yama (the Indian deity of death). Their conversation evolves to a discussion of the nature of man, knowledge, Atman (Soul, Self) and moksha (liberation)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1997]

83. Which one of the following scripts of ancient India was written from right to left?
(a) Brahmi (b) Nandnagari
(c) Sharada (d) Kharoshti
Ans. (d) Kharosthi was a script used in the north-western region of India between about the fourth century B.C. and the third century A.D. It was used to write many different local languages like Prakrit. Kharosthi was based on the Aramaic script used under the Achaemenid Empire which controlled northwestern India around the fifth century B.C. Kharosthi is written from right to left. Examples of Kharosthi script have been found on stone, metal, leather and parchment.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1997]

84. Milindapanho is in the form of a dialogue between the King Menander and the Buddhist monk
(a) Nagasena (b) Nagarjuna
(c) Nagabhatta (d) Kumarilabhatta
Ans. (a) The Milinda Panha is a work composed in Pali (an Indian dialect) that purports to be the record of a dialogue between the Buddhist monk Nagasena and the Greek King Milinda. Milinda asks a series of questions highlighting what seem to be anomalies and contradictions in Buddhist doctrine, to each of which Nagasena gives clear, even ingenious answers. The effectiveness of these answers is enhanced by the numerous similes and analogies that are included within them.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1997]

85. Prem Vatika, poems on the life of Krishna, was composed by
(a) Bihari (b) Surdas
(c) Raskhan (d) Kabir
Ans. (c) Raskhan (born 1548 A.D.) was a poet who was both a Muslim and a follower (bhakt) of Lord Krishna. His birth name was Sayyad Ibrahim and is known to have lived in Amroha, India.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1996]

86. Which one of the following temples figured in the news regarding the institution of the Devadasis?
(a) Jagannath temple, Puri
(b) Pasupatinath temple, Kathmandu
(c) Kandariyamahadev temple, Khajuraho
(d) Chaunsathyogini temple, Bheraghat
Ans. (a) According to the tradition, a girl can become a Devadasi before she attains puberty, Sashimani said. They were supposed to sing and dance in the temple on a daily basis.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1996]

87. According to ancient Indian cosmogonic ideas the sequential order of the cycle of four aeons (Yugas) is
(a) Dvapara, Krita, Treta and Kali
(b) Krita, Dvapara, Treta and Kali
(c) Krita, Treta, Dvapara and Kali
(d) Treta, Dvapara, Kali and Krita
Ans. (c) The four great epochs in Hinduism are: Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dwapar Yuga and Kali Yuga.Satya Yug or the Age of Truth is said to last for four thousand divine years, Treta Yuga for three thousand, Dwapara Yug for two thousand and Kali Yuga will last for one thousand divine Years that equals to 432,000 earthly years.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1996]

88. The term apabhramsa was used in medieval Sanskrit texts to denote
(a) outcastes among the Rajputs
(b) deviations from Vedic rituals
(c) early forms of some of the modern Indian languages
(d) non-Sanskrit verse metres
Ans. (c) Apabhramsa is a term that is collectively provided to the dialects that deviate from Sanskrit. It is a term for the dialects forming the transition between the late Middle India and early Modern India languages.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1996]

89. Which one of the following sculptures invariably used green schist as the medium?
(a) Maurya sculptures (b) Mathura sculptures
(c) Bharhut sculptures (d) Gandhara sculptures
Ans. (c) The Bharhut stupa may have been established by the Maurya king Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE, but many works of art were apparently added during the Sunga period, with many friezes from the 2nd century BCE. It used green schist as the medium
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1996]

90. Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?
(a) Naqqual : Bihar
(b) Tamasha : Orissa
(c) Ankia Nat : Assam
(d) Baha : Punjab
Ans. (c) Ankia Naat/Bhaona is a traditional form of entertainment prevalent in Assam. It was created by Srimanta Sankardeva in the early sixteenth century.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1996]

91. Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?
(a) Guru Amar Das : Miri and Piri
(b) Guru Arjan Dev : Adi Granth
(c) Guru Ram Das : Dal Khalsa
(d) Guru Gobind Singh : Manji
Ans. (b) Guru Arjan Dev Ji (April 15,1563-30 May 1606). The Holy Volume Guru Granth Sahib was compiled by Guru Arjun (AD 1563-1606) and the first copy was calligraphed by Bhai Gurdas at his dictation. • Guru Granth Sahib or Adi Granth Sahib Ji is more than just a scripture of the Sikhs, for the Sikhs regard and respect the Granth (holy book) as their living Guru.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1996]

92. The Nagara, the Dravida and the Vesara are
(a) the three main racial groups of the Indian subcontinent
(b) the three main linguistic divisions into which the languages of India can be classified
(c) the three main styles of Indian temple architecture
(d) the three main musical gharanas prevalent in India
Ans. (c) Nagara style is associated with the land between the Himalayas and Vindhyas. The Nagara style has its origin in the structural temples of the Gupta period, especially the Dashavtara temple of Deogarh and the brick temple of Bhitargaon. • The Dravida Architectural style is associated with the temples of southern India or Deccan. • Vesara style is sometimes associated with the area between the Vindhyas and the Krishna river. It emerged during early medieval period. It is a hybrid style that borrowed from the northern and southern styles. So, it is a mixture of both Nagara and Dravida styles of temple architecture.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1995]

93. According to the Mimamsa system of philosophy, liberation is possible by means of
(a) Jnana (b) Bhakti
(c) Yoga (d) Karma
Ans. (d) The Sanskrit word mimamsa means a revered thought. The word is originated from the root man who refers to thinking or investigating. The word mimamsa suggests probing and acquiring knowledge or critical review and investigation.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1995]

94. The Mughal School of Painting formed the spinal column of the various schools of Indian miniature
art. Which one of the following painting styles was not affected by Mughal painting?
(a) Pahari (b) Rajasthani
(c) Kangra (d) Kalighata
Ans. (d) Kalighat paintings were a post Mughal phenomenon. This Indian Style of painting originated in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat (Kolkata, India) in 19th century. • Kalighat temple was considered the main centre around which the traditional artists called ‘the pataus’ or ‘painters of cloth’ concentrated. Later academic training institutions were set up in Bengal imparting European style of art for the Indian artists by British patrons. This induced the traditional artists to move from rural areas to the city.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1995]

95. Zero was invented by
(a) Aryabhata (b) Varahmira
(c) Bhaskara I (d) An unknown Indian
Ans. (d) The most fundamental contribution of ancient India to the progress of civilisation is the decimal system of numeration including the invention of the number zero. This system uses 9 digits and a symbol for zero to denote all integral numbers, by assigning a place value to the digits. This system was used in Vedas and Valmiki Ramayana. Mohanjodaro and Harappa civilisations (3000 B.C.) also used this system. So we can say Zero is invented by unknown Indian.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1995]

96. Bronze icons of Nataraja cast during the Chola period invariably show the deity with
(a) eight hands (b) six hands
(c) four hands (d) two hands
Ans. (c)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1995]

97. Which one of the following monuments has a dome which is said to be one of the largest in the world?
(a) Tomb of Sher Shah, Sasaram
(b) Jama Masjid, Delhi
(c) Tomb of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq, Delhi
(d) Gol Gumbaz, Bijapur
Ans. (d) Gol Gumbaz, the mausoleum of Muhammad Adil Shah (AD 1626 –56) located in Bijapur, Karnataka is an important monument of Indo-Islamic architecture aptly known for its amazing dimensions and unique acoustic features.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1995]

98. The statue of Gomateswara at Sravanabelagola was built by
(a) Chandragupta Maurya
(b) Kharavela (c) Amoghavarsha
(d) Chamundaraya
Ans. (d) Shravanabelagola is a historical temple town and pilgrimage centre in Karnataka, prominent for Jaina Art, Architecture, religion and culture. The 57 ft. (17.5 mtr.) tall magnificient monolithic statue of Gommateshwara Bhagawan Bahubali was consecrated by Chavundaraya, a general of the Ganga dynasty, to 981 A.D.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1994]

99. Which one of the following is a language of Baluchistan but linguistically Dravidian?
(a) Brahui (b) Kui
(c) Parji (d) Pengo
Ans. (a) Brahui is a Dravidian language spoken by about 2.2 million people mainly in the Balochistan region of Pakistan.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1994]

@100. Vidhushaka, a common character in Sanskrit drama, is invariably a
(a) Brahmana (b) Kshatriya
(c) Vaisya (d) Shudra
Ans. (a) In classical Sanskrit drama, Vidushaka is essentially a Brahmin and is a confident / attendent of the Hero. Despite being educated in Sanskrit, he speaks in Prakrit, the vernacular language of the time. Bharata mentions him along with the principal characters in his Natyasastra.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1994]

101. “Live well, as long as you live. Live well even by borrowings, for, once cremated, there is no ‘return.” This rejection of after-life in an aphorism of the
(a) Kapalika sect
(b) Sunyavada of Nagarjuna
(c) Ajivikas
(d) Charvakas
Ans. (d) The Charvaka school was a philosophical movement in India that rejected the traditional religious order by challenging the authority of the Vedas as well as the authority the Brahman priest. • The members of this school did not believe in ideas such as the soul, reincarnation, spirits, or gods.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1994]

102. The caves and rock-cut temples at Ellora are
(a) Buddhist
(b) Buddhist and Jain
(c) Hindu and Jain
(d) Hindu, Buddhist and Jain
Ans. (d) Thus grew one of the largest cave excavations at Ellora, that too of three different religious creeds, viz., Buddhism, Brahmanism and Jainism. The caves are datable from 6th – 7th century A.D. to 11th – 12th century A.D.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1994]

103. The earliest rock-cut caves in western India are those at
(a) Nasik, Ellora and Ajanta
(b) Junnar, Kalyan and Pitalkhora
(c) Ajanta, Bhaja and Kondane
(d) Bhala, Pitalkhora and Kondane
Ans. (c) The Ajanta Caves in Aurangabad, attained the name from a nearby village named Ajanta located about 12 km. These caves are datable to the pre- Christian era, the earliest among them being Cave 10 dating from the second century B.C.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1993]

104. In Mughal paintings one notices the adoption of principle of foreshortening whereby near and distant people and things could be placed in perspective. This was due to the influence of the
(a) British (b) Dutch
(c) Portuguese (d) Danish
Ans. (c)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1993]

105. Which one of the following pairs of kings of ancient and medieval periods of Indian history and the works authored by them is correctly matched?
(a) Krishnadevaraya : Samaranganasutradhara
(b) Mahendravarman : Mattavilasaprahasana
(c) Bhojadeva : Manasollasa
(d) Somesvara : Amuktamalayada
Ans. (b) Mahendravarma was a great patron of letters and architecture. He was the pioneer of Rock-cut Architecture amongst the Pallavas. In the inscription at the Mandagapattu rock-cut temple, it is claimed that the temple was built without wood, brick, mortar or metal. The five-celled cave temple at Pallavaram was also built during his reign as was the Kokarneswarar Temple, Thirukokarnam of Pudukottai, Tamil Nadu. He was also the author of the play Mattavilasa Prahasana, a farce concerning Buddhist and Saiva ascetics.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1993]

106. Which one of the following monuments figured in the news recently in connection with a fall of some of its parts and its consequent archaeological conservation?
(a) Jagannath Temple, Puri
(b) Sun Temple, Konark
(c) Khandariya Mahadeva Temple, Khajuraho
(d) Chaunsat Yogini Temple, Bheraghat
Ans. (a) The stupendous Vaishnava Temple is dedicated to the trinity viz, Jagannath, Balabhadra and Devi Subhadra. But popularly it is known as Jagannath Temple. The Temple was constructed probably by Ananta Varman Chodaganga Deva, the illustrious king of the Ganga Dynasty in 12th century A.D.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1993]

107. Consider the following passage :
“In the course of a career on the road spanning almost thirty years, he crossed the breadth of the Eastern hemisphere, visited territories equivalent to about 44 modern countries, and put behind him a total distance of approximately 73,000 miles.” The world’s greatest traveller of pre-modern times to whom the above passage refers is
(a) Megasthenes
(b) Fa-Hien
(c) Marco Polo
(d) Ibn Battuta
Ans. (c) Venetian merchant and adventurer Marco Polo traveled from Europe to Asia from 1271 to 1295. He wrote Il Milione, known in English as The Travels of Marco Polo. His journey through Asia lasted 24 years. He reached further than any of his predecessors, beyond Mongolia to China. He became a confidant of Kublai Khan (1214-1294).
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1993]

108. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer by using the codes given below the lists:
List I : List II
A. Nankana : 1. Guru Gobind Singh
B. Nanded : 2. Guru Amar Das
C. Dera Baba Nanak : 3. Guru Ram Das
D. Amritsar : 4. Guru Nanak
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 4 1 3 2 (b) 1 3 2 4
(c) 4 1 2 3 (d) 3 2 4 1
The correct option is not matching the above list • Guru Nanak: He was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. He was born on 15 April 1469 at Rai Bhoi Ki Talvandi (present day Nankana Sahib, Punjab, Pakistan) near Lahore. • Dera Baba Nanak: As its name implies, this shrine is connected with Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhi; is located in Gurdaspur District of Punjab. • Nanded: Nanded, is one of the important centres of Sikh pilgrimage situated on the left bank of River Godavari, is a district town in Maharashtra (Western State in India). The tenth and the last Guru of the Sikh faith, Guru Gobind Singh was born at Patna, in Bihar son of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the Ninth Guru. • Amritsar: Guru Ram Das ji, the fourth Sikh Guru established the city of Amritsar.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1992]

109. Which one of the following is a historical work by Hemachandra?
(a) Dvasraya-kavya
(b) Prabandhachintamani
(c) Kamatakabhasabhushana
(d) Samaranganasutradhara
Ans. (a) Acharya Hemachandra was an Indian Jain scholar, poet and polymath who lived in the 11th century. He produced the epic poetry Dvyashraya Kavya on the history of Solanki dynasty.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1992]

110. Given below are four wonders not usually included among the seven wonders of the world:
1. The Great Wall of China
2. The Taj Mahal at Agra
3. The Leaning Tower of Pisa
4. The Angkor Vat Temple in Kampuchea What is the correct chronological sequence in which they were constructed?
Choose the answer from the codes given below.
(a) 3, 2, 1 and 4 (b) 1, 4, 3 and 2
(c) 1, 3, 4 and 2 (d) 4, 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (b) The Great Wall of China: In 220 B.C., under Qin Shi Huang, sections of earlier fortifications were joined together to form a united defence system against invasions from the north. • Taj Mahal: Taj Mahal, the pinnacle of Mughal architecture, It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan (reigned 1628– 1658), to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. • The Leaning Tower of Pisa: Construction of the tower occurred in three stages over 199 years. Work on the ground floor of the white marble campanile began on August 14, 1173. • Angkor Wat: The initial design and construction of the temple took place in the first half of the 12th century, during the reign of Suryavarman II ruled (1113 –1150 AD). Dedicated to Vishnu, it was built as the king’s state temple and capital city.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1992]

111. Which one of the following pairs of famous sayings and their sources is correctly matched?
(a) Vasudhaiva Kutumbhakam : Artha Sastra
(b) Yogakshemam vahamyaham : Rig Veda
(c) Satyamevajayate : Mundaka Upanishad
(d) Satyam Shivam Sundaram : Bhagavat Gita
Ans. (c) The statement ‘Satyameva Jayate’ (Literally: “Truth Stands Invincible”) is actually in the opening line of a four-line mantra from the ‘Mundaka Upanishad’ which is found in the Atharva Veda.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1992]

112. Thillana is a format of
(a) Kathak (b) Kuchipudi
(c) Odissi (d) Bharatnatyam
Ans. (d) Tillana is a brisk and a lively number performed towards the end of a concert. Usually a carnatic vocal or a Bharatanatyam concert culminates with a Tillana. The lyrics contain sollus like Dheem Nadir Dheem or Dheem Ta na Di tillana.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1992]

113. The well known painting, ‘Bani Thani’ belongs to the
(a) Kangra School (b) Kishangarh School
(c) Bundi School (d) Jaipur School
Ans. (b) Already Mentioned.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1992]

114. Gupta architecture is represented by many brick temples and the temple of Bhitargaon is most notable for its well preserved and moulded bricks of excellent design, this temple has
(a) A tall Gopuram
(b) A Pyramidal roof
(c) An Apsidal plan
(d) Double basement
Ans. (b) Square temple with a low and squat tower (shikhara) like Pyramid above; notable examples are the Dasavatara temple (built in stone at Deogarh, Jhansi district) and the brick temple at Bhitargaon (Kanpur district). A high platform at the base and the tower add to the elevation of the composition.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1992]

115. The Chishti saint, in whose honour ‘Urs’ is held in Ajmer every year, was
(a) Nizamuddin Auliya
(b) Moin-ud-din
(c) Nasiruddin Chiragh-i-Delhi
(d) Hamidud-Din Nagori
Ans. (b) The word Urs has been derived from “UROOS” which means “ultimate meeting of an individual with God”. Every year Urs Mubarak is celebrated on his death anniversary in the Islamic month of Rajab.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1992]

116. Which one of the following is correctly matched?
(a) Thyagaraja — Tamil
(b) Purandara Das — Kannada
(c) Jnaneshwar — Bengali
(d) Sankaradeva — Gujarati
Ans. (a) Mayavaram Krishnamurthy Thyagaraja Bhagavathar also called MKT, was a Tamil film actor and Carnatic singer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1991]

117. Mitakshara is
(a) A work on astronomy
(b) A treatise on ancient Hindu law of inheritance
(c) An Agamic text
(d) A compendium on medicine
Ans. (b) Mitakshra, the famous commentary on the Smriti of Yagyavallkya speaks of the tenfold gradation of brahmanas, best known for its theory of inheritance by birth. It was written by Vijnanesvara, a scholar in the Western Chalukya court in the late eleventh and early twelfth century.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1991]

118. Of the following centres which is the one where the original monasteries established by Adi Shankaracharya is not found?
(a) Puri (b) Kari
(c) Shringeri (d) Dwarka
Ans. (c) In the north-west of the State of Mysore, nestling in the beautiful foot-hills of the Western Ghats, surrounded by virgin forests, lies the village of Sringeri and here Sankara established his first Mutt. • The Sringeri Peetha is one of the oldest monasteries of the world flourishing for over twelve centuries now. It is the first of the four seats of learning established by Sankaracharya, the other three being Puri, Dwaraka and Joshi Mutt, each one of them representing one of the four Vedas of the Hindus.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1991]

119. In his works, Kalidasa exhibits a particular leaning towards the worship of
(a) Vishnu (b) Shiva
(c) Durga (d) Ganesha
Ans. (b) Regarded as an outstanding writer, Kalidasa resided at the palace of Chandragupta in Pataliputra (modern day Patna). He is generally considered to be the greatest Indian writer of any epoch. • He exhibits a particular leaning towards worship of Shiva.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1991]

120. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists:
List I : List II
A. Khajuraho temple : 1. Hoysala style
B. Brihadeshwar temple : 2. Pallava style
C. Hoyalesvara temple : 3. Chandel
D. Seven Pagodas : 4. Chola : 5. Chedi
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 5 1 3 2 (b) 2 3 1 5
(c) 3 4 1 2 (d) 3 4 5 1
Ans. (c)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1991]

121. Who is the well-known collector of artifacts and curios?
(a) Salar Jung (b) Wadeyar
(c) Rabindranath Tagore (d) Motilal Nehru
Ans. (a) Salarjung spent half of his annual income (Rupees 10 Lakhs) on his hobby. He collected everything, from the rarest relic to commonest bric-a-brac with the same excitement.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1991]

122. Roman settlement in India is found at
(a) Ujjain (b) Kshudrakas
(c) Arikmedu (d) Koshambi
Ans. (c) Arikamedu, which means “eroding mud”, is located at around seven kilometres from Pondicherry. The city is located along the beautiful Ariyankuppam river and is believed to be the only city with an archaeological record of Roman presence in India. • It was formerly a major Chola port dedicated to bead making and trading with Roman traders and was believed to be the only town to have ties with Rome.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1991]

123. Painted greyware is attributed to
(a) Vedic period (b) Guptas
(c) Mauryas (d) Indus valley civilization
Ans. (a) The Painted Grey Ware culture (PGW) is an Iron Age culture of the Gangetic plain and the Ghaggar-Hakra valley, lasting from roughly 1200 BCE to 600 BCE. Painted Grey Ware comes after the Black and red ware culture. It is believed that it corresponds to the later Vedic period.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1991]

124. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists :
A. Classical music B. Light classical music
C. Light music D. Folk music List-II
1. Lata Mangeshkar, Mukesh, Manna Dey
2. Bade Gulam Ali Khan, Amir Khan, Jasraj
3. Siddeswari Devi, Rasodan Bai, Girija Devi
4. Teejan Bai, Sheikh Gulab, Poorna Das
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 2 3 1 4
(c) 3 1 2 4 (d) 1 3 2 4
Ans. (b)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1991]

125. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below them:
List I (Books) : List II (Authors)
A. India Today : 1. Valentine Chirol
B. India Unrest : 2. B.G. Tilak
C. Geeta Rahasya : 3. Jawaharlal Nehru
D. A Bunch of Old Letters : 4. Rajni Palme Dutt : 5. Mahatma Gandhi
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 4 1 2 3 (b) 5 4 2 3
(c) 3 4 5 1 (d) 4 1 3 5
Ans. (a)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1990]

126. Consider the following pairs: Person : Field of activity
1. Subramania Bharati : Literature
2. Mokshagundan Visvesvaraya : Medicine
3. Jamsetji Tata Nusserwanji : Engineering and Planning
4. Rabanindra Nath Tagore : Painting Of these pairs :
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4 are correctly matched
(b) 1 and 2 are correctly matched
(c) 1 and 4 are correctly matched
(d) 2, 3 and 4 are correctly matched
Ans. (c) Here the correct option is (c) • Chinnaswami Subramania Bharathi (11 December 1882 – 11 September 1921) was an Indian writer, poet, journalist, • Mokshagundan Visvesvaraya was one of the greatest engineers & statesman India had ever produced. • Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata (3 March 1839 – 19 May 1904) was an Indian pioneer industrialist, who founded the Tata Group, India’s biggest conglomerate company. • Tagore took up drawing and painting at his later stage of life in sixties.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1990]

127. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below them:
List-I List-II
A. Nagarjuna 1. Founder of Kalmukha Sect
B. Lakulisho 2. Founder of Vira Saivism
C. Sankara 3. Founder of Advaita philosophy
D. Basava 4. Founder of Madhyamika
5. Propagator of Pasupata Sect
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 4 5 3 2 (b) 3 1 5 4
(c) 2 1 4 3 (d) 1 2 4 3
Ans. (a)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1990]

128. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below them:
List-I (Place) List-II (Importance)
A. Bhubaneshwar : 1. Vijayanagara architecture
B. Konark : 2. Rajarani temple
C. Lepakshi : 3. Vijayanagara paintings
D. Halebid : 4. Hoysala monument : 5. Sun temple
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 3 2 4 5 (b) 2 5 4 3
(c) 5 4 2 3 (d) 2 5 3 4
Ans. (d)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1990]

129. In which one of the following periods were the rockcut “Hindu” temples a characteristic feature of architecture?
(a) Sungas (b) Satavahanas
(c) Pallavas (d) Cholas
Ans. (c) Pallavas (7th century – 9th century) were the major kingdoms which epitomized the rockcut Architecture. ).
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1990]

130. Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?
(a) Bhaskaracharya —Ashtanga Sangraha
(b) Bhatti — Sisupala Vadha
(c) Hemachandra — Kathasaritsagara
(d) Sri Harsha — Naishadha Charita
Ans. (d) Among all the given option only (d) is correct
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1990]

131. The well-known painting ‘Bani Thani’ belongs to the
(a) Kangra School (b) Kishangarh School
(c) Bundi School (d) Jaipur School
Ans. (b) Kishangarh miniature painting reached a peak in the eighteenth century, during the rule of Raja Sawant Singh, who fell in love with a slave girl, Bani Thani and commanded his artists to portray himself and her as Krishna and Radha.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1990]

132. Consider the following singers:
1. Anup Jalota 2. Chitra Singh
3. Penaz Masani 4. Parvati Khan Among these persons, the well-known Ghazal singers include
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 3 and 4
(c) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1,2 and 4
Ans. (a) From the above option, (a) is the correct answer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1990]

133. Which of the following features are associated with the architecture of Tughlaq period?
Select the correct answer using the codes given below the features:
1. Sloping walls
2. Deliberate attempt to combine the principles of the arch, the lintel and the beam in the buildings
3. Placing the buildings especially the tombs on a high platform
Codes :
(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 3
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 2
Ans. (d) From the above option, the correct answer is (d)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1990]

134. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below them:
List I : List II
(Artiste) : (Instrument)
A. Sadiq Ali Khan : 1. Veena
B. V. G. Jog : 2. Sarod
C. Ali Akbar Khan : 3. Flute
D. Pannalal Ghosh : 4. Violin
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 1 4 2 3 (b) 2 1 3 4
(c) 4 3 1 2 (d) 1 3 2 4
Ans. (a)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1990]

135. The parent script of the Indo-Aryan and Dravidian language is
(a) Indus (b) Brahmi
(c) Kharosti (d) Aramic
Ans. (b) The languages of the Indian Subcontinent are divided into various language families, of which the Indo- Iranian and the Dravidian languages are the most widely spoken. There are also many languages belonging to unrelated language families such as Sino-Tibetan, spoken by smaller groups. Linguistic records begin with the appearance of the Brahmi script from about the 3rd century BCE.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1989]

136. Match the following:
A. Ravi Verma : 1. Painter
B. Amrita Shergil : 2. Modern Art
C. Jamini Roy : 3. Folk lore
D. Ravi Shankar : 4. Sitar
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 2 1 4 3
(c) 3 4 2 1 (d) 4 3 1 2
Ans. (a) Ravi Shankar: Was a world-famous Indian musician and a composer of Hindustani classical music. • Raja Ravi Varma: Was born on 29th April 1848, in Kilimanoor, a small town of Kerala. He is known for his amazing paintings, which revolve mainly around the great epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana. • Amrita Sher-Gill: Amrita Sher-Gil (30 January 1913– 5 December 1941) was an eminent Indian painter, • Jamini Roy: Was one of the most significant and influential painters born in a middle-class family in 1887 at Beliator village in Bankura district of Bengal.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1989]

137. Which among the following is a folk dance of India?
(a) Manipuri (b) Garba
(c) Kathakali (d) Mohiniattam
Ans. (b) Garba is the folk dance of Gujarat. Garba was traditionally performed around a big Garbha Deep, representing life just as fetus in the mother’s womb.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1989]

138. Charaka samhitais a work on
(a) Polity (b) Medicine
(c) Architecture (d) Mathematics
Ans. (b) Charaka-samhita is comprehensive text on ancient Indian medicine credited to Charaka, who was a practitioner of the traditional system of Indian medicine known as Ayurveda.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1988]

139. Match the columns:
List 1 : List 2
(Artiste) : (Instrument)
A. Ali Akbar Khan : 1. Flute
B. Yehudi Menuhin : 2. Sarod
C. Ravi Shankar : 3. Sitar
D. H. P. Chaurasia : 4. Santoor : 5. Violin
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 4 3 1 5 (b) 1 2 4 3
(c) 2 3 4 1 (d) 2 5 3 1
Ans. (d) Hariprasad Chaurasia: Is an eminent Indian flutist best known for popularizing Indian Classical Music all over the world and is counted among the greatest masters of the North Indian Bamboo flute. • Ravi Shankar: Was a world-famous Indian musician and a composer of Hindustani classical music. • Yehudi Menuhin: He was born April 22, 1916, in the Bronx to Russian immigrants, one of the leading violin virtuosos of the 20th century. • Ali Akbar Khan: Was a Hindustani classical musician of the Maihar gharana, known for his virtuosity in playing the sarod. Trained as a classical musician and instrumentalist by his father, Allauddin Khan, Khan also composed several classical ragas and film scores.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1988]

140. Which of the following are features of Mughal Style of architecture?
1. Curvilinear roof 2. Flat roof
3. Domes 4. Arches
Choose the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 3 and 4 (d) 1, 2 and 4
Ans. (c) The Mughals built magnificent monuments. The main characteristic features of Mughal architecture are the bulbous domes, the slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners, large halls, massive vaulted gateways, arches and delicate ornamentation. They also laid out many formal gardens with running water in the neighbourhood of Agra and Lahore.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1988]

141. Which of the following pairs is correct?
(a) Surdas – Sahitya Lahari
(b) Somesgara – Charu Chintamani
(c) Kalhana – Ashtadhyayi
(d) Satyanarayana – Mahabharata
Ans. (a) Surdas was the disciple of Vallabhacharya and he popularized Krishna cult in north India. • Sahitya-Lahiri is mainly associated with Bhakti (devotion) towards the Supreme Lord. Sur-Sagar is considered to be the magnum opus of Surdas.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1987]

142. Which of the following pairs is correct?
(a) Nand Lal – Dandi March
(b) Hyder Asti – Morning
(c) M. F. Hussain – Dream of Shahjehan
(d) Amrita Shergill – Sunflower
Ans. (a) Nandalal Bose (1882 –1966) was one of the pioneers of modern Indian art and a key figure of Contextual Modernism. • To mark the 1930 occasion of Mahatma Gandhi’s arrest for protesting the British tax on salt, Bose created a black on white linocut print of Gandhi walking with a staff. It became the iconic image for the non-violence movement.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1987]

143. The Buddhist sculpture and art is found at
(a) Mahabalipuram (b) Kanchi
(c) Vijayanagar (d) Amravati
Ans. (d) The Amaravati school of art occupies a pre-eminent position in the history of Indian Art. With its beginning in 3rd century BC the Amaravati unfolds its chapters through the galaxy of sculptural wealth that designed the Mahachaityas. • The lotus and the purnakumbha motifs are typical of Amaravati Art expressing auspiciousness and abundance. • White Marble was used in this art and the themes were Buddha’s life and Jatakas tales. The curly hairs of Buddha is a feature that is influenced by the Greeks.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1987]

144. Of the following, the oldest Sanskrit poet, whose composition still remains in original classical style, is
(a) Asvaghosa (b) Dandin
(c) Kalidasa (d) Bhavabhuti
Ans. (a) Asvaghosa was an Indian philosopher-poet, born in Saketa in northern India to a Brahmin family. • He is believed to have been the first Sanskrit dramatist, and is considered the greatest Indian poet prior to Kalidasa. • Whereas much of Buddhist literature prior to the time of Asvaghosa had been composed in Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, Asvaghosa wrote in Classical Sanskrit.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1987]

145. Match the columns :
A. Amjad Ali Khan : 1. Flute
B. Ali Hussain : 2. Sarod
C. Hari Prasad Chaurasia : 3. Tabla
D. Alia Rakha : 4. Shehnai
Select the correct answer from the codes given below :
(a) 2 1 3 4 (b) 4 2 1 3
(c) 2 4 1 3 (d) 1 2 3 4
Ans. (c) Amjad Ali Khan: A distinguished maestro in the field of playing Sarod, Ustad Amjad Ali Khan is popularly known as the “Sarod Samrat”. • Ali Hussain: (1939 –2016) Was a shehnai specialist from India. He was famously known for his innovative style and mastery over the classical and semi-classical and folk music repertoire. • Hariprasad Chaurasia: Is an eminent Indian flutist best known for popularizing Indian Classical Music all over the world and is counted among the greatest masters of the North Indian Bamboo flute. • Ustad Alla Rakha: Was an Indian tabla player. He was a frequent accompanist of sitar player Ravi Shankar.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1986]

146. Whose tomb among the following is not located in India?
(a) Akbar (b) Humayun
(c) Jehangir (d) Itmad-ud-daula
Ans. (c) The tomb of Jehangir (1605 to 1627) is built inside the walled garden of Empress Noor Jahan Bagh-e-Dil Kusha at Shahdra, on the bank of Ravi in Lahore. His son Shah Jahan built the mausoleum 10 years after his father’s death.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1986]

147. The Nagara style of temple architecture is associated with
(a) North India (b) South India
(c) East India (d) None of the above
Ans. (a) The Nagara style which developed for the fifth century in North India is characterized by a beehive shaped tower (called a shikhara, in northern terminology) made up of layer upon layer of architectural elements such as kapotas and gavaksas, all topped by a large round cushion-like element called an amalaka.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1986]

148. Match the following :
A. Chandidas : 1. Bengali
B. Mira : 2. Tamil
C. Purandaradas : 3. Hindi
D. Thyagaraja : 4. Kannada : 5. Telugu
Codes :
(a) 1 2 3 4 (b) 1 2 5 4
(c) 1 3 5 4 (d) 1 3 4 5
Ans. (d)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1985]

149. Which of the following pairs are correct?
1. M.S. Subbulakshmi – Carnatic vocalist
2. Ravi Shankar – Sitar
3. Birju Maharaj – Bharatnatyam
4. Alla Rakha – Tabla instrumentalist
Select the correct answer from the codes given below :
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 2 and 4 (d) None of these
Ans. (c)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1985]

@150. Which of the following places is not associated with the growth of art?
(a) Mahabalipuram (b) Amarnath
(c) Ajanta (d) Ellora
Ans. (b) Amarnath cave is a Hindu shrine located in Jammu and Kashmir, India. • Inside the 40 m (130 ft) high Amarnath cave, the stalagmite is formed due to freezing of water drops that fall from the roof of the cave on to the floor and grows up vertically from the cave floor, considered to be a Shiva Linga by Hindus.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1984]

151. Match the following :
A. Birju Maharaj : 1. Bharatnatyam
B. Sanjukta Panigrahi : 2. Kuchipudi
C. T. Balasaraswathy : 3. Odissi
D. Sonal Man Singh : 4. Kathak
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 4 3 1 2 (b) 3 2 1 4
(c) 1 2 3 4 (d) 2 1 3 4
Ans. (a)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1984]

152. Write the following in chronological order
1. Puri—Jagannath temple
2. Meenakshi temple
3. Mahabalipuram temples
4. Qutab Minar
Select the correct answer from the codes given below :
(a) 1, 2, 4, 3 (b) 1, 4, 2, 3
(c) 1, 4, 3, 2 (d) 3, 1, 4, 2
Ans. (d) The Jagannath Temple of Puri: It was initiated by the ruler of Kalinga, ‘Anantavarman Chodaganga’. The Jaga mohan and the Vimana portions of the temple were built during his reign (1078 – 1148 AD). • Meenakshi Temple: Is located in Madurai in Tamil Nadu dedicated to Sundareswar (form of Lord Shiva) and Meenakshi (form of Goddess Parvati). The main sanctum sanctorum is believed to be more than 3500 years old. • Mahabalipuram temples: Mamallapuram, the city of Mamalla, is after the title of great Pallava ruler Narasimhavarman-I (AD 630-68). • Qutab Minar: In red and buff standstone is the highest tower in India. Qutub-ud-din-Aibak laid the foundation of Minar in AD 1199.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1984]

153. Match the dances and the States of their origin in the following list LIST-I : LIST-II
A. Kathakali : 1. Orissa
B. Odissi : 2. Kerala
C. Bharatanatyam : 3. Tamil Nadu
D. Kuchipudi : 4. Andhra Pradesh
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 2 1 4 3 (b) 1 2 3 4
(c) 2 4 1 3 (d) 2 1 3 4
Ans. (d)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1983]

154. Which of the following is correct?
1. Shore temple of : Pallavas Mahabalipuram
2. Kailasa temple of Ellora : Rashtrakutas
3. Khajuraho temples : Chandellas
Codes :
(a) None is correct (b) Only 1 is correct
(c) Only 2, 3 are correct (d) All are correct
Ans. (d) Shore Temple: Is a standing testimonial to the regal heritage of India located at Mahabalipuram. Built in the 7th century, Shore Temple depicts the royal taste of Pallava dynasty. • The Kailasa temple: Is one of the largest rockcut ancient Hindu temples located in Ellora, Maharashtra. A megalith carved out of one single rock, it is considered one of the most remarkable cave temples in India because of its size, architecture and sculptural treatment. Its construction is generally attributed to the 8th century Rashtrakuta king Krishna I. • The Khajuraho Group of Monuments: Is a group of Hindu and Jain temples in Madhya Pradesh. They are one of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in India. The temples are famous for their nagara-style architectural symbolism and their erotic sculptures. Most Khajuraho temples were built between 950 and 1050 by the Chandela dynasty.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1983]

155. Match the following :
A. Ravi Shanker : 1. Painter
B. Ravi Verma : 2. Tabla
C. Alla Rakha : 3. Sarod
D. Ali Akbar Khan : 4. Sitar
The correct match is :
(a) 1 3 2 4 (b) 2 3 1 4
(c) 3 1 2 4 (d) 4 1 2 3
Ans. (d)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1983]

156. Mahabalipuram temples were built by
(a) Pallavas (b) Cheras
(c) Cholas (d) Pandyas
Ans. (a) Mamallapuram tempoles are built by great Pallava ruler Narasimhavarman-I (AD 630- 68).
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1982]

157. Who wrote Vande Mataram?
(a) Rabindra Nath Tagore
(b) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
(c) Subhash Chandra Bose
(d) Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Ans. (d) Penned originally in Sanskrit by Shri Bankimchandra Chattyopaddhay, the song was written in 1876 and quickly became an inspiration for the Indian freedom fighters following its appearance in the ace novelist’s Bengali novel ‘Anand Math’ (published in 1882).
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1981]

158. Bhagvad Gita was originally written in which language?
(a) Pali (b) Sanskrit
(c) Hindi (d) Prakrit
Ans. (b) The Bhagavad Gita is a 700-verse Hindu scripture in Sanskrit that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata (chapters 25 – 42 of the 6th book of Mahabharata.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1981]

159. The first month of the Saka era is
(a) Chaitra (b) Vaishakha
(c) Phalguna (d) Pausha
Ans. (a) The Indian National Calendar is based on both lunar and solar years. This calendar was introduced in 1957 in a government push for all of India to use the same calendar, but various traditional calendars are also used. • The national calendar based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar. • Dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of the Gregorian calendar, 1 Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1981]

160. Sultanates of Delhi have taken which of the following in their buildings from the ancient architecture?
(a) Mehrab (b) Gumbaj
(c) Arched openings (d) Decoration figures
Ans. (c) We get quite a few examples of arch-like openings in the Buddhist rock cut architecture of ancient India. • One of the earliest specimens of such ‘arches’ can be found in the Barabar Caves in Bihar (3rd century BC). Islamic architecture had traditionally employed arches and domes in the construction of moques and tombs. They had the knowledge of the true arch.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1980]

161. Thyagaraja of 18th century was
(a) The greatest musician who composed his songs in Telugu
(b) The greatest Kathak dancer
(c) The greatest playwright of Tamil
(d) The greatest Sanskrit poet
Ans. (a) Tyagaraja composed thousands of devotional compositions, most in Telugu and in praise of Lord Rama, many of which remain popular today.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1980]

162. Ajanta Caves are located in the State of
(a) Maharashtra (b) Gujarat
(c) Tamil Nadu (d) West Bengal
Ans. (a) The Ajanta Caves are situated in Aurangabad, Maharashtra. The caves attained the name from a nearby village named Ajanta located about 12 km.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1979]

163. Black Pagoda is in
(a) Egypt (b) Konark
(c) Madurai (d) None of these
Ans. (b) Konark Sun Temple, commonly known as Konark is situated in the eastern state of Odisha (earlier known as Orissa), India and is one of the eminent tourist attractions. Konark houses a massive temple dedicated to the Sun God. This temple was also known as ’BLACK PAGODA’ due to its dark color and used as a navigational landmark by ancient sailors to Odisha.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1979]

164. Which of the following is a dance- drama?
(a) Kathakali (b) Bharatnatyam
(c) Odissi (d) Manipuri
Ans. (a) Kathakali is one of the oldest theatre forms in the world originated in the area of southwestern India now known as the state of Kerala.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1979]

165. Which is not the Indo-Aryan language?
(a) Gujarati (b) Tamil
(c) Oriya (d) Marathi
Ans. (b) Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of South India and North-east Sri Lanka.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1979]

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