# Chapter 13 Science & Technology

1. With reference to communication technologies, what is/are the difference/differences between LTE (Long-Term Evolution) and VoLTE (Voice over Long-Term Evolution)?
1. LTE is commonly marketed as 3G and VoLTE is commonly marketed as advanced 3G.
2. LTE is data-only technology and VoLTE is voice-only technology.
Select the correct answer using the code given below
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (d) VoLTE allows an operator to offer both voice and data over a 4G LTE network. The big advantage of VoLTE is that call quality is superior to 3G and 2G connections (through which voice is usually routed) as much more data can be transferred via 4G. – From above statement, we can infer: VOLTE associated with 4g. VOLTE allows both data and voice so 2 is wrong.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2019]

2. In The context of digital technologies for entertainment, consider the following statements :
1. In Augmented Reality (AR), a simulated environment is created and the physical world is completely shut out.
2. In Virtual Reality (VR), images generated from the computer are projected onto real life objects or surroundings.
3. AR allows individual to be present in the world and improves the experience using the camera of smartphone or PC.
4. VR closes the world, and transposes an individual, providing complete immersion experience.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 and 4
(c) 1,2 and 3 (d) 4 only
Ans. (b) Virtual Reality: computer-generated simulation of reallife environments that are primarily achieved with the use of headsets. When worn, the user’s vision and hearing are stimulated to provide realistic experiences. – Augmented Reality: superimposition of computergenerated images on existing environments to make them more interactive. It is utilised in the form of applications for mobile devices such as Pokemon GO. So, 2 is wrong. This eliminates A and C. Based on the same sentence, 3 is correct. So, B is the answer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2019]

3. Consider the following statements about a digital signature:
1. An electronic record that identifies the certifying authority issuing it.
2. Used to serve as a proof of identity of an individual to access information of server on Internet.
3. an electronic method of signing an electronic document and ensuring that the original content is unchanged.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only (d) 1,2 and 3
Ans. (c) As per the Corporate Affairs Ministry website, Digital Signature means an electronic signature useful to authenticate the identity of the sender of a message or the signer of an electronic document. This ensures that the original content of the document is not changed. The other statements are related to Digital Signature Certificates (DSC) which is a separate mechanism.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2019]

4. In the context of wearable technology, which of the following tasks is/are accomplished by wearable devices?
1. Location identification of a person
2. Sleep monitoring of a person
3. Assisting the hearing impaired person Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (d) Wearable devices such as smart watches can track GPS location of a person and monitor his heart rate and sleeping pattern. There is only one option D where they’re together. – But just to crosscheck validity of third statement: 2018-Feb theHindu: ReSound company’s newest product, a hearing aid, LiNX 3D was named an Honoree in both the Accessible Tech and Wearable Tech categories at Consumer Electronics Show (CES), in Las Vegas.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2019]

5. Consider the following pairs of Terms sometimes seen in news vs Context /Topic:
1. Belle II experiment: Artificial Intelligence
2. Blockchain technology: Digital/ Cryptocurrency
3. CRISPR – Cas9: Particle Physics Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched ?
(a) 1 and 3 only (b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (b) • CRISPR, a new genome editing tool, could transform the field of biology. It allows scientists to edit genomes with unprecedented precision. So, 3 is wrong, CRISPR is definitely not associated with Particle Physics. This eliminates A, C and (D) Thus we are left with answer “B: only 2”
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2018]

6. When the alarm of your smartphone rings in the morning, you wake up and tap it to stop the alarm which causes your geyser to be switched on automatically. The smart min-or in your bathroom shows the day’s weather and also indicates the level of water in your overhead tank. After you take some groceries from your refrigerator for making breakfast, it recognises the shortage of stock in it and places an order for the supply of fresh grocery items.
When you step out of your house and lock the door, all lights, fans, geysers and AC machines get switched off automatically. On your way to office, your car warns you about traffic congestion ahead and suggests an alternative route, and if you are late for a meeting, it sends a- message to your office accordingly. In the context of emerging communication technologies, which one of the following term” best applies to the above scenario?

(a) Border Gateway Protocol
(b) Internet of Things
(c) Internet Protocol
(d) Virtual Private Network
Ans. (b) The IoT is the network of physical objects which are accessed through the Internet. Internet of Things (IoT) has a broad scope, a heart patient can do heart monitoring easily, farm animals can be easily sensed with a help of biochip transponder, an automobile that has built-in sensors can alert the driver when tire pressure is low. So, “B” is the correct term related to above passage.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2018]

7. In which of the following areas can GPS technology be used?
1. Mobile phone operations
2. Banking operations
3. Controlling the power grids Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (d) • 2018: Government’s EASE framework for Public sector Banks provides for developing mobile app to locate nearest ATMs (so that can be possible only via GPS.) In 2016, PNB bank had already launched android mobile apps enabling the customer to locate nearest PNB ATM using GPS. so, yes second statement is right, GPS can indeed be used in Banking operations. • 2016: The Department of Telecom has mandated that mobile phones sold in India will come with a dedicated ‘panic button’ and Global Positioning System (GPS) facility that can be used to send out a signal in case of distress. This is aimed at improving the safety of women and ensuring a quick response from security agencies. So, first statement is right. Thus we are left with correct answer, D: 1, 2 and 3.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2018]

8. The terms ‘Wanna Cry, Petya and Eternal Blue’ sometimes mentioned in the news recently are related to
(a) Exo-planets (b) Crypto-currency
(c) Cyber attacks (d) Mini satellites
Ans. (c) • Wannacry ransomware locks user’s devices and prevents them from accessing data and software until a certain ransom is paid to its creator. Like WannaCry, “Petya” worm spreads rapidly through networks that use Microsoft Windows, and demands $300 paid in bitcoin to unlock your infected P(C) EternalBlue is the name given to a software vulnerability in Microsoft’s Windows operating system, because of which aforementioned ransomwares sprea(d) So, all these terms are related to cybersecurity. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2018] 9. “3D printing” has applications in which of the following? 1. Preparation of confectionery items 2. Manufacture of bionic ears 3. Automotive industry 4. Reconstructive surgeries 5. Data processing technologies Select the correct answer using the code given below : (a) 1, 3 and 4 only (b) 2, 3 and 5 only (c) 1 and 4 only (d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Ans. (d) Bioprinting process in which living tissues can be 3d-printed using stem-cell containing bioink. This means 3D printing has applications in bionic ears ( 2) and reconstructive surgeries ( 4). There is only one option where 2 and 4 are together i.e. Option D: all statements correct. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2018] 10. The identity platform ‘Aadhaar’ provides open “Application Programming Interfaces (APIs)”. What does it imply? 1. It can be integrated into any electronic device. 2. Online authentication using iris is possible. Which of the statements given above is/are correct ? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Ans. (c) First statement says ‘any electronic device’ but VHS player or digital alarm could not be used used for Aadhar authentication so some felt first statement is wrong, and accordingly, the answer could be B or D. However, the features were lifted verbatim from Nandan Nilekani’s Blog in TimesofIndia in 2016, where he said, ” Aadhaar provides open Application Programming Interfaces or APIs, which can be integrated easily into any electronic device. These APIs enable online authentication using a fingerprint or iris.” Therefore both statements are right (Option c), and UPSC has also kept ‘c’ as the official answer. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2018] 11. With reference to the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), consider the following statements : 1. IRNSS has three satellites in geostationary and four satellites in geosynchronous orbits. 2. IRNSS covers entire India and about 5500 sq. km beyond its borders. 3. India will have its own satellite navigation system with full global coverage by the middle of 2019. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) None Ans. (a) • In IRNSS, Out of the seven satellites of space segment; four satellites are in geosynchronous orbit and three satellites are in geostationary orbit. So 1st statement is right. “D” is eliminate(d) • IRNSS covers an area of about 1,500 km around Indi(a) So, 2nd statement is wrong. B and C are eliminate(d) Therefore, Answer has to be A) 1 only. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2018] 12. With reference to India’s satellite launch vehicles, consider the following statements: 1. PSLVs launch the satellites useful for Earth resources monitoring whereas GSLVs are designed mainly to launch communication satellites. 2. Satellites launched by PSLV appear to remain permanently fixed in the same position in the sky, as viewed from a particular location on Earth. 3. GSLV Mk III is a four-staged launch l vehicle with the first and third stages l using solid rocket motors; and the second and fourth stages using liquid rocket engines. Which of the statements given above is/are correct.? (a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 (c) 1 and 2 (d) 3 only Ans. (a) • ISRO developed PSLV to launch satellites into polar orbits and GSLV to launch geosynchronous satellites into geostationary orbits. Geostationary satellites orbit around the earth in 24 hours and since the earth rotates with the same period, the satellite would appear fixed from any point on earth. So, statement 2 is wrong. • GSLV is a 3-stage launch vehicle, where first 2 stages are similar to PSLV with same solid and liquid nature of fuel but the third stage is completely different, i.e., cryogenic stage. So third statement is WRONG. By elimination, we’re left with answer A: only 1. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2018] 13. What is the application of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) Technology? (a) Production of biolarvicides (b) Manufacture of biodegradable plastics (c) Reproductive cloning of animals (d) Production of organisms free of diseases Ans. (c) Encyclopedia Britannica says SCNT technology was used for cloning the sheep “Dolly”. And over the years, theHindu has been running news of cloning of buffalos by Somatic Cell technology. So, “C” is the answer. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2017] 14. With reference to agriculture in India, how can the technique of ‘genome sequencing’, often seen in the news, be used in the immediate future? 1. Genome sequencing can be used to identify genetic markers for disease resistance and drought tolerance in various crop plants. 2. This technique helps in reducing the time required to develop new varieties of crop plants. 3. It can be used to decipher the host-pathogen relationships in crops. Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans. (d) Since UPSC has combined the preliminary exam of civil services and forest services, so few such odd questions are expected. There is no need to lose sleep, if you can’t solve it. But let’s do it: NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 6: “Molecular Basis of Inheritance”. It explains the benefits of human genome sequencing that – “It is the sequence of bases in DNA that determines the genetic information of a given organism. So, learning about the DNA sequences can lead to an understanding of their natural capabilities that can be applied toward solving challenges in health care, agriculture, energy production, environmental remediation.” So on that logic, statement 1 and 3 should be possible, and if 1 and 3 are possible then statement 2 ought to be possible as well So answer D- all three statements are correct. Searching academic papers on Google Scholar engineer confirms that D is the answer. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2017] 15. Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) are used to create digital display in many devices. What are the advantages of OLED displays over Liquid Crystal displays? 1. OLED displays can be fabricated on flexible plastic substrates. 2. Roll-up displays embedded in clothing can be made using OLEDs. 3. Transparent displays are possible using OLEDs. Select the correct answer using the code given below (a) 1 and 3 only (b) 2 only (c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) None of the above statements is correct Ans. (c) OLEDs can be formed on any substrate such as glasses, cloths, plastic and other bendable substrates. So accordingly, all three are possible. Answer “C”. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2017] 16. With reference to ‘LiFi’, recently in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct? (1) It uses light as the medium for high-speed data transmission. (2) It is a wireless technology and is several time faster than ‘WiFi. Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Ans. (c) Li-Fi uses light as the medium for high-speed data transmission. It uses wireless technology and several time faster than ‘Wi-Fi’ data transmission technology. Hence, both statements are correct. C is the answer. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 17. In the context of the developments in bioinformatics, the term ‘transcriptome’, sometimes seen in the news, refer to (a) a range of enzymes used in genome editing (b) the full range of mRNA molecules expressed by an organism (c) the description of the mechanism of gene expression (d) A mechanism of genetic mutation taking place in cells Ans. (b) A transcriptome is the full range of messenger RNA, or mRNA, molecules expressed by an organism. The term “transcriptome” can also be used to describe the array of mRNA transcripts produced in a particular cell or tissue type. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 18. Why does the Government of India promote the use of ‘Neem-coated Urea’ in agriculture? (a) Release of Neem oil in the soil increases nitrogen fixation by the soil micro-organisms (b) Neem coating slows down the rate of dissolution of urea in the soil (c) Nitrous oxide, which is a greenhouse gas, is not at all released into atmosphere by crop fields (d) It is a combination of a weedicide and a fertilizer for particular crops Ans. (b) Since a few years, government has been promoting ‘Neem coated Urea’ relentlessly through its programs and regulation. Neem coated Urea has a number of benefits compared to normal Urea that has been in the use since a long time. Among others, the major benefit for which government has started promoting Neem coated urea is that it has been scientifically established that Neem oil serves as an effective inhibitor if coated on Urea. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 19. The FAO accords the status of ‘Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS)’ to traditional agricultural systems. What is the overall goal of this initiative? 1. To provide modern technology, training in modern farming methods and financial support to local communities of identified GIAHS so as to greatly enhance their agricultural productivity 2. To identify and safeguard eco-friendly traditional farm practices and their associated landscapes, agricultural biodiversity and knowledge systems of the local communities 3. To provide Geographical Indication status to all the varieties of agricultural produce in such undentified GIAHS Select the correct answer using the code given below. (a) 1 and 3 only (b) 2 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans. (d) The GIAHS Initiative promotes public understanding, awareness, national and international recognition of Agricultural Heritage systems. The GIAHS initiative provides modern technology, training in modern farming methods and financial support to local communities of identified GIAHS so as to greatly enhance their agricultural productivity. Its one of the objectives is to identify and safeguard eco-friendly traditional farm practices and their associated landscapes, agricultural biodiversity and knowledge systems of the local communities. It also provides Geographical Indication status to all the varieties of agricultural produce in such undentified GIAHS. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 20. ‘Project Loon’, sometimes seen in the news, is related to– (a) Waste management technology (b) Wireless communication technology (c) Solar power production technology (d) Water conservation technology Ans. (b) Project Loon is primarily a research and development project on wireless communication technology being developed by X (formerly Google X) with the mission of providing Internet access to rural and remote areas. The project uses highaltitude balloons placed in the stratosphere at an altitude of about 18 km to create an aerial wireless network with up to 4G-LTE speeds. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 21. Which one of the following is the best description of ‘INS Astradharini’, that was in the news recently? (a) Amphibious warfare ship (b) Nuclear-powered submarine (c) Torpedo launch and recovery vessel (d) Nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Ans. (c) INS Astradharini is an indigenously designed and built torpedo launcher and recovery vessel built by Shoft Shipyard for the Indian Navy. She was commissioned to Navy Service on 6th October 2015 at the Naval Base in Visakhapatnam. After commissioning, the ship entered the Eastern Naval Command. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 22. ‘Net metering’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of promoting the (a) production and use of solar energy by the households/consumers (b) use of piped natural gas in the kitchens of households (c) installation of CNG kits in motor- cars (d) installation of water meters in urban households Ans. (a) Net metering is a billing mechanism that credits solar energy system owners for the electricity they add to the grid. For example, if a residential customer has a PV system on the home’s rooftop, it may generate more electricity than the home uses during daylight hours. Net metering allows residential and commercial customers who generate their own electricity from solar power to feed electricity they do not use back into the grid. Many states have passed net metering laws. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 23. Which of the following statements is/are correct? Viruses can infect (1) Bacteria (2) Fungi (3) Plants Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans. (b) Virus can infect all those given in options- Bacteria, Fungi as well as Plants. Hence, D is the correct answer. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 24. What is ‘Greased Lightning-10 (GL-10)’, recently in the news? (a) Electric plane tested by NASA (b) Solar-powered two-seater aircraft designed by Japan (c) Space observatory launched by China (d) Reusable rocket designed by ISRO Ans. (a) The GL-10 Greased Lightning is a hybrid dieselelectric tiltwing aircraft tested by NASA. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 25. On which of the following can you find the Bureau of Energy Efficiency Star Label? 1. Ceiling fans 2. Electric geysers 3. Tubular fluorescent lamps Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans. (d) All can be found with label of Bureau of Energy Efficiency Star. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 26. With reference to ‘Bitcoins’ sometimes seen in the news, which of the following statements is/are correct? 1. Bitcoins are tracked by the Central Banks of the countries. 2. Anyone with a Bitcoin address can send and receive Bitcoins from anyone else with a Bitcoin address. 3. Online payments can be sent without either side knowing the identity of the other. Select the correct answer using the code given below. (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans. (b) Presently, Bitcoin are not being tracked by central bank of any country. Anonymity is one of the characteristics of digital currency such as Bitcoin and thus, online payments can be sent without either side knowing the identity of the other. Anyone can transact with bitcoins with a bitcoin address. Therefore, only the 2nd and 3rd statement are correct. B is the correct answer. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 27. India is an important member of the ‘International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor’. If this experiment succeeds, what is the immediate advantage for India? (a) It can use thorium in place of uranium for power generation (b) It can attain a global role in satellite navigation (c) It can drastically improve the efficiency of its fission reactors in power generation (d) It can build fusion reactors for power generation Ans. (d) ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world’s largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment. It is an experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactor that is being built next to the Cadarache facility in Saint-Paul-lès-Durance, south of France. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 28. In which of the following regions of India are shale gas resources found? 1. Cambay Basin 2. Cauvery basin 3. Krishna-Godavari Basin Select the correct answer using the code given below: (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 only (c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans. (d) Substantial reserves of Shell gas have been found in Cambay basin, Cauvery basin as well as in Krishna Godavari basin. Hence D is the correct answer. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 29. In the cities of our country, which among the following atmospheric gases are normally considered in calculating the value of Air Quality Index? 1. Carbon dioxide 2. Carbon monoxide 3. Nitrogen dioxide 4. Sulphur Dioxide 5. Methane Select the correct answer using the code given below (a) 1, 2 and 3 only (b) 2, 3 and 4 only (c) 1, 4 and 5 only (d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 Ans. (c) Carbon dioxide is presently not being monitored by recently launched Air Quality Index (AQI) by MOEFCC. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 30. Consider the following statements: 1, The International Solar Alliance was launched at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in 2015. 2. The Alliance includes all the member countries of the United Nations. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 only (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Ans. (a) What is ‘International Solar Alliance (ISA)’? The International Solar Alliance is a common platform for cooperation among sun-rich countries lying fully or partially between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn who are seeking to massively ramp up solar energy, thereby helping to bend the global greenhouse emissions curve whilst providing clean and cheap energy. The initiative was launched at the UN Climate Change Conference in Paris at the end of 2015 by the President of France and the Prime Minister of India. UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016] 31. Consider the following statements: The Mangalyaan launched by ISRO 1. Is also called the Mars Orbiter Mission 2. Made India the second country to have a spacecraft orbit the Mars after USA 3. Made India the only country to be successful in making its spacecraft orbits the Mars in its very first attempt. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 Ans. (c) Mangalyaan is ISRO’s inter-planetary mission that also known as “Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM)”. India is not the second but fourth country to launch spacecraft in orbits of Mars after the USA. However, India is the first country to launch successfully spacecraft into orbits of the Mars in its very first attempt. C is the correct answer. The total cost of the mission was approximately 450 Crore (US$73 million), making it the least-expensive Mars mission to date.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016]

32. With reference to ‘Astrosat’, the astronomical observatory launched by India, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Other than USA and Russia, India is the only country to have launched a similar observatory into space.
2. Astrosat is a 2000 kg satellite placed in an orbit at 1650 km above the surface of the Earth.
Select the correct answer using the code given below
(a) 1 only (b) 2 Only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (d) Apart from USA and Russia, the Japanese also does have similar observatory into space. ASTROSAT is about 1500 kg satellite placed in an orbit of 1650 km above the earth. region
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2016]

33. The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee is constituted under the
(a) Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006
(b) Geographical Indications of Goods
(Registration and Protection) Act, 1999
(c) Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
(d) Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
Ans. (c) The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC) is the apex body constituted in the Ministry of Environment and Forests under ‘Rules for Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous Microorganisms/Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells 1989’, under the Environment Protection Act, 1986. It is the apex body to accord notified under Rules 1989, for approval of activities involving large scale use of hazardous microorganisms and recombinants in research and industrial production from the environmental angle. The GEAC is also responsible for approval of proposals relating to release of genetically engineered organisms and products into the environment, including experimental field trials (Biosafety Research Level trial-I and II known as BRL-I and BRL-II).
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2015]

34. The term ‘IndARC’ sometimes seen in the news, is the name of?
(a) an indigenously developed radar system inducted into Indian Defence
(b) India’s satellite to provide services to the countries of Indian Ocean Rim
(c) a scientific establishment set up by India in Antarctic region
(d) India’s underwater observatory to scientifically study the Arctic region
Ans. (d) The interaction between the Arctic ice shelf and the deep sea and its influence on climate shift requires detailed studies over an annual seasonal cycle. Therefore, IndARC, the India’s first underwater moored observatory, has been deployed in the Kongsfjorden fjord, half way between Norway and the North Pole. It will collect real- time data on seawater temperature, salinity, ocean currents and other vital parameters of the fjord.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2015]

35. In which of the following activities are Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites used?
1. Assessment of crop productivity
2. Locating ground water resources
3. Mineral exploration
4. Telecommunications
5. Traffic studies
Select the correct answer using the code given below
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only (b) 4 and 5 only
(c) 1 and 2 only (d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
Ans. (a) For telecommunications geo-stationary satellites are used. Hence, you can easily eliminate statement 4, which then also eliminates statement 5 (because both occur together). Under remote sensing, Hyperspectral imaging produces an image where each pixel has full spectral information with imaging narrow spectral bands over a contiguous spectral range. Hyperspectral imagers are used in various applications including mineralogy, biology, defence, and environmental measurements. So, the only possible answer can be A.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2015]

36. With reference to ‘fuel cells’ in which hydrogenrich fuel and oxygen are used to generate electricity, consider the following statements :
1. If pure hydrogen is used as a fuel, the fuel cell emits heat and water as by-products.
2. Fuel cells can be used for powering buildings and not for small devices like laptop computers.
3. Fuel cells produce electricity in the form of Alternating Current (AC).
Which of the statements given above is / are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (a) The purpose of a fuel cell is to produce an electrical current that can be directed outside the cell to do work, such as powering an electric motor or illuminating a light bulb or a city. One great appeal of fuel cells is that they generate electricity with very little pollution–much of the hydrogen and oxygen used in generating electricity ultimately combines to form a harmless byproduct, namely water alongwith releasing heat. A single fuel cell generates a tiny amount of direct current (DC) electricity. In practice, many fuel cells are usually assembled into a stack. If alternating current (AC) is needed, the DC output of the fuel cell must be routed through a conversion device called an inverter.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2015]

37. With reference to bio-toilets used by the Indian Railways, consider the following statements:
1. The decomposition of human waste in the biotoilets is initiated by a fungal inoculum.
2. Ammonia and water vapour are the only end products in this decomposition which are released into the atmosphere.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (d) Under the bio-toilet concept of the DRDO, the biodigester tank in every toilet is filled with inoculums containing four types of bacteria. The water trap system in the toilet prevents air from getting into the tank, the human waste is processed by anaerobic bacteria in seven chambers in the tank and the methane gas is allowed to escape into the air.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2015]

38. With reference to the use of nanotechnology in health sector, which of the following statements is/ are correct?
1. Targeted drug delivery is made possible by nanotechnology
2. Nanotechnology can largely contribute to gene therapy
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (c) Nanosystems have significantly different biological properties from large-sized systems (e.g. implants or microparticles) that could be used effectively to overcome problems in drug and gene therapy. In drug therapy, we face the problems of inefficacy or nonspecific effects; hence, nanosystems are being developed for targeted drug therapy. In gene therapy using non-viral systems, the main issues are relatively transient gene expression and lower efficiency than viral vectors. Research efforts have focused on understanding the barriers in gene delivery so that non-viral systems can be developed that are as effective as viral systems in gene transfection.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2015]

39. With reference to ‘fly ash’ produced by the power plants using the coal as fuel, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Fly ash can be used in the production of bricks for building construction
2. Fly ash can be used as a replacement for some of the Portland cement contents of concrete
3. Fly ash is made up of silicon dioxide and calcium oxide only, and does not contain any toxic elements.
Select the correct answer using the code given below
(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 (d) 3 only
Ans. (a) Fly ash from coal-fired thermal power stations is an excellent potential raw material for the manufacture of construction material like blended cement, fly ash bricks, mosaic tiles and hollow blocks. It also has other, high volume applications and can be used for paving roads (Polybend roads), building embankments, and mine fills. Fly ash contains trace concentrations of heavy metals and other substances that are known to be detrimental to health in sufficient quantities. Potentially toxic trace elements in coal include arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, barium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, radium, selenium, thorium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2015]

40. With reference to ‘Near Field Communication (NFC) Technology’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is a contactless communication technology that uses electromagnetic radio fields
2. NFC is designed for use by devices which can be at a distance of even a metre from each other
3. NFC can use encryption when sending sensitive information.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (c) Near field communication, abbreviated NFC, is a form of contactless communication based on electromagnetic radio fields between devices like smartphones or tablets. Contactless communication allows a user to wave the smartphone over a NFC compatible device to send information without needing to touch the devices together or go through multiple steps setting up a connection. Bluetooth can connect to devices up to 32 feet away, yet near field communication can connect to devices at a maximum distance of 4 centimeters on average.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2015]

41. In the context of modern scientific research, consider the following statements about ‘IceCube’, a particle detector located at South Pole, which was recently in the news :
1. It is the world’s largest neutrino detector, encompassing a cubic kilometre of ice.
2. It is a powerful telescope to search for dark matter
3. It is buried deep in the ice.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 only
Ans. (d) IceCube is a particle detector at the South Pole that records the interactions of a nearly massless subatomic particle called the neutrino. IceCube searches for neutrinos from the most violent astrophysical sources: events like exploding stars, gamma-ray bursts, and cataclysmic phenomena involving black holes and neutron stars. The IceCube telescope is a powerful tool to search for dark matter and could reveal the physical processes associated with the enigmatic origin of the highest energy particles in nature.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2015]

42. The term ‘Goldilocks Zone’ is often seen in the news in the context of
(a) the limits of habitable zone above the surface of the Earth
(b) regions inside the Earth-like planets in outer space
(c) search for the Earth-like planets in outer space
(d) search for meteorites containing precious metals
Ans. (c) In astronomy and astrobiology, the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), or simply the habitable zone (Goldilocks Zone), is the region around a star within which planetary-mass objects with sufficient atmospheric pressure can support liquid water at their surfaces. Researchers are finding that life can thrive in some unexpected places.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2015]

43. There is some concern regarding the nanoparticles of some chemical elements that are used by the industry in the manufacture of various products. Why?
1. They can accumulate in the environment, and contaminate water and soil.
2. They can enter the food chains.
3. They can trigger the production of free radicals.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (d) Nano particles can accumulate in the environment and contaminate the water and soil as well. They also can enter in food chains and food webs. Nano particles are also, due to its hyper reactivity, have been observed to release production of free radicals. The greater chemical reactivity of nonmaterial can result in increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including free radicals. Hence, all are correct statements and (d) is the correct answer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

44. With reference to two non-conventional energy sources called ‘coalbed methane’ and ‘shale gas’, consider the following ‘statements:
1. Coalbed methane is the pure methane gas extracted from coal seams, while shale gas is a mixture of propane and butane only that can be extracted from fine-grained sedimentary rocks.
2. In India abundant coalbed methane sources exist, but so far no shale gas sources have been found.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (d) Coalbead Methane(CBM) contains 95% pure methane and 5% hydrocarbons and other impurities such as carbon di oxides. The shale gas reserves have been found in number of places in India like in Krishna-Godavari basin, Cauvery basin, etc. Hence, (d) is the correct answer. :
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

45. With reference to Agni-IV Missile, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is a surface-to-surface missile.
2. It is fuelled by liquid propellant only.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (a) Agni-IV Missile‘s range lies in 3000-4000km. Thus, the 3rd statement is incorrect. Agni-IV Missile is a surface to surface missile, it is two stage solid fuels missile system. Hence, only 1st statement is correct.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

46. Which of the following pair is/are correctly matched?
Spacecraft : Purpose
1. Cassini-Huygens : Orbiting the Venus and transmitting data to the Earth
2. Messenger : Mapping and investigating the Mercury
3. Voyager 1 and 2 : Exploring the outer solar system
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (b) Cassini–Huygens is an unmanned spacecraft sent to the planet Saturn. Thus, 1st match is incorrect. Rest two are correctly matched. Hence, (b) is the correct answer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

47. In addition to fingerprint scanning, which of the following can be used in the biometric identification of a person?
1. Iris scanning 2. Retinal scanning
3. Voice recognition
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (d) All of the above can be used for purpose of biometric identification. Hence, D is the correct answer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

48. Consider the following statements :
1. Maize can be used for the production of starch.
2. Oil extracted from maize can be a feedstock for biodiesel.
3. Alcoholic beverages can be produced by using maize.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (d) All are correct statements. Hence, (d) is the correct answer. Maize grain makes a good biofuel feedstock due to its starch content and its comparatively easy conversion to ethanol. Infrastructure to plant, harvest, and store corn in mass quantities benefits the corn ethanol industry. Unlike sugarcane, in which squeezed sugar water can be directly fermented, corn starch must be cooked with alpha and gluco-amylase enzymes to convert the starch to simple sugars.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

49. Consider the following techniques/phenomena:
1. Budding and grafting in fruit plants
2. Cytoplasmic male sterility
3. Gene silencing
Which of the above is/are used to create transgenic crops?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3 (d) None
Ans. (b) Budding and grafting is a method of physical modifications of plant part and has nothing to do with genes of plants. Therefore, 1st statement does not help in creating transgenic crops. Cytoplasmic male sterility is an integral part of transgenic operations during creation of transgenic crops. Similarly, gene silencing is also done by scientist to weep out a particular gene from having bearing over the created transgenic crop. Hence, B is the correct answer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

@50. With reference to technologies for solar power production, consider the following statements:
1. ‘Photovoltaic’ is a technology that generates electricity by direct conversion of light into electricity, while “Solar Thermal” is a technology that utilizes the Sun’s rays to generate heat which is further used in electricity generation process.
2. Photovoltaic generates Alternative Current (AC), while Solar Thermal generates Direct Current (DC).
3. India has manufacturing base for Solar Thermal technology, but not for Photovoltaics.
Which of the statements given above is / are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 (d) None
Ans. (a) Photovoltaic generates Direct Current (DC), whereas the solar thermal generates electricity in Alternative Current (AC) form. India has base for Photovoltaic but not for Solar thermal. Hence, only 1st statement is correct. A is the correct option.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2014]

51. The efforts to detect the existence of Higgs boson particle have become frequent news in the recent past. What is /are the importance/importances of discovering this particle?
1. It will enable us to understand as to why elementary particles have mass.
2. It will enables us in the near future to develope the technology to transferring matter from one point to another without traversing the physical space between them.
3. It will enable us to create better fuels for nuclear fission.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (a) It will help us to understand why all the elements have mass. Rests of the statements are not true. Scientists believe that the Higgs boson is the particle that gives all matter its mass. Experts know that elementary particles like quarks and electrons are the foundation upon which all matter in the universe is built.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2013]

52. Recombinant DNA technology (Genetic Engineering) allows genes to be transferred
1. across different species of plants
2. from animals to plants
3. from microorganisms to higher organisms
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (d) Recombinant DNA technology is a revolutionary technological advancement that allows gene transfer across a range of species. Under some conditions, it also allows gene transfer among totally unrelated species too like from animals to plants, one microorganism to higher microorganism, etc. Hence, (d) is the correct answer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2013]

53. Mycorrhizal biotechnology has been used in rehabilitating degraded sites because mycorrhiza enables the plants to
1. resist drought and increase absorptive area
2. tolerate extremes of PH
3. resist disease infestation
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (d) All are correct statements. A mycorrhiza is a symbiotic association composed of a fungus and roots of a vascular plant.In a mycorrhizal association, the fungus colonizes the host plant’s roots, either intracellularly as in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF or AM), or extracellularly as in ectomycorrhizal fungi. They are an important component of soil life and soil chemistry. The association is generally mutualistic, but occasionally weakly pathogenic. They help in quick and large amount of water and minerals absorption from soil.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2013]

54. What are the reasons for the people’s resistance to the introduction of BT brinjal in India?
1. BT brinjal has been created by inserting a gene from a soil fungus into its genome.
2. The seeds of BT brinjal are terminator seeds and therefore, the farmers have to buy the seeds before every season from the seed companies.
3. There is an apprehension that the consumption of BT brinjal may have adverse impact on health.
4. There is some concern that the introduction of BT brinjal may have adverse effect on the biodiversity.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only (b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 3 and 4 only (d) 1,2,3 and 4
Ans. (c) BT brinjal has been created by inserting a gene from soil bacteria (Bacillus thuringiensis) into its genome and NOT soil fungus. Hence, 1st statement is incorrect. Rest all statements are correct. C is the correct option.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2012]

55. To meet its rapidly growing energy demand, some opine that India should pursue research and development on thorium as the future fuel of nuclear energy. In this context what advantage does thorium hold over uranium?
1. Thorium is far more abundant in nature than uranium.
2. On the basis per unit mass of mined mineral, thorium can generate more energy compared to natural uranium.
3. Thorium produces less harmful waste compared to uranium.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 (d) 1,2 and 3
Ans. (d) All of the given statements are true in context of nuclear fuel. According to the UN nuclear agency IAEA, there are many benefits of thorium over uranium, which is currently used in nuclear reactors. Following are some of worth mentioning: •
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2012]

56. Biomass gasification is considered to be one of the sustainable solutions to the power crisis in India. In this context which of the following statements correct?
1. Coconut shells, groundnut shells and rice husk can be used in biomass gasification
2. The combustible gases generated from biomass gasification consist of hydrogen and carbon dioxide only
3. The combustible gases generated from biomass gasification can be used for direct heat generation but not in internal combustion engines.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (a) Cocunut shell, groundnut shells and rice husk are ideal raw materials for biomass gasification. The comustible gases generated from the biomass gastification constitute hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases. Also, the combustible gases generated from the biomass gastification can be used for direct heat generation as well as in direct combustion engines. Hence, only 1st statement is correct. A is the correct option.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2012]

57. Other than resistance to pests, what are the prospects for which genetically engineered plants have been created?
1. To enable them to withstand drought
2. To increase the nutritive value of the produce
3. To enable them to grow and do photosynthesis in spaceships and space stations
4. To increase their shelf life
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 and 4 only
(c) 1,2 and 4 only (d) 1,2,3 and 4
Ans. (c) The 3rd statement, that says that one of the objectives of the transgenic crops id to enable plants to do photosynthesis in spaceships and space stations is incorrect. Because, it is scientifically impossible to conduct photosynthesis in spaceships and space stations. Moreover, this has never been objective of agro scientists. One of the important objectives of transgenic crops is to increase the shelf life of plants.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2012]

58. Which of the following is/are cited by the scientists as evidence/evidences for the continued expansion of universe?
1. Detection of microwaves in space
2. Observation of redshift phenomenon in space
3. Movement of asteroids in space
4. Occurrence of supernova explosions in space code.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 only
(c) 1 ,3 and 4
(d) None of the above can be cited as evidence.
Ans. (a) Movement of asteroids is normal routine process and does not say anything about expansion or contraction of the universe. On the other hand, observation of red shift phenomenon suggests that there is an expansion in overall universe that causing stress on wavelength of the light. Option A is the correct answer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2012]

59. With reference to ‘stem cells’, frequently in the news which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Stem cells can be derived from mammals only.
2. Stem cells can be used for screening new drugs.
3. Stem cells can be used for medical therapies.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only (d) 1,2 and 3
Ans. (b) Stem cell can be derived from all multi-cellular organisms, including mammals. Stem cell is being widely used by medical researchers for screening new drugs. Stem cell could also be used for medical therapies. Hence, except 1st statement, all statements are correct. Thus, B is the correct option.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2012]

60. Microbial fuel cells are considered a source of sustainable energy. Why?
1. They use living organisms as catalysts to generate electricity from certain substrates.
2. They use a variety of inorganic materials as substrates.
3. They can be installed in waste water treatment plants to cleanse water and produce electricity.
Which of the following statements given above is/ are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1,2,and 3
Ans. (d) Microbial fuel cell is a device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy by the catalytic reaction of microorganisms. The major substrates that have been tried include various kinds of artificial and real wastewaters and lignocellulosic biomass, yet the Electricity generation with anodic sulfide oxidation has been shown, Inorganic and other substrates have been used and is a matter of research. The correct option is D that is 1, 2 as well as 3.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2011]

61. A new optical disc format known as the Bluray disc (Bd) is becoming popular. In what way is it different from the traditional DVD ?
1. DVD supports standard definition video while BD supports high definition video.
2. Compared to a DVD, the BD format has several times more storage capacity.
3. Thickness of BD is 2.4 mm while that of DVD is 1.2 mm.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (b)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2011]

62. A genetically engineered form of brinjal, known as the Bt- brinjal, has been developed. The objective of this is ?
(a) To make it pest-resistant.
(b) To improve its taste and nutritive qualities
(c) To make it drought-resistant
(d) To make its shelf-life longer.
Ans. (a)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2011]

63. What is the difference between blue-tooth and Wi-Fi devices?
(a) Bluetooth uses 2.4 GHz radio frequency band, whereas Wi-Fi can use 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency band.
(b) Bluetooth is used for wireless local area networks (WLAN) only, whereas Wi-Fi is used for wireless wide area networks (WWAN) only.
(c) When information is transmitted between two devices using blue-tooth technology , the devices have to be in the line of sight of each other, but when Wi-Fi technology is used the devices need not be in the line of sight of each other.
(d) The statements (a) and (b) given above are correct in this context.
Ans. (a) Bluetooth uses the microwave radio frequency spectrum in the 2.402 GHz to 2.480 GHz range. Wi- Fi is based upon IEEE 802.11 standards, that uses 2.4, 3.6 and 5 GHz frequency bands. IEEE 802.11 is for implementation of the wireless local area network (WLAN) using the above frequencies and makes the basis Wi-Fi wireless networks. If I say that Wi-fi uses on WWAN ONLY, I am incorrect. I need to say that Wi-Fi allows the deployment of local area networks (LANs) without wires for client devices. So reject option B. Bluetooth doesn’t require line of sight between communicating devices, so reject option C. Correct answer of this question is A.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2011]

64. The surface of a lake in severe winter, but the water at its bottom is still liquid. What is this reason?
(a) Ice is a bad conductor of heat
(b) Since the surface of the lake is at the same temperature as the air, no heat is lost
(c) The density of water is maximum at 4° Celsius
(d) None of the statements a, b, and c given above is correct.
Ans. (a) Its true that the density of water is greatest at 4°C and ice that forms in cold weather forms at the top of the water. But after that it acts as an insulating barrier, preventing the water underneath from getting much colder. This means that Frozen lake surface acts like a insulator preventing heat from the water from escaping and thus keeping the heats of the water trapped.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2011]

65. What is “Virtual private network”?
(a) It is a private computer network of an organization where the remote users can transmit encrypted information through the server of the organization.
(b) It is a computer network across a public internet the provides users access to their organizations network while maintaining the security of the information transmitted.
(c) It is a computer network in which users can access a shared pool of computing resources through a service provider.
(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct description of virtual private network.
Ans. (b) VPN is all about maintaining privacy over the public internet.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2011]

66. Genetically modified “golden rice” has been engineered to meet human nutritional requirements. Which one of the following statements best qualifies golden rice?
(a) The grains have been fortified with genes to provide three times higher grain yield per acre than other high yielding varieties
(b) Its grains contain pro-vitamin A which upon ingestion is converted to vitamin A in the human body
(c) Its modified -genes cause the synthesis of all the nine essential amino acids
(d) Its modified genes cause the fortification of its grains with vitamin D.
Ans. (b) Golden rice is a variety of rice produced through genetic engineering to biosynthesis beta-carotene, a prelursor of vitamin A, in the edible part of rice. It is intended to produce a fortified food to be grown and consumed in areas with a shortage of dietary vitamin A.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2010]

67. Consider the following statements:
1. The satellite Oeeansat-2 launched by India helps in estimating the water vapour content in the atmosphere.
2. predicting the onset of monsoons.
3. monitoring the pollution of coastal waters.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (d)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2010]

68. India-based Neutrino Observatory is included by the Planning Commission as a mega science project under the 11th Five-Year Plan. In this context, consider the following statements:
1. Neutrinos are chargeless elemen¬tary particles that travel close to the speed of light.
2. Neutrinos are created in nuclear reactions of beta decay.
3. Neutrinos have a negligible, but nonzero mass.
4. Trillions of Neutrinos pass through human body every second.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 3 only (b) 1, 2 and 3 only
(c) 2, 3 and 4 (d) 1,2, 3 and 4
Ans. (d)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2010]

69. Consider the following:
1. Bluetooth device 2. Cordless phone
3. Microwave oven 4. Wi-Fi device
Which of the above can operate between 2-4 and 2-
5 GHz range of radio frequency band ?
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 and 4 only
(c) 1,2 and 4 only (d) 1,2, 3 and 4
Ans. (d) All of them operate between 2-4 and 2-5 GHz range.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2010]

70. Recently, LASIK (Laser Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis) procedure is being made popular for vision correction. Which one of the following statements in this context is not correct ?
(a) LASIK procedure is used to correct refractive errors of the eye
(b) It is a procedure that permanently changes the shapes of the cornea
(c) It reduces a person’s dependence on glasses or contact lenses
(d) It is a procedure that can be done on the person of any age
Ans. (d) It is a procedure that can be done on the person of 18 year old or above.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2010]

71. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles produce one of the following as “exhaust”.
(a) NH3 (b) CH4
(c) H2O (d) H2O2
Ans. (c)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2010]

72. Which feature of some species of blue- green algae helps promote them as bio-fertilizers?
(a) They convert atmospheric methane into ammonia which the crop plants can absorb readily
(b) They induce the crop plants to produce the enzymes which help convert atmospheric nitrogen to nitrates
(c) They have the mechanism to convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that the crop plants can absorb readily
(d) They induce the roots of the crop plants to absorb the soil nitrates in larger quantities
Ans. (c) Biofertilizers such as blue green algae such as Nastoc, Anabena etc. converts atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates and hence increase the availability of nitrogen for plants.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2010]

73. Which bacterial strain, developed from natural isolates by genetic manipulations, can be used for treating oil spills?
(a) Agrobacierium (b) Clostridium
(c) Nitrosomonas (d) Pseudomonas
Ans. (d) Pseudomonas is used to treat oil-spills.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2010]

74. With reference to the treatment of cancerous tumours, a tool called cyberknife has been making the news. In this context, which one of the following statements is not correct?
(a) It is a robotic image guided system
(b) It delivers an extremely precise dose of radiation
(c) It has the capability of achieving sub-millimetre accuracy
(d) It can map the spread of tumour in the body
Ans. (d) The cyber knife robotic radiosurgery system is a non-invasive alternative to surgery for the treatment of both cancerous or noncancerous tumour anywhere in the body.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2010]

75. Which among the following do/does not belong/ belongs to the GSM family of wireless technologies?
(a) EDGE (b) LTE
(c) DSL (d) Both EDGE and LTE
Ans. (c) GSM is a digital mobile telephony system. DSL (digital subscribes line) modem is a device used to connect a computer or routes to a telephone line which provides the digital subscribes line service for connectiving to the internet.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2010]

76. WIMAX is related to which one of the following?
(a) Biotechnology
(b) Space technology
(c) Missile technology
(d) Communication technology
Ans. (d) WIMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) is a family of wireless communications standards initially designed to provide 30 to 40 megabit-per-second data transfer rates, with the 2011 update providing up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed station. It is essentially related with 4th Generation (4G technology) communication technology. W
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2009]

77. Consider the following statements:
1. The Shourya missile files with a speed of more than 8 Mach.
2. The range of Shourya missile is more than 1600 km
Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (c) The Shourya missile is a canister launched hypersonic (having Mach number 5-20) surface-tosurface tactical missile developed by the Indian Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). It has a range of 750 to 1,900 km and is capable of carrying a payload of one ton conventional or nuclear warhead. Hence, both statements are correct.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2009]

78. In the context of Indian news in recent times, what is MCX – SX?
(a) A kind of supercomputer
(b) Title of Moon Impact Probe
(c) Stock Exchange
(d) Nuclear-Powered submarine
Ans. (c) Metropolitan Stock Exchange of India Ltd. (MSEI), formerly known as MCX Stock Exchange Ltd. (MCXSX), is India’s youngest and one of the three stock exchanges recognized by country’s securities market regulator – Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2009]

79. In the year 2008, which one of the following conducted a complex scientific experiment in which sub-atomic particles were accelerated to nearly the speed of light?
(a) European Space Agency
(b) European Organization for Nuclear Research
(c) International Atomic Energy Agency
(d) National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Ans. (b) The European Organization for Nuclear Research known as CERN derived from the name “Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire”, is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Established in 1954, the organization is based in a northwest suburb of Geneva on the Franco–Swiss border. In the year 2008, CERN embarked upon a pathbreaking complex research project in which subatomic particles were accelerated to nearly the speed of light in a narrow long tunnel in vacuum. The project was aimed to verify the popular notion ‘Big Bang Theory’ of origin of the earth. The project is famously known as “Large Hadrons Collider (LHC)”.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2009]

80. Consider the following statements:
1. INS Sindhughosh is an aircraft carrier.
2. INS Viraat is a submarine.
Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (d)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2009]

81. In the context of alternative sources of energy, ethanol as a viable bio-fuel can be obtained from
(a) Potato (b) Rice
(c) Sugarcane (d) Wheat
Ans. (c) “Ethanol has enjoyed a long pedigree, and it can be produced from may sources including sugar and starches derived from such crops as sugarcane, maize and wheat.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2009]

82. ISRO successfully conducted a rocket test using cryogenic engines in the year 2007. Where is the test-stand used for the purpose, located?
(a) Balasoren
(b) Thiruvananthapuram
(c) Mahendragiri (d) Karwar
Ans. (c) ISRO had achieved a significant milestone through the successful test of indigenously developed Cryogenic Stage, to be employed as the upper stage of India’s Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). The test was conducted for its full flight at Liquid Propulsion test facility at Mahendragiri, in Tamil Nadu.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2008]

83. In which one of the following locations is the Internationals Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project to be built?
(a) Northern Spain
(b) Southern France
(c) Eastern Germany
(d) Southern Italy
Ans. (b) ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, and is also Latin for “the way of energy”) is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world’s largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment. It is an experimental Tokamak nuclear fusion reactor that is being built next to the Cadarache facility in the southern France. Why insofar nuclear fusion reactor could not be made practically viable? For fusion to occur on Earth, we would need a temperature of at least 100 million degrees Celsius—six times hotter than the core of the sun. The sun is a natural fusion reactor which makes up for its measly 15 million degrees with the intense pressure created by its core’s gravity. Currently, here on Earth the amount of energy we’d need to put in to produce that kind of heat or pressure is much, much higher than what we get out in usable energy. Thats simply explains the practical infeasibility of having nuclear fusion reactors. Research is going on though to make it practical viable
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2008]

84. What is the purpose of the US Space Agency’s Themis Mission, which was recently in the news?
(a) To study the possibility of life on Mars
(b) To study the satellites of Saturn
(c) To study the colourful display of high latitude skies
(d) To build a Space laboratory to study the stellar explosions
Ans. (d) NASA’s Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) aims to resolve one of the oldest mysteries in space physics, namely to determine what physical process in near- Earth space initiates the violent eruptions of the aurora that occur during substorms in the Earth’s magnetosphere. THEMIS is a 2-year mission consisting of 5 identical probes that will study the violent colorful eruptions of Auroras.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2008]

85. Selene-1, the lunar orbiter mission belongs to which one of the following?
(a) China (b) European Union
(c) Japan (d) USA
Ans. (c) SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer), better known in Japan by its nickname Kaguya, was the second Japanese lunar orbiter spacecraft following the Hiten probe.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2008]

86. Which one of the following is a spacecraft?
(a) Apophis (b) Cassini
(c) Spitzer (d) TechSar
Ans. (b) Cassini is a spacecraft used for following “Cassini- Huygens” space mission, a twofold objectivesintegrated mission: • Cassini orbiter- Cassini spacecraft has been used for Saturn orbiter mission. • Huyegens- The same Cassini orbiter has been used to launch Titan lander. • Apophis is a near-earth asteroid. • Spitzer is a space-telescope. • Techstar is a star
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2008]

87. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
(a) Cosmic Background Explore (COBE): Satellite programme
(b) Falcon : Under-sea cable system
(c) Discovery : Space Shuttle
(d) Atlantis : Space Station
Ans. (d) “Atlantis” is a space shuttle mission and not the space station as mentioned in the question. Atlantis was the first space shuttle to launch an interplanetary probe. The correct match-table is: Space Initiative Nature Cosmic background Explore (COBE) Satellite Program Falcon Under-sea cable system Discovery Space Shuttle Atlantis Space Shuttle
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2007]

88. Which of the following types is used by computed tomography employed for visualization of the internal structure of human body?
(a) X-rays (b) Sound Waves
Ans. (a) Computed Tomography (CT) technique uses the axial bombardment of numerous x-rays through various 2-d routes and associated computer makes a 3-d image generated out of these numerous 2-d xray images.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2007]

89. Recently, the European Union and other six countries including India signed the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project. Which one of the following was not a signatory to it?
(c) Japan (d) USA
Ans. (a) The ITER Members- China, the European Union (EU), India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States (US).
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2007]

90. Consider the following statements in respect of India’s advanced satellite INSAT 4A:
(a) INSAT 4A was launched in December, 2005 from New Mexico.
(b) The European commercial launch service provider Arianespace was associated with the launch of INSAT 4A.
(c) Tata-Sky-a digital cable service provider is associated with DTH television broadcasting services from INSAT-4A.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2, only
(c) 2 and 3, only (d) 1 and 3, only
Ans. (c) INSAT-4A was successfully launched by Arianespace’s Ariane Flight V169 on December 22, 2005 from Kourou, French Guyana. Thus, 1st statement is incorrect. Hence, on elimination of 1st statement we find C as the correct answer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2006]

91. Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
Recent Scientific Achievement : Country
(a) Creating the World’s : United Kingdom first mouse
(b) Cloning a human embryo : Germany for the first time
(c) Guiding a spacecraft for United States Collision with a comet : of America
(d) Landing a spacecraft on : Japan an asteroid:
Ans. (a) The computer mouse as we know it today was invented and developed by Douglas Engelbart, a citizen of Oregon, the USA with the assistance of Bill English, during the 1960’s and was patented on November 17, 1970. Hence, 1st match is not correctly matched.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2006]

92. Which one of the following is the landmark performance of Dr. V. Mohan Reddy, an Indian born doctor working in USA, during February, 2005?
(a) Research on human stem cell which is likely to revolutionise treatment of deadly disease like cancer
(b) Successful open heart procedure called arterial switch performed on an infant
(c) Research on genetic engineering which can help in treatment of deadly disease like AIDS
(d) Successful brain surgery to revive the function of nearly dead brain of a premature born infant
Ans. (b) Successful open heart procedures called arterial switch was performed on an infant by Dr. Mohan Reddy.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2005]

93. Consider the following statements:
1. A geostationary satellite is at an approximate height of 10,000 km
2. FM transmission of music is of very good quality because the atmospheric or manmade noises which have generally frequency variations can do little harm.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (b) Geostationary equatorial orbit (GEO) is a circular geosynchronous orbit in the plane of the Earth’s equator with a radius of approximately 42,164 km. The second statement is correct. Signal quality is a lot superior in FM than AM because the amplitude based signals are more susceptible to noise than those which use frequency. Further, the noise signals are difficult to filter out in AM reception whereas FM receivers easily filter out noise using the capture effect and pre-emphasis, de-emphasis effects. In capture effect, the receiver locks itself to catch stronger signal so that signals received are more synchronized with that at the transmitting end. In pre-emphasis, de-emphasis process, the signal is further amplified to a higher frequency at sending end (pre-emphasis) and vice versa at receiver end (de-emphasis). These two processes reduce down the chances of a signal to get mixed with other signals and make FM more immune to noise than AM.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2005]

94. Consider the following statements:
(1) Adam Osborne produced the first portable computer
(2) Ian Wilmut created the first cloned sheep.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (c) Both are correct statements. Adam Osborne produced the first portable computer “Osberne-1” named after him whereas Ian Wilmut created the first cloned sheep Dolly.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2004]

95. Consider the following statements:
1. India launched its first full-fledged meteorological satellite (METSAT) in September, 2002.
2. For the first time, the space vehicle PSLV-C4 carried a payload of more than 1000 kg into a geosynchronous orbit.
Which of these statements is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 (b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (c) METSAT now named ‘Kalpana’ is the first exclusive meteorological satellite built by ISRO launched in September 2002. For the first time, the space vehicle PSLV-C4 carried a payload of more than 1000 kg into a geosynchronous orbit. Hence, both statements are true.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2003]

96. The Genetic Engineering Approval Committee, whose permission is required for cultivation of any genetically modified crop such as Bt-Cotton in India, is under the Union Ministry of:
(a) Agriculture
(b) Environment and Forests
(c) Commerce and Industry
(d) Rural Development
Ans. (b) The Genetic Engineering Approval Committee (GEAC) is an apex committee under Union Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) for regulation of genetic engineering activities in the country.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2003]

97. In the year 2001, NASA launched a spacecraft to Mars named
(a) Mars Climate Orbiter
(b) Mars Global Surveyor
(c) Mars Odyssey
Ans. (c) Mars odyssey is a robotic spacecraft orbiting the planet Mars. The project was developed by NASA and contracted out to lockhead martin. Odyssey was launched in April 7, 2001 on a delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air force station and reached mars orbit on October 24, 2001. It is currently in a polar orbit around Mars with an altitude of about 3800 km or 2400 miles.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2002]

98. With reference to the latest developments in stem cell research, consider the following statements:
1. The only source of human stem cells are the embryos at blastocyst stage
2. The stem cells can be derived a without causing destruction to blastocysts
3. The stem cells can regenerate themselves in vitro virtually forever
4. Indian research centres also created a few cell lines which can be developed into many types of tissues.
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 (b) 1, 2 and 3
(c) 1, 2 and 4 (d) 3 and 4
Ans. (d) Stem cells come from a variety of sources including blood, bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and adipose tissue. • The stem cells can not be derived without causing destruction to blastocysts.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2002]

99. With reference to Indian satellites and their launchers, consider the following statements:
1. All the INSAT-series of satellites were launched abroad.
2. PSLVs were used to launch IRS-series of satellites.
3. India used the indigenously built cryogenic engines for the first time for powering the third stage of GSLV.
4. GSAT, launched in the year 2001, has payloads to demonstrate digital broadcasts and internet services.
Which of these statements are correct?
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 (b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 2 and 4 (d) 1 and 3
Ans. (c) Option (c) is correct. India used imported cryogenic engines from Russia. The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system is multi agency, multipurpose operational Satellite System for domestic telecommunication, metrological observation and data relay, nationwide direct satellite T.V. broadcasting and nationwise radio and T.V. programme distribution. The Geostationary Satellite devices in India were commissioned in 1983 with the launch of INSAT-1B
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2002]

@100. Match List I (Scientists) with List II I (Achievement) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
List I : List II
(Scientists) : (Achievement)
A. Arber and Smith : 1. Developed transgenic plants with Agrobacterium T-DNA
B. Feldman : 2. Discovered endonucleases
C. Mullis : 3. Discovered reverse transcriptase
D. Temin and Baltimore : 4. Discovered polymerase chain reaction Codes:
A B C D
(a) 2 1 4 3 (b) 1 2 4 3
(c) 2 1 3 4 (d) 1 2 3 4
Ans. (a)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2002]

101. Assertion (A): Artificial satellites are always launched from the earth in the eastward direction.
Reason (R):
The earth rotates from west to east and so the satellite easily attains the escape velocity.
(a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A
(b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not a correct explanation of A
(c) A is true but R is false
(d) A is false but R is true
Ans. (a) Option 1 is correct. A satellite launched from the site near equator toward the east direction will get an initial boost equal to the velocity of earth surface.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2002]

102. Who is the scientist in whose honour the “Chandra” X-ray telescope has been named?
(a) Chandrasekhar Venkat Raman
(b) Jagdish Chandra Bose
(c) Prafulla Chandra Roy
(d) Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
Ans. (a)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2001]

103. The range of Agni-II missile is around
(a) 500 km (b) 2000 km
(c) 3500 km (d) 5000 km
Ans. (b) The range of Agni-2 ballistic missile is around 2000 km.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2001]

104. The memory of a computer is commonly expressed in terms of Kilobytes or Megabytes. A byte is made up of
(a) eight binary digits (b) eight decimal digits
(c) two binary digits (d) two decimal digits
Ans. (a) A byte consists of 8 adjacent binary digits (bits), each of which consists of a 0 or 1. The string of bits making up a byte is processed as a unit by a computer; bytes are the smallest operable units of storage in computer technology.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2000]

105. Which one of the following organisms can serve as a biofertiliser for rice crop?
(a) Blue-green algae
(b) Rhizobium sp
(c) Mycorrhizal fungi
(d) Azotobacter sp
Ans. (a) Blue-green algae is a symbiotic bacteria and is an important bio-fertilizers used in rice. Important species of blue green algea are Cyanobacteria, Anabaena, Nostoc and Tolypothrix.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2000]

106. For reproducing sound, a CD (Compact Disc) audio player uses a
(a) quartz crystal
(b) titanium needle
(c) laser beam
(d) barium titanate ceramic
Ans. (c) The Compact Disc is an evolution of Laser Disc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2000]

107. Hybridoma technology is a new biotechnological approach for commercial production of
(a) monoclonal antibodies
(b) interferon
(c) antibodies
(d) alcohol
Ans. (c) Hybridoma technology is a newly discovered biotechnological approach for commercial production of antibodies was discovered Georges Kohler of West Germany, Cesal Milstein of Argentina and Niels Jerne of Denmark in 1975. • It is technique of producing hybrid cell lines called “hybridomas” by the fusion a specific antibodyproducing lymphocyte B cell with a myeloma cell that has an ability to grow in tissue culture • Hydridoma produces antibodies that have single specificity and are called monoclonal antibodies.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2000]

108. Insect-resistant cotton plants have been genetically engineered by inserting a gene from a/an
(a) virus (b) bacterium
(c) insect (d) plant
Ans. (b) Insect-resistant cotton plant, which is also known as ‘Bt Cotton’ plant, has been genetically engineered by inserting a gene from an bacterium- Bacillus thuringiensis. Bt-cotton has been genetically modified by the insertion of one or more genes from a common soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. These genes Cry A/ Cry A – B encode for the production of insecticidal proteins, and thus, genetically transformed plants produce one or more toxins as they grow.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [2000]

109. Which one of the following conditions is most relevant for the presence of life on Mars?
(a) Atmospheric composition
(b) Thermal conditions
(c) Occurrence of ice caps and frozen water
(d) Occurrence of ozone
Ans. (c) The fundamental requirements for life as we know it are liquid water, organic compounds and an energy source for synthesizing complex organic molecules. Beyond these basics, we do not yet understand the environmental and chemical evolution that leads to the origin of life. Therefore, occurrence of water in any form could be the most relevant for the presence of life on Mars although it has only be found in frozen form.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1997]

110. The world’s fastest computer has been able to perform (as of Dec. 1996)
(a) 106 operations per second
(b) 109 operations per second
(c) 1012 operations per second
(d) 1015 operations per second
Ans. (c) The world’s fastest computer had 1012 operation per second.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1997]

111. The sequencing of the entire genome (the totality of all genes) of an organism was completed in 1996. The organism was
(a) albino mouse (b) yeast
(c) human being (d) Plasmodium vivax
Ans. (b) The sequencing of the entire genome of an organism was completed in 1996 and it was performed over yeast. It led to the formation of YAC (Yeast Artificial hormosome). The project was hailed as this was first ever closer to the human genome than anything completely sequenced so far.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1997]

112. Which one of the following satellites is to be launched from India in 1996?
(a) IRS-P2 (b) IRS-P3
(c) IRS-EN (d) IRS-ID
Ans. (d) IRS-ID was scheduled to be launched from India in 1996.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1996]

113. Which one of the following is a modern tank?
(a) Bhim (b) Akash
(c) Arjun (d) Prithvi
Ans. (c) Arjun is the India’s modern tank.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1996]

114. In the field of space technology, India has demonstrated during 1994, her capability to
(a) design advance intercontinental ballistic missile warning systems
(b) build satellites
(c) build stealth missiles
(d) launch geo-stationary satellites
Ans. (a) An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missle with a minimum range of 5,500 kilometers primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1995]

115. Cryogenic engines find applications in
(a) sub-marine propulsion
(b) frost-free refrigerators
(c) rocket technology
(d) researches in superconductivity
Ans. (c) Cryogenic has significant applications in rocket science technology among others.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1995]

116. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 hit the planet
(a) Pluto (b) Mars
(c) Jupiter (d) Saturn
Ans. (c) Comet Shoemaker–Levy 9 was a comet that broke apart in July 1992 when collided with Jupiter.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1995]

117. If a mouse of over eight times its normal size has been produced by introducing human growth hormone gene, the technique involved is called
(a) Hybridisation (b) Genetic engineering
(c) Mutation Breeding (d) Hormonal feeding
Ans. (b) Only genetic engineering technique allows transspecies shifting of genes. In this given case, the genes are transferred from a human genome to a mouse. Thus, it essentially involves genetic engineering.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1993]

118. Which one of the diagrams given below represents most closely the path of geostationary satellite in space?
Ans. (b) Geostationary satellite is placed right above equator in an elliptical orbit. In given pictures, option b closely resembles the path of a geostationary orbit.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1993]

119. Which one of the following seeds can benefit a patient of diabetes mellitus by normalizing his blood sugar level?
(a) Coriander seeds (b) Mustard seeds
(c) Cumin seeds (d) Fenugreek seeds
Ans. (d) Fenugreek seeds may be helpful to people with diabetes because they contain fiber and other chemicals that are thought to slow digestion and the body’s absorption of carbohydrates and sugar. The seeds may also help to improve the way the body uses sugar and increase the amount of insulin released. Hence, (d) is the answer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1993]

120. Which one of the following approaches comes under the category of biotechnology?
1. Use of living organisms or substances obtained from them in industrial processes
2. Modernizing the commercial industries to produce products for use in biological research
3. Use of modern technology to investigate biological disorders
4. Use of industrial technology to increase the biosphere.
(a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1, 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1 and 2 (d) 2, 3 and 4
Ans. (a) Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use. Hence, using living organisms or substances obtained from them in industrial processes would essentially come under the category of biotechnology.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1993]

121. Haemophilia is a hereditary disease carried by
(a) females and expressed by females
(b) females and expressed by males
(c) males and expressed by females
(d) males and expressed by males
Ans. (b) The gene for haemophilia is present only on XChromosome. Human males are carrier of only a single Xchromosome while female passes two Xchromosomes. Therefore, a female can be the carrier of diseases like Hemophilia but not males. Hence, if a normal father happens to match with carrier mother, there exist 50% chance for son to contract the disease.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1993]

122. Scratching eases itching because
(a) it removes the outer dust in the skin
(b) it kills the germs
(c) it stimulates certain nerves which direct the brain to increase the production of antihistaminic chemicals
(d) it suppresses the production of enzymes which cause itching
Ans. (c) Scratching helps to relieve an itch because it reduces the sensations of pain sent to the brain. It stimulates certain nerves which direct the brain to increase the production of antihistaminic chemicals from mast cells present in areolar tissue which in turn reduces the sensation.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1993]

123. Biofilms are
(a) colour films used by biologists to photograph living organisms
(b) photomicrographs of microorganisms from various habitats
(c) accumulations of microorganisms at surfaces such as those of a rock, a tooth or an oil droplet
(d) photographic films made through fermentation processes of certain industrial microorganisms
Ans. (c) A biofilm is a community of bacteria that attach to a surface by excreting a sticky, sugary substance that encompasses the bacteria in a matrix. They’re very much all around us, in streams, in drains, in fish tanks, even on our teeth in form of plaque that gives yellowish colour to teeth surface. A biofilm can be composed of a single species or a conglomerate of species. In many cases, biofilms are only bacteria, but they can also include other living things such as fungi and algae, creating a microbial stew of sorts. Hence, they are complex systems that are sometimes compared to multicellular organisms. Biofilm formation begins with planktonic, or freeswimming, bacteria, which land on a surface.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1993]

124. The blood pressure values of four persons are given below:
(1) Mrs. X : 90/60 (2) Mr. X : 160/120
(3) Mr. Y : 120/80 (4) Mrs. Y : 140/100 Who among the following has normal blood pressure?
(a) Mrs. X (b) Mr. X
(c) Mrs. Y (d) Mr. Y
Ans. (c) However both Mr. Y and Mrs. Y can be considered to have normal blood pressure. Normal Blood pressure ranges from (120/80) – (140- 90)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1993]

125. In many developing countries, three major causes of death and disease are
(a) lack of safe drinking water, increasing use of pesticides and thinning of the ozone layer
(b) contaminated food, global warming and industrial chloro-fluoro- carbons
(c) polluted air, greenhouse effect and soil erosion
(d) dirty water, contaminated food and polluted air
Ans. (a) The developing world countries are largely characterized with lack of safe drinking water, intense use of agricultural pesticides therefore contaminated food and lack of clean energy resources. These factors collectively, cause major lifethreatening diseases such as cancer, acute diarrhea, Tubercutosis, Chlorea, Jaundice etc.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1993]

126. On a half-moon night the angle between the moon and the sun when measured from earth is about
(a) 45° (b) 60°
(c) 90° (d) 180°
Ans. (c)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1991]

127. Which one of the following techniques has helped to solve many mysteries involving murders, robberies and rapes?
(a) Gene splicing
(b) Computer tomography
(c) DNA fingerprinting
(d) Gene cloning
Ans. (c) DNA fingerprinting, also known as DNA profiling is a popular technique that helped to solve many mysteries involving murders, robberies and rapes along with issues relating to the maternity and faternity of a child.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1991]

128. Tomahawk, a cruise missile was used in
(a) World War II (b) Iran-Iraq War
(c) Gulf War (d) World War I
Ans. (c) Tomahawk, a cruise missile was used in Gulf war.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1991]

129. Which one of the following is not a satellite of Jupiter?
(a) Io (b) Callisto
(c) Europa (d) Titan
Ans. (d) Titan is Saturn’s satellite and NOT Jupiters. Hence, the answer is (d)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1991]

130. For developing inbred lines in farm animals, following factors are taken into consideration:
1. The crossbreds should be of outstanding type
2. They should not carry any detrimental genes
3. Progeney tested animals
4. Herd size should be large Of the statements given above, which one of the following combinations of factors is most essential?
(a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 4 (d) 2 and 4
Ans. (d) In order to have genetically robust inbred lines, the parent animals should not carry any detrimental genes and the herd size should be large enough to have proper genetic variation.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1990]

131. Consider the following effects of genetic engineering:
1. Disease resistance 2. Growth promotion
3. Closing 4. Longevity Of these effects, those that have been tried out with a certain amount of success include
(a) 1, 3 and 4 (b) 2, 3 and 4
(c) 1, 2 and 4 (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (c) Closing is not one of the effects of genetic engineering. The prime effects of genetic engineering are- disease resistance, growth promotion, and longevity. Thus, C is the correct answer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1990]

132. An asteroid recently discovered by the scientists of Indian Institute of Astrophysics has been named after
(a) Venu Bapu (b) Indira Gandhi
(c) C. V. Raman (d) S. Ramanujam
Ans. (a) The asteroid has been named after Venu Bapu. Infact, a dedicated asteroid labortary has also been established in Indian Institute of Astrophysics named after Venu Bapu.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1990]

133. Match the columns:
List I : List II Forms Quantities
A. Cusec : 1. Pressure
B. Byte : 2. Intensity of earthquakes
C. Richter : 3. Rate of flow
D. Bar : 4. Computer memory
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
A B C D
(a) 4 1 2 3 (b) 2 4 3 1
(c) 3 4 2 1 (d) 3 2 1 4
Ans. (c)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1988]

134. The Indian Air Force has MIG planes. The most advanced version of MIG at present is called
(a) MIG-25 (b) MIG-27
(c) MIG-29 (d) MIG-31
Ans. (c) MIG-29 is the most advance MIG fighter plane that India currently posses.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1988]

135. Match the columns List I : List II Names of instruments : The quantities they measure
A. Anemometer : 1. Speed of rotation
B. Ammeter : 2. High temperatures
C. Tachometer : 3. Wind speed
D. Pyrometer : 4. Electric current : 5. Pressure difference
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
A B C D
(a) 4 3 1 5 (b) 3 4 1 2
(c) 3 5 2 1 (d) 1 4 5 2
Ans. (b)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1988]

136. A balloon filled with air is weighed (W) so that it just floats in water as shown in the figure.
When it is further pushed by a short distance in water, it will
(a) Sink to the bottom.
(b) Stay at the depth where it stands submerged.
(c) Come back to its original position.
(d) Sink down a little further but will not reach the bottom.
Ans. (c) Due to buoyancy, it will come back to its original position because it will not undergo any change in density when pushed down in water.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1988]

137. A recently developed technique for monitoring foetal growth uses
(a) X-rays (b) Microwaves
(c) Ultrasonics (d) Ultraviolet rays
Ans. (c) Ultrasound based on usage of ultrasonic sound waves is used to see. • That the foetus heart is beating. • The feotus presentation and position. • The feotus size and growth at a given time. • The blood flow to foetus through the umbilical cord and various other things necessary for foetal growth.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1988]

138. The major ingredient of leather is
(a) Collagen (b) Polymer
(c) Carbohydrate (d) Nucleic Acid
Ans. (a) Collagen is a major ingredient of leather. Collagen is a group of naturally occurring fibrous proteins in animals, most abundantly in mammals, such as humans. Collagen functions as a glue that holds the body together by connecting and supporting such bodily tissues as the muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilages, skin, bone and teeth.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1988]

139. The hybrids of which of the following plants are available for commercial production?
1. Rice 2. Wheat
3. Jute 4. Pulses Codes:
(a) 1, 2 and 4 (b) 2 and 3
(c) 3 and 4 (d) 2, 3 and 4
Ans. (a) Hybrid variety of Jute is not available for commercial production till very recent time.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1987]

140. Which of the following was the first to escape out of solar system?
(a) Pioneer 10
(b) Voyager I
(c) Voyager II
(d) Soyuz
Ans. (b) Voyager 1 has travelled farthest in space and was first to escape out of solar system. It is the furthest man-made object in space. It has travelled more than 11 billion miles since it was launched nearly 36 years ago. And now Voyager 1 has boldly gone where no spacecraft has gone before – it has left the outer reaches of the Solar System.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1987]

141. Interleukin, recently discovered, is a cure for
(a) Arthritis
(b) Diabetes
(c) Cancer
(d) Influenza
Ans. (c) Interleukin has been found as potential cure for cancer.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1986]

142. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
(a) Entropy is a quantity introduced to give clear expression to the results of thermodynamics
(b) Change in entropy is defined as the ratio of the amount of heat taken up to the absolute temperature
(c) Change in entropy is directly proportional to the amount of heat taken up
(d) The entropy of a system is a measure of its degree of disorder
Ans. (b) The entropy change of the surrounding is driven by heat flow. Entropy stands for disorderliness of a system that depends on its enthalpy.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1986]

143. State the chronological order in which the following events took place:
1. Launching of APPLE
2. Launching of Rohini
3. Antarctica expedition
4. Indian cosmonaut Codes:
(a) 3-1-2-4
(b) 2-3-1-4
(c) 2-1-3-4
(d) 3-2-1-4
Ans. (a) Launching of APPLE satellite was India’s first space maneuver. After that, Rohini satellite was launched.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1985]

144. Genetic code is made up by the four-letter alphabet forming the pairs
(a) A—C, C—A, T—G, G—T
(b) A—G, G—A, C—A, T—C
(c) T—G, G—T, A—C, C—A
(d) A—T, T—A, C—G, G—C
Ans. (d) The correct answer is (d) In DNA, double stranded structure each stand carries base complimentary to other present on parallel strand at same locus. A = T, G C T = A, C G
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1985]

145. What is the tissue culture?
(a) Preparation of fragments of the cells of organism for biochemical examination
(b) Japanese culture
(c) Name given to a special type of surgery
(d) None of the above
Ans. (a) Tissue culture is essentially the growth in an artificial medium of cells derived from living tissue. Thus, preparation of fragments of the cells of organism for biochemical examination is an example of tissue culture.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1985]

146. Which of the following is correct for tea?
(a) Alkaline and nicotine
(b) Alkaline and caffeine
(c) Acidic and nicotine
(d) Acidic and caffeine
Ans. (d) Caffeine is an integral part of tea. Tea is also found to be mildly acidic.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1985]

147. The first geostationary satellite launched by India is
(c) APPLE (d) INSAT 1-B
Ans. (c) Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) was India’s first geostationary experimental communication satellite. It was designed and developed by ISRO satellite centre, Bangalore and launched on June 19, 1981 by Ariane, a launch vehicle of the European Space Agency (ESA).
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1984]

148. Write in chronological order
1. ‘Man’s landing on moon – 21 July 1969
2. Discovery of radio activity – 1896
3. First nuclear explosion – July 1945
4. Launching of first satellite by India – 1975 The correct order is
(a) 3, 2, 4, 1 (b) 3, 2, 1 4
(c) 3, 1, 4, 2 (d) 2, 3, 1, 4
Ans. (d) 2. Discovery of radio activity – 1896 3. First nuclear explosion – July 1945 1. ‘Man’s landing on moon – 21 July 1969 4. Launching of first satellite by India – 1975
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1984]

149. The Indian Space Research Organisation is situated at
(a) Trivandrum
(b) Bangalore
(d) Thumba
Ans. (b) The corporate headquarters of the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) is located in Bangalore, but, activities related to satellites, launch vehicles, and applications are carried out at numerous centers throughout the country.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1984]

@150. Which of the following discoveries is/are associated with Einstein?
1. Theory of relativity 2. Quantum theory
3. Radio activity 4. Rocket propulsion The correct options are:
(a) 1 and 2 (b) 1, 2 and 3
(c) 1, 2 and 4 (d) 1 only
Ans. (a) The theory of relativity was discovered by Sir Albert Einstein himself whereas he contributed immensely in the quantum theory. Einstein’s early contributions to quantum theory include his heuristic suggestion that light behaves as if it is composed of photons, and his exploration of the quantum structure of the mechanical energies of particles embedded in matter. The theory of radioactivity has no mention of Einstein. Similarly, the rocket propulsion system also has no mentioned contribution of Albert Einstein quantum theory.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1984]

151. India has decided to acquire.. to match Pakistan’s F-16
(a) Jaguars (b) MIG-29
(c) Mirage-2000 (d) Harpoon
Ans. (b) India had decided to acquire Russian made fighter aircraft Mig-29 to match Pakistan’s F-16.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1984]

152. Chips used in integrated circuits in computers are made of
(a) Mica (b) Manganese
(c) Silicon (d) Zinc
Ans. (c) An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small plate (“chip”) made of semiconductor material, normally silicon. ICs are designed for different purposes. A chip may be designed as a calculator, which only works as a calculator. Integrated circuits can be classified into analog, digital and mixed signal (both analog and digital on the same chip).
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1984]

153. India carried out its first underground nuclear explosion at
(a) Thumba
(b) Pokhran
(c) Trombay
(d) Khemkaran
Ans. (b)
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1984]

154. In April 1982, INSAT-1A was launched from
(a) Cape Canaveral
(b) A Soviet cosmodrome
(c) Sriharikota
(d) Thumba
Ans. (a) INSAT-1A was an Indian communications satellite which formed part of the Indian National Satellite System. Launched in 1982 from launch complex 17A at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1983]

155. A radio station is to be set up in a remote village without any electrical power. The following options are available:
1. Laying of transmission lines from power station to the village
2. Installing diesel generators
3. Using rechargeable batteries
4. Using solar panel/stills Of these the last method is an example of
(a) Appropriate technology
(b) Ultimate technology
(c) Redundant technology
(d) Obsolete technology
Ans. (b) Solar energy is an example of ultimate energy because ultimate technology is a technology that signifies the transition of idea/thoughts into power/ force. It means with this tech, people’s ideas or thought can be immediately transferred into physical force/power which can do some actions. Solar energy certainly helps in innovation.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1983]

156. America’s space shuttle is
(a) Voyager (b) Apollo
(c) Soyuz (d) Columbia
Ans. (d) Among given options, Columbia is America’s space shuttle. Apollo 11 was the first spaceflight that landed humans on the Moon whereas Soyuz is Russian space flight capsule that carries crew members to International Space Station (ISS). Voyager was interstellar space flight in the region between stars.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1982]

157. Put the following mass communication media in the sequence in which they came to India?
3. Films 4. Printing
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
(a) 1, 3, 2, 4 (b) 1, 4, 3, 2
(c) 2, 4, 3, 1 (d) 4, 3, 1, 2
Ans. (d) Printing was the beginning of mass communication in India which was introduced by Portugese in 16th century itself. Afterwards, many medium of communication such as films, radio, and television were introduced. Correct sequence is (d).
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1981]

158. Total solar eclipse was observed in February 1980 in India at
(a) Delhi (b) Puri
(c) Bombay (d) Calcutta
Ans. (d) Total solar eclipse was observed in Calcutta.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1981]

159. Which of the following statements is true?
(a) Bhaskara and Aryabhata were put into orbit from a Chinese Cosmodrome
(b) Bhaskara and Aryabhata were put into orbit from a French cosmodrome
(c) Rohini II is going to be launched from Moscow
(d) Rohini, the third Indian satellite, was launched from Sriharikota
Ans. (d) Rohini, the third Indian satellite, was launched from Sriharikota by ISRO.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1981]

160. Hybridisation is useful in developing improved crops by
(a) Creating new and better genes
(b) Eliminating undesirable genes
(c) Producing favourable combination of genes
(d) By encouraging favourable genes and removing unfavourable genes
Ans. (d) Hybridisation is mainly used to encourage favoorable genes and remove unfavorable ones.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1981]

161. Skylab crashed on July 11, 1979 in
(a) Pacific Ocean (b) Atlantic Ocean
(c) Mediterranean Sea
(d) Indian Ocean near Western Australia
Ans. (d) Thirty-six years ago, on July 11, 1979, the first US space station- Skylab fell out of orbit. It crashed in southern Indian Ocean near western Australia.
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1980]

162. India has launched Symphonic Satellite Telecommunication Experiment Project (STEP). It is a joint project of the
(a) S and T Department and Indian Space Research Organisation
(b) Ministry of Energy and Space Commission
(c) Ministry of Defence and Indian Space Research Organisation
(d) Indian Space Research Organisation and Ministry of Industry
Ans. (a) The Satellite Telecommunications Experiments Project (STEP) was a joint project of S and T department of India and Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO).
UPSC Previous Year Paper [1980]