Chapter 06. Piaget, Kohlberg Brunner and the Principles of Vygotsky

1. Where can children’s cognitive development best be defined?
(a) in the playground (b) in school and class
(c) Auditorium (d) Home
Ans: (b)

2. Nowadays there is a tendency of children to call ‘misconceptions’ as “alternative perceptions”. It can be called:
(a) Using beautiful words to explain children’s mistakes
(b) To treat children as adults in their thinking
(c) Making subtle differences in children’s understanding and being passive towards their learning
(d) Recognizing that children can think and their thinking is different from adults
Ans: (d)

3. A three-year-old child states that milk is produced by a machine at the milk booth. Which of the following provides the best explanation of a child’s understanding?
(a) The child has very limited exposure / knowledge of the world.
(b) The child’s answer is based on his experience of buying milk from the milk booth.
(c) The child has never seen cows.
(d) The child’s family does not provide a motivating environment for the child.
Ans: (b)

4. The concept of stability of an object is attained in the ………… phase of the development of the Piag .
(a) sensory-gameter (b) pre-operation
(c) tangible operations (d) formal operations
Ans: (a)

5. Self-awareness and control of cognitive abilities, like-planning, reviewing and revising etc. are embedded in ……………… .
(a) Centralization (b) Cognition
(c) cognition (d) adjustment
Ans: (b)

6. Which of the following is not a limitation of pre-operative thought?
(a) tendency to concentrate
(b) Development of symbolic thought
(c) Egoism
(d) irreversibility
Ans: (b)

7. Which of the following is one of the main skills of tangible functional state?
(a) Ability to protect
(b) Envisaged deductive reasoning
(c) Secondary circular reactions
(d) positive thinking
Ans: (a)

8. According to Piaget What are the specific psychological structures (systematic ways of deriving true meaning from experience) ?
(a) schema (b) model
(c) Mental map (d) Mental device
Ans: (a)

9. Which of the following pre-functional states characterizes the child of the period?
(a) Goal-directed behavior
(b) delayed simulation
(c) irreversibility of ideas
(d) circular reaction
Ans: (c)

10. The stage defined by Jean Piaget where cognitive development occurs through the child’s use of his senses and attempts to explore the outside world:
(a) cognitive state (b) pre-operative state
(c) solid state (d) none of these
Ans: (a)

11. The principal proposition of Jean Piaget’s theory is that—
(a) Children have better thinking than adults.
(b) Children’s thinking is quantitatively different from that of adults.
(c) Children’s thinking is qualitatively different from that of adults.
(d) Children have lower thinking than adults.
Ans: (c)

12. Which of the following behaviors characterizes the ‘tangible operational state’ proposed by Jean Piaget?
(a) Deferred simulation, material stability
(b) Symbolic game, Reversibility of ideas
(c) Conceived-deductive reasoning; Practical idea
(d) Protection, Class inclusion
Ans: (d)

13. Which of the following is the composition of the Piagas in the context of children’s cognitive development?
(a) contract (b) reinforcement
(c) schema (d) observation learning
Ans: (c)

14. What should a grade 6 – 8 teacher do in his class, taking implications from Piaget’s theory of cognitive development ?
(a) Should present problems that require logic based solutions.
(b) Only tangible materials should be used to teach a concept.
(c) Should depend only on the prescribed syllabus.
(d) The use of logical reasoning should be discouraged.
Ans: (a)

15. According to Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, In what period does the hypothetical deductive logic develop?
(a) Pre-operational state
(b) tangible operational state
(c) abstract operational state
(d) sensory conductor state
Ans: (c)

17. Which of the four stages of Ciaz’s cognitive development is not included?
(a) sensory state
(b) Pre-operational state
(c) post -operative state
(d) abstract operational state
Ans: (c)

18. According to Piaget, in the first stage of development (from birth to 2 years), the child learns more appropriately through which, he is-
(a) by the use of senses
(b) by abstract thinking
(c) By realizing the newly learned words of the language
(d) by tangible thinking
Ans: (a)

19. According to Jean Piaget’s stages of cognitive development known as the pre-suffixed period, is related to which of the following?
(a) from the sense station
(b) From tangible operation stage
(c) Pre-operational stage
(d) From formal-operation stage
Ans: (c)

20. The following is the sequence of states of cognitive theory of Piaget-
(a) Sensitive vowel tense – tangible operational pre-operative tense – formal operational tense
(b) Sensitive consonant tense – Pre-operative tense – Tangible operative tense – Formal operational tense
(c) Pre-operative period – Sensitive gametic period – Tangible operational period – Formal operational period
(d) Pre-operative period – Sensitive vocal period – Formal operational period – Tangible operational period
Ans: (b)

21. The age group of ‘pre-operative state’ of Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is
(a) 0–2 years (b) 2–7 years
(c) 4–11 years (d) 7–12 years
Ans: (b)

22. According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, inclusiveness refers to
(a) Matching of existing intellectual structures and environmental demand
(b) Inclusion of new methods of thinking and behaving while improving the existing intellectual structures
(c) Coherence between prior knowledge and new knowledge
(d) Organizing cognitive and cognitive information in meaningful patterns
Ans: (b)

23. The tangible-operational state of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is not targeted by the following qualifications
(a) Inversion of thoughts
(b) mental conflict
(c) Protection
(d) Serialization and use of whole-fraction suffixes
Ans: (b)

24. “A child can think logically about events and objects” is the correct statement regarding the steps of the Piaget.
(A) Sensory nervous system (Sensory Motor)
(b) initial operating procedures (Pre Operational)
(c) Tangible Operating Procedures (Concrete Operational)
(d) formal operating procedures (Formal Operation)
Ans: (c)

25. Which of the following principles marks the 4 stages of intellectual development of a child (sensory-conductor, pre-operative  strong operation and formal operation) ?
(a) Ericsson’s theory of psycho-social development
(b) Freud’s theory of mental-sexual development
(c) The theory of cognitive development of Jean Piaget
(d) Kohlberg’s moral development principle
Ans: (c)

26. The ability to place objects in the child develops when he
(a) is in sense state (b) is in pre-action state
(c) is in tangible action state (d) is in formal verb state
Ans: (c)

27. Which of the following is not a defining element of intellectual development according to Piaget?
(a) social transmission (b) experience
(c) equilibrium (d) none of these
Ans: (a)

28. Freud, Piaget and other psychologists have explained in terms of various stages of personality development. But the cup
(a) said that the stages of development are determined by the environment
(b) It is said that the experiences of infancy are more affected. The rest of the stages have limited effects.
(c) Said about cognitive changes to explain various stages
(d) None of these
Ans: (c)

29. According to Piaget, the child starts thinking on an abstract level, Intellectual activities and problem solving.
(a) Pre-operational stage (2 – 7 years)
(b) Tangible operational state (7 – 11 years)
(c) Formal operational stage (11 – 15 years)
(d) Sensory muscular state (0 – 2 years)
Ans: (c)

30. Which stage of Piaget is related to abstract and logical thinking?
(a) sensory state
(b) pre-operational state
(c) unstructured operational state
(d) tangible operational state
Ans: (c)

31. Define phase by Jean Piaget, which by early cognitive development of babies his condolences (conscience) is called begins with understanding the use and activities of the world?
(a) sensory motor state (b) pre-operative state
(c) realization (tangible) state (d) None of these
Ans: (a)

32. Was the psychologist linking intelligence with the ability to adjust (mold) with its surroundings (atmosphere) ?
(a) Jean Piaget (b) Thornadike
(c) Horvad Gardner (d) None of these
Ans: (a)

33. According to Piaget’s cognitive development theory, sensory-functional state is
(a) 2 years from birth (b) 2 to 7 years
(c) 7 to 11 years (d) 11 to 16 years
Ans: (a)

34. Her father was having a baby girl walking. The child knew that things like a bird happen but she had never seen a kite. Seeing the kite, he said ‘Look at the bird’, his father said ‘it is a kite’. This example shows.
(a) insertion (b) adjustment
(c) Protection (d) Display of object
Ans: (b)

35. Reasoning: Curiosity and monitoring power is developed.
(a) at the age of 6 (b) at the age of 8
(c) at the age of 11 (d) at the age of 15
Ans: (c)

36. Adjusts the sensory gamut state in the stages of development of the Piaget.
(a) simulation, memory and mental presentation
(b) Ability to interpret and analyze alternatives
(c) Ability to solve problems logically
(d) concerned with social issues
Ans: (a)

38. According to Piaget, during which period does the level of tangible operations occur?
(a) 2 years from birth (b) 2 to 7 years
(c) 7 to 11 years (d) 11 to 15 years
Ans: (c)

39. The stages of cognitive development are divided according to Piaget
(a) four parts (b) three parts
(c) in two parts (d) in five parts.
Ans: (a)

40. According to Jean Piagas, 4 formulation (schema) construction takes place as a result of amendment of new information and amendment of old schemes on the basis of new information to make it compatible with current plans. These two processes are known—
(a) as inclusion and adaptation
(b) in the form of harmonization and modification
(c) as inclusion and adjustment
(d) as an adjustment and adaptation
Ans: (c)

41. According to Piaget, children’s thinking adults …………. varies rather ……………. ‘s.
(a) quantity, type (b) size, tangibility
(c) Type, Quantity (d) Size, Variety
Ans: (c)

42. According to Jean Piaget, adaptation takes place by ……… .
(a) assimilation (b) administration
(c) experience (d) assimilation and administration
Ans: (d)

43. According to Piaget, ‘At what stage of cognitive development does the child demonstrate’ object-stability ‘?
(a) Sensory motive phase
(b) pre-operational phase
(c) tangible operational phase
(d) formal operational phase
Ans: (a)

44. Formal operative stage of Piagas What age period is considered for a child?
(a) 0 – 2 years (b) 2 – 7 years
(c) 7 – 11 years (d) 11 – 15 years
Ans: (d)

45. Which is the place where a child’s ‘cognitive’ development can be best defined?
(a) Playground (b) School and classroom environment
(c) Auditorium (d) House
Ans: (b)

46. According to cognitive developmental stages of Piaget, sense Gamk (sensory-motor) is concerned with what stage?
(a) concerned with social issues
(b) simulation, memory and mental representation
(c) Logically problem solving ability
(d) Ability to interpret and analyze alternatives
Ans: (b)

47. A teacher displays two identical glasses filled with equal amounts of juice. She empties them into two different glasses, one long and the other wide. She asks the children to identify the glass that contains more juice. Children respond that tall glass has more juice. The teacher’s children have ………….. difficulty.
(a) adjustment (b) egocentricity
(c) Decentralization (d) Rebound
Ans: (d)

48. Which word / term has Piagai used for ‘mental structures which are the building blocks of thinking’?
(a) gene (b) maturation block
(c) Schema (concepts) (d) Area of ​​development
Ans: (c)

49. Development of capacity for abstract scientific thinking is a characteristic of which of the following stages?
(a) tangible operational state
(b) formal operational state
(c) sensory dynamics
(d) pre-operational state
Ans: (b)

50. Sita has learned to eat lentils and rice by hand. When she is given lentils and rice, she mixes dal and rice and starts eating. He has …… to eat lentils and rice in his schema to do things .
(a) Adoption (b) Adjusted
(c) adapted (d) aggregation
Ans: (c)

51. Piagas approves that pre-operative children are unable to remember. Which of the following factors have they attributed to this inability?
(a) Disqualification of hypothetical-deductive reasoning
(b) lack of high level of abstract rationality
(c) Personal fiction
(d) consider the Anutkramniyma (can not turn)
Ans: (d)

52. According to Piaget’s theory, Which of the following will not affect a person’s cognitive development?
(a) language (b) social experience
(c) Transformation (d) Activity
Ans: (a)

53. Adding new information to popular schemes is known as
(a) Adjustment (b) Reconciliation
(c) assimilation (d) organization
Ans: (c)

54. According to Piagha, which of the following factors is important in influencing development?
(a) Experience with the physical world
(b) simulation
(c) Reinforcement
(d) language
Ans: (a)

55. Piagas are mainly known for studying whom?
(a) language development (b) sexual development
(c) cognitive development (d) social development
Ans: (c)

56. According to Piaget is the second stage of cognitive development?
(a) cognitive state
(b) state of formal operability
(c) pre-operation stage
(d) state of tangible operation
Ans: (c)

57. Which age period is usually included in the tangible operative stage of human’s cognitive (mental) development?
(a) About two to seven years
(b) From birth to two years
(c) About seven to eleven years
(d) About twelve to fifteen years
Ans: (c)

58. According to Piaget, what is egocentric?
(a) Center of environmental knowledge
(b) The child is the center of the world and everything revolves around him.
(c) Sensory singing state
(d) None of these
Ans: (b)

59. In the theory of Piaget, at what stage is the preservation of volume 6 length, volume etc.?
(a) macro process (b) formal process
(c) antecedent process (d) sensory process
Ans: (a)

60. Piagas are mainly known for their contribution to the field of …… .
(a) language development (b) cognitive development
(c) moral development (d) social development
Ans: (b)

61. Which stage features abstract logic and mature moral thinking in Piaget’s cognitive development theory?
(a) Sensitive-singular state
(b) pre-operation
(c) formal operation
(d) tangible operation state
Ans: (c)

62. The suffix of ‘conservation’ introduced by Jean Piaget implies that—
(a) Keeping in mind the scenario of others is an important cognitive ability
(b) Protection of wildlife and forests is very important
(c) Some physical properties remain the same even if external shapes change.
(d) The correct conclusion can be arrived at by duly testing the hypothesis.
Ans: (c)

63. Which of the following statements is the correct statement about Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?
(a) The order of these steps can be changed according to the cultural basis of the children.
(b) Piagas argues that cognitive development is continuous rather than progressing in 4 stages.
(c) Piaget has proposed five clear stages of cognitive development.
(d) No phase can be omitted because these phases are stationary.
Ans: (d)

64. Which one of the following is a correctly matched pair?
(a) Tangible operational child – maintainable and classifiable
(b) Formal operational child – Start simulation, Imaginary game
(c) Infancy – Application of logic and capable of inference
(d) Pre-operative child – deductive consideration
Ans: (a)

65. The process of changing the current schema (concept) to include new information is called …….
(a) adaptation (b) assimilation
(c) adjustment (d) egocentricity
Ans: (c)

66. According to Piaget 2 to 7 a child between the years of cognitive development …….. ‘s stage
(a) pre-operative (b) formal operational
(c) tangible operational (d) sensory dynamics
Ans: (a)

67 . Cognitive ability coming in pre-operative period is
(a) Ability to think abstractly
(b) Conceptual inference thinking
(c) Ability for goal-oriented behavior
(d) Ability to understand other’s point of view
Ans: (c)

68. When infants up to one year “think” with eyes, ears and hands, which of the following levels is involved?
(a) pre- operative level (b) sensitized singular level
(c) intangible operational level (d) tangible operational level
Ans: (b)

69. According to Piaget’s theory, through which of the following do children learn?
(a) Memorizing information with proper attention
(b) Based on support provided by economically qualified members of society
(c) processes of adaptation
(d) Change in its behavior when appropriate rewards are given
Ans: (c)

70. Finding hidden objects is a sign that the child is beginning to acquire skill in which of the following cognitive functions?
(a) good behavior (b) commodity stability
(c) problem solving (d) experiment
Ans: (b)

71. In the perspective of Piaget’s developmental theory – which of the following diagrams explains development appropriately.
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
Ans: (a)

72. Which of the following implications cannot be derived from Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?
(a) Children’s sensitivity to learning readiness
(b) Acceptance of personal distinctions
(c) exploratory learning
(d) literal learning required
Ans: (d)

73. According to Piagha, In which of the following stages does the child start thinking logically about abstract concepts?
(a) Formal-operational stage (12 years and above)
(b) Sensory-sensitive stage (born – 02 years)
(c) Pre-operational stage (02-07 years)
(d) Tangible-operational state (07-11 years)
Ans: (a)

74. The stage when a child starts thinking logically about objects and events.
(a) formal-operational state
(b) Pre-operational state
(c) tangible operational state
(d) Sensory-paracrine state
Ans: (c)

75. According to Piagha, At what stage of cognitive development does the child demonstrate ‘object stability’?
(a) tangible operational phase
(b) formal operational phase
(c) Sensory motive phase
(d) Pre-operational phase
Ans: (c)

76. According to Piaget’s cognitive theory of learning, the process by which cognitive structure is modified is called, …….
(a) observation (b) adjustment
(c) inclusion (d) schema
Ans: (b)

77. The first stage of development by Piaget (born approximately 2 ages old) child during ……….. the best learns.
(a) abstract thinking
(b) Application of newly acquired knowledge of language
(c) By the use of senses
(d) idle (neutral) by understanding the words
Ans: (c)

78. Four distinct stages of children’s intellectual development were identified
(a) by Erikson (b) by Skinner
(c) Piaget (d) Kohlberg
Ans: (c)

79. Answer: In childhood, children begin to understand changes in which essential elements of physical objects?
(a) mass (b) mass and number
(c) number (d) mass, number and area.
Ans: (d)

80. Four stages of cognitive development – sensory muscle, pre-operative, macro-operative and formal operative, have been identified.
(a) by Hillguard (b) by Stott
(c) Harlock (d) Piaget
Ans: (d)

81. Children’s thinking comes from tangible experiences and suffixes rather than abstraction. This is the state
(a) 7 to 12 years (b) 12 to adult
(c) 2 to 7 years (d) From birth to 2 years.
Ans: (a)

82. Piazza has given this name to the abilities and abilities-
(a) Schema
(b) Accomodation
(c) Ego centrism
(d) assimilation
Ans: (a)

83. What is an object and how do we deal with it? In this subject, the mental pattern or idea associated with it is called-
(a) construction (b) network
(c) schema (d) structure
Ans: (c)

84. According to Piaget, the stage of development of the age of 7 to 12 years is called:
(a) tangible operational (b) formal operational
(c) pre-operative (d) sensory muscular state
Ans: (a)

85. Which of the following theories refers to the understanding that objects exist even when they cannot be seen or experienced?
(a) Protection (b) Object stability
(c) Theory of mind (d) Lifeism
Ans: (b)

86. When new ideas are incorporated into existing ideas, they are known as …………….
(a) optimization (b) replication
(c) assimilation (d) reproduction
Ans: (c)

87. Who described a phenomenon called Horizontal Dekalayu?
(a) Erickson (b) Piaget
(c) Freud (d) Vygotsky
Ans: (b)

88. A 12- year-old child understands that the weight of a table remains the same, whether it is on the right side or vomiting. Which principle has he understood?
(a) Protection (b) Inductive logic
(c) Object stability (d) Envisaged logic
Ans: (a)

89. Which one of the following is not a sub-state of the sensible singing state of the Piagas?
(a) secondary circular response (b) spontaneous activity
(c) primary circular response (d) serialization
Ans: (d)

90. According to the theory of cognitive development, tangible operational state begins at age …….
(a) 5 (b) 1
(c) 3 (d) 7
Ans: (d)

91. A child says that his friend who is 5 feet tall, may be older than his uncle, who is only 4 feet tall. This approach to explain the height of a person can be attributed to the child in …….
(a) formal operational state
(b) Sensorimotor state
(c) pre-operational state
(d) tangible operational state
Ans: (c)

92. Radha asks her students to make questions for them from a chapter and write answers related to them. At what stage of cognitive development does a student benefit most from the implication of this task?
(a) Sensory motor state
(b) tangible operational state
(c) formal operational state
(d) pre-operational state
Ans: (c)

93. Which principle of conservation focuses on the amount of an existing substance?
(a) weight (b) area
(c) mass (d) length
Ans: (c)

94. What cognitive abilities are children demonstrating when they relate objects to human qualities?
(a) Egocentrism (b) Protection
(c) Creativity (d) Object stability
Ans: (c)

95. According to Piag, , Intellectual development takes place through the world friendly. Through what does this happen?
(a) absorption and accommodation
(b) Procurement and autocorrelation
(c) assimilation and accommodation
(d) assimilation and adaptation
Ans: (c)

96. According to Jean Piaje, abstract reasoning and reasoning skills develop in children during ……….
(a) tangible operational state
(b) formal operational state
(c) Pre-operational state
(d) Sensorimotor state
Ans: (b)

97. At what stage does the theory of conservation develop in children?
(a) tangible operational state
(b) Post-formal stage
(c) Pre-operational state
(d) formal operational state
Ans: (a)

98. According to Piaget, When an infant reaches the age of about 18 – 24 months, they begin to develop what they have called ……….
(a) Egocentrism (b) Individual fantasy
(c) Object stability (d) Inductive logic
Ans: (c)

99. According to Jean Piazza, Cognitive development begins at …… stage.
(a) tangible-operational
(b) Pre-operational
(c) formal operational
(d) Sensorimotor
Ans: (d)

100. According to Jean Piazza How do children of pre-operative stage?
(a) Egocentric (b) Flexible
(c) complex (d) social
Ans: (a)

101. The way a person presents any information in his brain, This is an example of his following-
(a) personal characteristics (b) cognitive characteristics
(c) emotional characteristics (d) teaching characteristics
Ans: (b)

102. Naïve’s father’s hair is white and long, so she thinks that everyone’s father’s hair is white and long. At what stage is this approach?
(a) formal operational state
(b) tangible operational state
(c) Sensorimotor state
(d) pre-operational state
Ans: (d)

103. Piaget developed ………… important stages of cognitive development.
(a) five (b) eight
(c) four (d) three
Ans: (c)

104. Ruhi; She is 11 months old and calls every white liquid item milk. Which natural nature of the concept development process has been shown by Ruhi?
(a) analysis (b) demutualization
(c) normalization (d) experience
Ans: (c)

105. Optimism is the belief that whatever exists there is some kind of consciousness. Which of the following does not describe the idea of ​​animism in children at the pre-operational level of development?
(a) A child who bruises his leg while hitting a chair, will happily ‘push the mischievous chair’.
(b) A child prepares as a fireman for a fancy dress competition.
(c) A high mountain will be considered as ‘old’.
(d) A car that will not be started will be described as ‘tired’ or ‘sick’.
Ans: (b)

106. What is the word that Piaje has used to describe imitations made with parts of the body that no one can see.
(a) invisible copying (b) spatial copying
(c) Visible copying (d) Model copying
Ans: (a)

107. How many sub-stages are there in the sensorimotor stage of cognitive development?
(a) seven (b) five
(c) six (d) eight
Ans: (c)

108. According to the view of …….., A schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of acquiring that knowledge.
(a) Jean Piaget (b) Eric Erickson
(c) Jerome Brunner (d) Singmond Freud
Ans: (a)

109. By whom is the child directed at the beginning of life?
(a) maturity (b) intuitive
(c) learning (d) none of these
Ans: (b)

110. Image, Concept, Symbols and Signs, Language, Physical Action and Mental Action is embedded.
(a) adaptation
(b) Motivational muscle development
(c) Problem resolution
(d) reflective process
Ans: (b)

111. Riya does not agree with Rishabh to fix a picnic in class. She thinks the rules can be amended to fit the majority. This classmate protests, according to Piaget, which of the following is related to?
(a) cognitive immaturity
(b) response
(c) Ethics of cooperation
(d) heterodox ethics
Ans: (c)

112. Which of the following can be considered as a contribution of Kohlberg’s theory?
(a) His theory has supported an association between cognitive maturity and moral maturity.
(b) This theory has elaborate testing procedures.
(c) It establishes a clear connection between moral reasoning and action.
(d) They believe that children are moral philosophers.
Ans: (a)

113. Read the following description and identify the state of Kohlberg’s moral reasoning. Description : Right action is defined by self-selected moral principles of conscience which is valid for the whole of humanity irrespective of law and social agreement.
(a) Social-contract orientation
(b) Social-order orientation
(c) Universal Ethical Theory Orientation
(d) mechanical object orientation
Ans: (c)

114. A child presents the argument that Hinz should not steal medicine (the medicine necessary to save his wife’s life), because if he does so he will be caught and sent to prison. According to Kolberg, under what stage of moral understanding does that child fall?
(a) Social-order controller orientation
(b) Punishment and obedience orientation
(c) Universal Ethical Theory Orientation
(d) mechanical object orientation
Ans: (b)

115. Which of the following is a stage of moral development proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg?
(a) tangible operational state
(b) Industry vs. subordination
(c) latency stage
(d) Social contract orientation
Ans: (d)

116. Noor forgot to bring her lunch box to school and asked Tanya to share her lunch saying “You should share your lunch with me today because I shared my lunch with you yesterday.” Lawrence According to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, Nur’s statement ……….. indicates the orientation pattern at the stage of ……..
(a) Obedience; Pre-conventional
(b) being good; Traditional
(c) exchange; Traditional
(d) Law and order; Post-conventional
Ans: (c)

(1) Pre-conventional level
(1) self-centered judgment
(2) Punishment and obedience orientation
(3) mechanical relative orientation
(2) conventional level
1. Mutual Orientation
2. Rights Protection Orientation
(3) Post-Conventional Level 1. Social Contract Legal Orientation
2. Universal moral principle orientation
118. According to Kohlberg, the level in which the morality of a child is controlled by fear of punishment is called −
(a) Pre-moral state (b) Traditional moral standard
(c) Self-accepted moral condition (d) Ethics level
Ans: (a)

119. According to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development and its different levels, which one of the following steps is not proposed by him?
(a) self-centered judgment
(b) Mutually homogeneous orientation
(c) Individuality and exchange orientation
(d) Legal contract legal orientation
Ans: (c)

120. According to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, decides the right or wrong in terms of fulfilling the hopes and wishes of the people in the following stages.
(a) phase- 1 (b) stage- 2
(c) phase- 3 (d) stage- 4
Ans: (b)

121. Rohit put back the pencil he had taken from Ajay’s desk as he was afraid of being punished if caught. What level does it refer to Kohlberg?
(a) Pre-conventional level (b) Traditional level
(c) Post-conventional level (d) Pre-operational level
Ans: (a)

122. The moral rationale of a 9- year-old child is based on—
(a) The physical consequences of an action determine its good or evil.
(b) The correctness of an action depends on the fact that it fulfills its needs.
(c) There should be some benefit in return for following the rules
(d) The right thing to do is to be done by a person who affects other people with his behavior.
Ans: (a)

123. Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning is criticized for many things. Which of the following statements is correct in relation to this criticism?
(a) Kohlberg has reiterated Piaget’s principles to arrive at his theoretical framework.
(b) Kohlberg has not given a specific answer for every step of moral reasoning.
(c) Kohlberg’s theory does not focus on children’s responses.
(d) Kohlberg has based his study basically on samples of men.
Ans: (d)

124. According to Kohlberg, 4 children learn
(a) stages of cognitive development
(b) stages of physical development
(c) stages of emotional development
(d) stages of moral development
Ans: (d)

125. According to Kohlberg, the thinking process involved in deciding the right and wrong question is called—
(a) moral dilemma (b) morality of cooperation
(c) moral reasoning (d) moral realism
Ans: (c)

126. A child presents an argument, “You do this for me and I will do that for you.” Under what stage of moral reasoning does this child come under Kohlberg?
(a) ‘Good boy-girl’ orientation
(b) Social contract orientation
(c) Supporting objective orientation
(d) Penalty and Obligation Orientation
Ans: (d)

127. You as a teacher / teacher are strongly opposed to ‘ragging and bullying’ and in this context get posters and committees in the school. Adolescents who join you are firm believers of this idea. At which of the following levels will it be?
(a) Traditional
(b) Pre-traditional
(c) North traditional
(d) social system maintainer
Ans: (c)

128. Which of the following is a symptom of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development?
(a) Universal chain of steps related to all cultures
(b) Different stages proceed in a non-hierarchical form.
(c) Variable sequence of steps
(d) Different stages are different responses, not general patterns
Ans: (a)

129. What is a major criticism of Kohlberg’s theory?
(a) Kohlberg presented the principle without any empirical basis
(b) Kohlberg did not mention clear stages of moral development
(c) Kohlberg proposed that moral rationality is developmental
(d) Kohlberg did not give importance to cultural differences in the moral rationality of men and women.
Ans: (d)

130. According to Kohlberg, at what stage is morality determined by external factors?
(a) Pre-traditional state
(b) traditional state
(c) Post- conventional state
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b)

131. Kohlberg’s development theory is related to which of the following?
(a) language development (b) cognitive development
(c) moral development (d) social development
Ans: (c)

132. The specific answer given to a child will fall under which step of the content of the steps of Kohlberg’s moral reasoning? “If you are honest” your parents will be proud of you. So you should be honest.
(a) Punitive obedience optimization
(b) social contraction adaptation
(c) Good girl-good boy adaptation
(d) Law and Order Adaptation
Ans: (c)

133. Kohlvarg has presented.
(a) stages of cognitive development
(b) stages of physical development
(c) stages of emotional development
(d) stages of moral development
Ans: (d)

134 . Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?
(a) Punishment and obedience orientation-rules are not fixed but can be changed in the interest of society
(b) Social contract orientation – the physical consequences of a task determine whether it is good or bad
(c) Good boy and good girl orientation- By becoming good, one gets acceptance
(d) Rules and order orientation – Ethical principles are chosen on the basis of the value of human rights.
Ans: (c)

135. In Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory, which level indicates the absence of morality in the true sense?
(a) Level III (b) Level IV
(c) Level I (d) Level II
Ans: (c)

136. According to the pre-traditional level of Kohlberg’s theory, which of the following will a person be inclined towards when making an ethical decision?
(a) Underlying Possible Penalty
(b) Personal needs and wishes
(c) personal value
(d) Family expectations
Ans: (a)

137. A power Kshi says in its class, ” given tasks of all kinds (A Ssignments) Built to learn more impressive each student that has been type manner, so your help another without all students Get the job done. ”She is pointing to which moral development phase of Kohlberg?
(a) Formal phase – 4 law and order
(b) On – Formal Phase- 5 Social Contract
(c) Pre-formal phase- 1 punishment
(d) Pre-formal stage- 2 personal and regulations
Ans: (a)

138. Which of the following is a symptom of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development?
(a) Variable sequence of steps
(b) Different stages are different responses and not general patterns
(c) Universal series of stages related to all cultures
(d) Different stages move towards a non-hierarchical form
Ans: (c)

139. Which of the following steps do elementary school children follow, as proposed by Lawrence Kohlberg?
A. Obedience and Punishment Orientation
B. Personality and Exchange
C. Good personal relationships
D. Social contract and personal rights
(a) A and B (b) B and D
(c) A and D (d) A and C
Ans: (a)

140. Karnail Singh does not pay income tax despite legal proceedings and expenses . They think that they cannot support a corrupt government which spends millions of rupees on the construction of unnecessary dams. He is probably in what stage of moral development in Kohlberg?
(a) Post-traditional (b) Pre -conventional
(c) Traditional (d) Traditional
Ans: (a)

141. According to Kohlberg, teacher can develop moral values ​​in children
(a) By giving importance to religious education
(b) By making clear rules of behavior
(c) by involving them in discussions based on ethical issues
(d) giving strict instructions on how to behave
Ans: (c)

142. Which of the following, according to Kohlberg, falls under the stage of traditional morality?
(a) Orientation to punishment and order
(b) Social sympathy and discretion
(c) Ethics of universal moral values
(d) Supporting objectives and exchange
Ans: (b)

143. According to Kohlberg, what is the first stage in moral development?
(a) Pre-traditional ethics
(b) Peri-Conventional Ethics
(c) Traditional ethics
(d) Traditional ethics
Ans: (a)

144. ……… can question the social and political beliefs of parents and elders in the moral development phase.
(a) Post-traditional (b) Formal traditional
(c) Pre-traditional (d) Traditional
Ans: (a)

145. Bruner’s reflective state is similar to which stage of Ciaz’s cognitive development?
(a) formal operational state
(b) pre-operational state
(c) tangible operational state
(d) emotional singular state
Ans: (b)

146. Which of the following states is not a part of Bruner’s cognitive development theory?
(a) inner intelligence (b) reflective state
(c) indicative state (d) functional state
Ans: (a)

147. ………… incorporates the idea of ​​learning as an active process where those learners are able to form new ideas based on their current knowledge as well as their previous knowledge. Are—
(a) John Dewey’s theory on constructionism
(b) Lev Vygotsky’s theory on constructionism
(c) Jean Piaget’s theory on constructionism
(d) Jerome Brunner’s theory on constructionism
Ans: (d)

148. According to Vygotsky, why do children speak to themselves?
(a) Children speak to attract the attention of adults towards them.
(b) Children are very talkative by nature.
(c) Children are egocentric.
(d) Children speak to give direction to their work.
Ans: (d)

149. In the development of language, the concept of ‘inner speech’ was introduced by him;
(a) Piaget (b) Chomsky
(c) Vygotsky (d) Skinner
Ans: (c)

150. The area of proximal development refers to—
(a) The stage when maximum growth is possible
(b) The developmental stage when the child takes full responsibility of learning
(c) A context in which children can almost do something themselves with the right level of cooperation
(d) The point of learning when cooperation can be withdrawn
Ans: (c)

151. “By a proper question / suggestion, the understanding of the child can be taken far beyond the point at which she can reach alone.” Which of the following structures illuminates the above statement?
(a) equilibrium
(b) protection
(c) intelligence
(d) Area of ​​proximal / proximal development
Ans: (d)

152. According to Lev Vygotsky, by whom are the basic mental abilities mainly converted into higher cognitive processes?
(a) Social interaction
(b) stimulus-response relationship
(c) Adaptation and mobilization
(d) Awards and Penalties
Ans: (a)

153. Verbal dialogues that children communicate with themselves What do they call Lev Vygotsky?
(a) personal talk (b) misunderstood
(c) problematic dialogue (d) non- focused dialogue
Ans: (a)

154. While doing the jig-saw puzzle, 5- year-old Najma says to herself “Where is the blue piece?” No, not this one, thick colored which will make this shoe complete. “How does Vygotsky address such talks?
(a) scaffold (structure) (b) self-centered dialogue
(c) personal talk (d) speaking out loud
Ans: (c)

155. Promoting children and providing support when needed, Which of the following is an example?
(A) Modeling (b) scaffold (framework)
(c) reinforcement (d) contraction
Ans: (b)

156. According to ……. It is necessary to understand the influence of social processes and cultural context regarding children’s thinking.
(a) Jean Piaget (b) Lev Vygatsky
(c) Albert Bandura (d) Lawrence Kohlberg
Ans: (b)

157. According to Vygotsky, What is it called when an adult extends the child’s current level of performance by cooperation?
(A) zone of proximal development (b) scaffold (framework)
(c) subjectivity (d) exploratory learning
Ans: (b)

158. ‘Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) fell by suffix
(a) by Bandura (b) by Piaget
(c) by Skinner (d) by Vyngotsky
Ans: (d)

159. Waigotski (Vygotsky) said about child development
(a) It is due to genetics of rites
(b) It is the product of social interactions
(c) is the product of formal education
(d) It results from inclusion and adjustment
Ans: (b)

160. Where did the psychologist Vygotsky belong?
(a) Japan (b) Russia
(c) France (d) China.
Ans: (b)

161. According to Lev Vygotsky, is the root cause of cognitive development.
(a) social interaction
(b) Adjustment of mental patterns (schemas)
(c) stimulating-response coupling
(d) balance
Ans: (a)

162. According to Vygotsky, why do children speak to themselves?
(a) Children speak to get attention of adults towards themselves
(b) Children are very talkative by nature
(c) Children are egocentric
(d) Children speak to give direction to their work
Ans: (d)

163. The fact that children need culturally relevant knowledge. Which of the following person is related to?
(a) Charles Darwin (b) BF Skinner
(c) Yuri Bronfenbrenner (d) Liv Vygotsky
Ans: (d)

164. According to Lev Vygotsky, the root cause of cognitive development is—
(a) balance
(b) social interaction
(c) Adjustment of mental patterns (schemas)
(d) stimulating-response coupling
Ans: (b)

165. Which of the following statements correctly describes Piazza and Vygotsky’s view of language and thought?
(a) Both languages ​​are considered to be born of the child’s thoughts.
(b) According to Vygotsky, the first idea is born, and according to Piaget, language has a great influence on thought.
(c) According to Piazza the first idea is born and according to Vygotsky, language has a huge influence on the idea.
(d) Both believe that thoughts are born out of the child’s language.
Ans: (c)

166. According to Lev Vygotsky—
(a) Children learn a language through a method of language acquisition
(b) Interaction with adults and peers has no effect in language development
(c) linguistic development changes the nature of human thinking
(d) Culture has little role in linguistic development
Ans: (c)

167 . The concept of ‘personal speech’ of 4 children according to Vygotsky’s recommendation
(a) Explains that children are ego-centered
(b) It shows that children are foolish and hence they need to be guided by adults.
(c) shows that children love themselves
(d) Explains that children use language to direct their own actions.
Ans: (d)

168. There is a major variation from the perspective of Vygotsky and Piaget –
(a) His criticism of behavioral theories.
(b) Role of providing a nurturing environment to children.
(c) His perspective on language and thinking.
(d) Concept of children as active creators of knowledge
Ans: (c)

169. In Vygotsky’s theory, which of the following aspects of development is ignored?
(a) cultural (b) organic
(c) linguistic (d) social
Ans: (b)

170. According to the socio-cultural theory of Vygotsky –
(a) Culture and language play an important role in cognitive development
(b) Children think in a different area and they do not take full perspective
(c) If abstract material is presented at a lower age then children think in an abstract way
(d) Self-directed speech is the lowest level of cooperation
Ans: (a)

171. According to Vygotsky, the area of ​​proximal development is –
(a) To determine the extent of cooperation given by the teacher.
(b) Difference between the work that the child can do independently and with the help.
(c) The amount and nature of support provided to the child to achieve his / her strength.
(d) What can the child do on her own that cannot be assessed.
Ans: (b)

172. When adults co- ordinate with cooperation, they facilitate the progression of the child’s current level of performance toward the level of potential ability., This is called—
(a) Proximal development (b) Support
(c) participatory learning (d) collaborative learning
Ans: (a)

173. A 5- year-old girl talks to herself while folding a T-shirt. Which of the following statements is correct in relation to the behavior displayed by the girl?
(a) Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky will explain this as the egocentric nature of the child’s thoughts.
(b) Jean Piazza would call it egocentric language and Lev Vygotsky would interpret it as an attempt by the child to regularize his actions from the private language.
(c) Jean Piaget will interpret it as social interaction and Lev Vygotsky will consider it as research.
(d) Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky will interpret this as a child’s imitation of their mother.
Ans: (b)

174. Piaget gave importance to the biological factors that control growth, while Vygotsky gave the reason for its importance:
(a) thinking process (b) social interaction
(c) physical factors (d) environmental factors
Ans: (b)

175. Which famous professor propounded that children move from a self-centric position to a society-centered one because of social relationships?
(a) John Dui (b) Lev Vygotsky
(c) Jean Piaget (d) Howard Gardner
Ans: (b)

176. There are three major themes in Vygotsky’s social development theory:
(a) Cognitive apprenticeship, Social participation and interpersonal determinism
(b) Cognitive apprenticeship valid peripheral participation Area of ​​proximal development
(c) mutual determinism, encouragement and punishment, academic adaptation (classical conditioning)
(d) Social participation Area of ​​proximal development Other more knowledge-rich
Ans: (d)

177. Who proposed the concept of adjacent development area?
(a) Abraham Maslow (b) Lev Vygotsky
(c) Carl Rogers (d) Albert Bandura
Ans: (b)

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