27. El-Nino, La-Nina and Southern Oscillation

Q- La-Nina which comes after El-Nino affects the Pacific ocean by
(a) Warming it
(b) Cooling it
(c) Maintaining stable temperature
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b)


Q- Match List-I (Layers of Atmosphere) with List-II (Characteristics) and select the correct answer using the code given below the lists: List-I List-II
A. Stratosphere 1.Temperature decrease with increasing height.
B. Exosphere 2.Aurora Boreal’s and Aurora Australis are produced.
C. Troposphere 3.Contains much of the total atmospheric ozone.
D. Ionosphere 4.Noetilucent clouds are observed over high latitude in Summer. Codes A B C D
(a) 5 3 2 4
(b) 3 5 1 2
(c) 3 5 2 4
(d) 5 3 1 2
Ans: (b)


Q- In some years the trade winds can become extremely strong and an abnormal accumulation of cold water can occur in the central and Eastern Pacific. This event is called
(a) La-Nina
(b) El-Nino
(c) Southern Oscillation
(d) None of the above
Ans: (a)


Q- El-Nino Weather creates
(a) Rain and flooding along the Pacific coast
(b) Warm water disrupts food chain of fish, birds, and sea mammals
(c) Tornadoes and thunderstorms in Southern US
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d)


Q- The occasional development of warm ocean surface waters along the coast of Ecuador and Peru is known as
(a) El-Nino and La-Nina
(b) El-Nino
(c) La-Nina
(d) Southern Oscillation
Ans: (b)


Q- Which of the following creates ocean upwelling off the coasts of Peru and Ecuador and brings nutrient-rich cold water to the surface, increasing fishing stocks
(a) Walker circulation
(b) El-Nino and La-Nina
(c) El-Nino
(d) La-Nina
Ans: (a)


Q- Tsunamis are produced by
(a) Shrinking of the earth’s crust
(b) Cyclones
(c) Submarine earthquakes
(d) Tides
Ans: (c)


Q- The development of an El-Nino brings
(a) Drought to the Western Pacific
(b) Rains to the equatorial coast of South America
(c) Convective storms and hurricanes to the central Pacific
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d)


Q- Which of the following statements about La-Nino is/are correct?
(a) La-Nina causes mostly the opposite effects of El-Nino
(b) Atlantic tropical cyclone activity is generally enhanced during La- Nina
(c) La-Nina causes increased rainfall across the United states’ Midwest
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d)


Q- La-Nina Weather creates
(a) Snow and rain on the West coast
(b) Unusually cold weather in Alaska and warm weather in the rest of the USA
(c) Drought in the South-West
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d)


Q- The Effects of La-Nina are
(a) Cooler sea temperatures, high atmospheric pressure and drier air
(b) Currents bring nutrients up from the deep water, providing feast, rather than famine
(c) Accompanying strong winds blow moisture away, making for cloudless skies and dry conditions in equatorial countries
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d)


Q- The first signs of an El-Nino are
1. Rise in surface pressure over the Indian Ocean, Indonesia, and Australia.
2. Fall in air pressure over Tahiti and the rest of the central and Eastern Pacific Ocean.
3. Warm air rises near Peru, causing rain in the Northern Peruvian deserts.
4. Warm water spreads from the west Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the East Pacific.
5. It takes the rain with it, causing extensive drought in the Western Pacific and rainfall in the normally dry Eastern Pacific.
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 1, 2 and 4
(c) 2, 3 and 5
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d)


Q- Which of the following statement is not correct about AI-Nino and La- Nino?
(a) Both El-Nino and La-Nina impact global and U.S. climate patterns
(b) In many locations, especially in the tropics, La-Nina (or cold episodes) produces the opposite climate variations from El-Nino
(c) Parts of Australia and Indonesia are prone to drought during El- Nino, but are typically wetter than normal during La-Nina
(d) La-Nina often features rainy than normal conditions in the South- West in late summer through the subsequent winter
Ans: (d)


Q- Which of the following statement about El-Nino and La-Nino is correct?
(a) It is a periodic change in the atmosphere and ocean of the tropical Pacific region
(b) It is defined in the atmosphere by the sign of the pressure difference betweens Tahiti and Darwin, Australia and in the ocean by warming or cooling of surface waters of the tropical central and Eastern Pacific Ocean
(c) El-Nino is the warm phase of the oscillation and La-Nina is the cold phase
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d)


Q- El-Nino is
(a) A warm current in the Pacific ocean flowing near the coast of Peru
(b) A cold current in the Pacific ocean flowing near the coast of Peru
(c) A warm current in the Atlantic ocean flowing near the coast of Iceland
(d) A cold current in the Atlantic ocean flowing near the coast of Iceland
Ans: (a)


Q- The first research project programme which focused on the El-Nino Southern Oscillation and its predictability was called
(a) Climate variability and predictability
(b) Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX)
(c) Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystem (GCTE)
(d) Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA)
Ans: (a)


Q- The El-Nino which influenced the Indian monsoon is
(a) a cold ocean current that flows Northwards along the coast of Chile
(b) a warm ocean current that flows Westwards along the coast of Ecuador and Peru
(c) a low pressure system over Western coast of Spain
(d) None of the above
Ans: (d)


Q- Which of the following conditions are associated with El-Nino phenomena?
(a) Heavy rains in South America and droughts in Australia
(b) Droughts in South America and heavy rains in Australia
(c) Heavy rains in both South America and Australia
(d) Droughts in both South America and Australia
Ans: (a)


Q- Assertion (A) : El-Nino and La- Nina result from interaction between the surface of the ocean and the atmosphere in the tropical Pacific. Reason (R) : Changes in the ocean impact the atmosphere and climate patterns around the globe. Codes
(a) If (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) If (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) If (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) If (A) is false, but (R) is true
Ans: (b)


Q- Assertion (A) : El-Nino and La-Nina are extreme phases of a naturally occurring climate cycle referred to as El-Nino/Southern Oscillation. Reason (R) : Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific. Codes
(a) If (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) If (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) If (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) If (A) is false, but (R) is true
Ans: (b)


Q- Assertion (A) : El-Nino, which affects wind and rainfall patterns, has been blamed for droughts and floods in countries around the Pacific Rim. Reason (R) : El-Nino refers to the irregular warming of surface water in the Pacific. Codes
(a) If (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) If (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) If (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) If (A) is false, but (R) is true
Ans: (b)


Q- Assertion (A) : According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the El-Nino part of the cycle involves warmer than usual sea temperatures, great amounts of rainfall (in the Northern Hemisphere) and low atmospheric pressure. Reason (R) : The most extreme results of an El-Nino event have included flooding from Ecuador to the Gulf of Mexico, massive marine life die-offs in the Pacific, hurricanes in Tahiti and Hawaii, and concurrent droughts in many other parts of the world from Southern India to Australia to Central America. Codes
(a) If (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) If (A) and (R) are true, but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) If (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) If (A) is false, but (R) is true
Ans: (a)


Q- Which one of the following statements regarding El-Nino is not true?
(a) It is an extension of the Equatorial current towards the Western coast of South America
(b) It is a occasional warm current leading to an increase of about 10°C in surface water temperatures
(c) It develops as an temporary replacement of the usual cold Peruvian current
(d) It cause and increase in planktons which thrive in the cold Peruvian current
Ans: (d)


Q- Assertion (A) : A part from largescale climatic aberrations in the Tropics, El-Nino has a disastrous consequence on the fishing industry of Peru. Reason (R) : El-Nino leads to massive displacements of the rainfall bringing droughts over large parts of the normal raining areas and torrential rains to arid regions of the Tropics. Codes
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true, but
(R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true
Ans: (b)


Q- Consider the following statements:
1. The walker circulation weakens during El-Nino events.
2. El-Nino events often result in flooding in California.
3. During El-Nino years, there are fewer hurricanes in the Atlantic. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 (b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans: (a)


Q- La-Nina is suspected to have caused recent floods in Australia. How is La-Nina different from El-Nino?
1. La-Nina is characterised by unusually cold ocean temperature in equatorial Indian Ocean whereas El-Nino is characterised by unusually warm ocean temperature in equatorial Pacific Ocean.
2. El-Nino has adverse effect on South-West monsoon of India, but La-Nina has no effect on monsoon climate. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) Only 1 (b) Only 2
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans: (b)


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