23. Ecology and Environment

Q- In a terrestrial ecosystem, the tropic level that would contain the largest biomass would be the
(a) Producers
(b) Primary consumers
(c) Secondary consumers
(d) Highest order consumers
Ans: (a)

Q- Which of the following regions of our country are known for their rich biodiversity?
(a) Western Ghats and Eastern Himalayas
(b) Western Ghats and Deccan Plateau
(c) Eastern Himalayas and Gangetic Plain
(d) Trans Himalayas and Deccan Peninsula
Ans: (a)

Q- Which of the following is not one of the prime health risks associated with greater UV radiation through the atmosphere due to depletion of stratospheric ozone?
(a) Increased liver cancer
(b) Increased skin cancer
(c) Damage to eyes
(d) Reduced immune system
Ans: (b)

Q- In the past decade, which of the following has not been a major cause of the increase in the world’s population?
(a) Longer life span
(b) Lower infant mortality
(c) Increase in birth rate
(d) Improved sanitation
Ans: (c)

Q- Identify the odd combination of the habitat and the particular animal concerned
(a) Sunderbans – Bengal Tiger
(b) Periyar – Elephant
(c) Rann of Kutch – Wild Ass
(d) Dachigam National Park – Snow Leopard
Ans: (d)

Q- How does the gap between rich and poor countries contribute to the current environmental crisis?
(a) Developed countries consume a disproportionate share of the resources
(b) Rapid industrialisation in developing countries poisons cities
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c)

Q- Extinction of a species in a food chain is compensated by
(a) Food chain
(b) Ecological pyramid
(c) Food web
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c)

Q- When two different species overlap in the same biological niche, they are
(a) Unaffected by one another
(b) Dependent on one another
(c) In co-operation with one another
(d) In competition with one another
Ans: (b)

Q- Many individuals of the same species living together in a defined area form a/an
(a) Community (b) Genus
(c) Population (d) Ecosystem
Ans: (c)

Q- There are three kinds of deserts in India: sand desert, salt desert, and cold desert. One of the states has a cold desert. Name it.
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(b) Himachal Pradesh
(c) Rajasthan
(d) Gujarat
Ans: (a)

Q- This state with the largest forest cover in the country is also the second-richest in mineral deposits. Its forests are being destroyed due to effects of open-cast mining of a coal, iron ore, bauxite, and copper. Name it.
(a) Uttar Pradesh
(b) Himachal Pradesh
(c) Arunachal Pradesh
(d) Madhya Pradesh
Ans: (d)

Q- Which of the following terms best describes the inter-relationship between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and the clover in whose roots they live?
(a) Mutualism (b) Commensalism
(c) Predation (d) Parasitism
Ans: (a)

Q- Which of the following is not a major greenhouse gas?
(a) Carbon dioxide
(b) Methane
(c) Calcium carbonate
(d) Water vapour
Ans: (c)

Q- Which major theory of environmental ethics holds that the environment deserves a kind of direct moral consideration that is not merely derived from human (or animal) interests?
(a) Biocentricism
(b) Ecocentricism
(c) Environmental anthropocentricism
(d) Developmental ethics
Ans: (b)

Q- The progressive series of changes that eventually produce a climax community on what was once a bare rocky island is an example of?
(a) Primary succession
(b) Speciation
(c) Secondary succession
(d) Evolution
Ans: (a)

Q- Organisms that produce many offspring and are not limited by density-dependent factors, usually follow a
(a) Logistic growth curve
(b) Exponential growth curve
(c) Rapid decline in population
(d) All of the above
Ans: (a)

Q- Life expectancy
(a) depends only on death rate
(b) depends only on birth rate
(c) is the average life span of other individuals in a population
(d) refers to life span of an individual
Ans: (c)

Q- The Geysers, a large steam reservoir North of San Francisco, USA, is the world’s largest source of
(a) Coal
(b) Geothermal power
(c) Hydropower
(d) Natural gas
Ans: (b)

Q- The world biodiversity day is celebrated annually on
(a) 5th June
(b) 29th December
(c) 22nd April
(d) 16th September
Ans: (a)

Q- When one animal is used to suppress another, it is called this. For example, if snakes are encouraged in an area, the rodent population will be controlled. What is the term used?
(a) Technical control of pests
(b) Pest control
(c) Botanical control of pests
(d) Biological control of pests
Ans: (d)

Q- The Wildlife Week is celebrated from
(a) 2-8 October
(b) 1-7 June
(c) 16-22 April
(d) 14-20 January
Ans: (a)

Q- A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with its environment
(a) Community (b) Ecology
(c) Ecosystem (d) Terrarium
Ans: (c)

Q- This naturally occurring element in the rice husk makes it termite resistant?
(a) Silicon (b) Phosphate
(c) Nitrates (d) Floride
Ans: (a)

Q- SPM stands for
(a) Suspended Particulate Matter
(b) Standard Particles Material
(c) Suspended Particles Material
(d) None of the above
Ans: (a)

Q- The branch of Biology dealing with the relations and interactions between organisms and their environment
(a) Zoology (b) Sunology
(c) Biology (d) Ecology
Ans: (d)

Q- In the world’s worst nuclear accident in 1986, 31 people died, 129 others suffered acute radiation and many thousands are expected to die prematurely as a result of exposure to radiation released from the stricken plant. Name the site of this mishap.
(a) Three Mile Island, USA
(b) Chernobyl, erstwhile Soviet Union
(c) Bhopal, India
(d) Windscale, UK
Ans: (b)

Q- Crude oil is some times labelled as sour because
(a) It is more acidic
(b) It is more alkaline
(c) It has lower level of sulphur
(d) It has higher amount of sulphur
Ans: (d)

Q- How many species are under threat in mainland France?
(a) Around 10
(b) Around 100
(c) A thousand
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c)

Q- Name the metal contained in broken fluorescent bulbs, tube lights and dead batteries which gets transported with common municipal solid waste and can be easily swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin and can cause damage to the kidneys and nervous system.
(a) Copper (b) Cadmium
(c) Mercury (d) Arsenic
Ans: (c)

Q- Hazardous waste is generated mainly by the industrial sector. It not only causes harm to the environment but also leads to health problems. A small percentage of the hazardous waste is also generated in the house. One of the following is a hazardous waste that is generated in the house.
(a) Paper
(b) Leftover foodstuff
(c) Old batteries
(d) Plastic bags
Ans: (c)

Q- What is France’s global ranking in terms of the number of animal species under threat?
(a) 22
(b) 12
(c) 8
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c)

Q- Sea level is expected to rise because of warmer climate due to the following
(a) Oceans expand as they get warmer
(b) Glaciers and ice-sheets melt
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c)

Q- Composting is one of the oldest forms of disposal of waste. It is the natural process of decomposition of organic waste that yields manure or compost. One of the following is added to the compost to get better results.
(a) Ants (b) Bugs
(c) Snakes (d) Worms
Ans: (c)

Q- Municipal waste is disposed in the open dumps, landfills, sanitary landfills, and is also burnt in large furnaces. This method is known as
(a) Incineration
(b) Blast furnace
(c) Waste furnace
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b)

Q- Over the last 100 years global sea level has risen by about
(a) 20-25 cm
(b) 10-12.5 cm
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b)

Q- When a plant is considered for tissue culture, one prerequisite is that it has to disease free. What is the other?
(a) The leaves should be green
(b) It should have high productivity
(c) It should look strong
(d) The stump should be thick
Ans: (b)

Q- Plastic was once hailed as the wonder material but is now becoming a serious environmental and health problem due to its non-biodegradable nature. Burning of plastics, especially PVC, releases the following harmfull gas into the atmosphere.
(a) Dioxins (b) Le
(c) O (d) PI
Ans: (c)

Q- Animals and plants that live in water are called
(a) Wet (b) Aquatic
(c) Aquamarine (d) Aqua
Ans: (b)

Q- This strain of rice was one of the first High Yielding Varieties of seeds developed in the world. Name it.
(a) IR-8 (b) IS-7
(c) RS-8 (d) RV-9
Ans: (a)

Q- The green colour of the plant is called
(a) Chloromore (b) Chloroless
(c) Chloroplast (d) Chlorophyll
Ans: (d)

Q- The reference to nature in Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection was to
(a) All the living organism around
(b) Only the animal around
(c) The surrounding atmosphere
(d) The natrual environment including the biotic and abiotic factors
Ans: (d)

Q- Which one of the following is not a site for in-situ method of conservation of flora?
(a) Biosphere Reserve
(b) Botanical Garden
(c) National Park
(d) Wildlife Sanctuary
Ans: (b)

Q- The continous sequence of natural processes by which nitrogen in the atmosphere and nitrogenous compounds in the soil are converted
(a) Water Cycle
(b) Nitrogen Cycle
(c) Compost Cycle
(d) Motorcycle
Ans: (b)

Q- The process in which plants make their food
(a) Photochrome
(b) Photocholor
(c) Photography
(d) Photosynthesis
Ans: (d)

Q- Which of the following is the most chemically polluted?
(a) Dzerzhinsk (Russia)
(b) La Oroya (Pera)
(c) Linfen (China)
(d) Sum gayit (Azerbaijan)
Ans: (a)

Q- Most waste generated in the house can be recycled, but there are certain items that cannot be recycled. In the list given below, which item is not recyclable.
(a) Newspaper
(b) Plastic bags
(c) Old medicines
(d) Glass bottles
Ans: (b)

Q- People all over the world have thought of innovative ideas for use of waste. One man in India, Nek Chand, has developed an exquisite artwork from garbage, a rock garden in this city.
(a) Chennai (b) Lucknow
(c) Chandigarh (d) Bengaluru
Ans: (c)

Q- A series of organisms interrelated in their feeding habits, the smallest being fed upon by a larger one.
(a) Food Rope
(b) Food web
(c) Food Chain
(d) Food Necklace
Ans: (c)

Q- In this method of disposal of organic waste where the waste is converted to fertilizer, this creature is put in the waste. Name it.
(a) Cockroach (b) Earth worms
(c) Bugs (d) Lizards
Ans: (b)

Q- The municipal solid waste generated in India is about 40% organic matter. Composting is the best method of disposal of organic solid waste. Where was the country’s first aerobic composting plant set up in 1992?
(a) Delhi (b) Mumbai
(c) Calcutta (d) Chennai
Ans: (b)

Q- A glass sided tank, bowl in which aquatic animals live
(a) Ecolumn (b) Shark Tank
(c) Terrarium (d) Aquarium
Ans: (d)

Q- The word “biodiversity” is a combination of which two words?
(a) Biology and diversity
(b) Biomass and diversity
(c) Biosphere and diversity
(d) None of the above
Ans: (a)

Q- Garbage can be put under four categories : organic, toxic, soiled, and recyclable. Of the organic waste, this forms an important part.
(a) Plastic bags
(b) Vegetable peels
(c) Glass
(d) Metal
Ans: (b)

Q- Eco-Mark is given to an Indian product which is
(a) Rich in protein
(b) Environment-Friendly
(c) Economically viable
(d) Pure and unadulterated
Ans: (b)

Q- How many orangutans disappear each year as result of palm oil farming?
(a) 100
(b) 500
(c) 5000
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c)

Q- Cataract blinds atleast 120 million people globally every year. What is its main cause?
(a) Heredity
(b) Ultraviolet radiation
(c) Unbalanced diet
(d) Gasoline fumes
Ans: (b)

Q- Which of the following species of rhinoceros is said to be the most critically endangered species?
(a) Indian one-horned rhinos
(b) Javan rhino
(c) African black rhino
(d) Sumatran rhino
Ans: (b)

Q- There are various municipal waste disposal methods. One of the following methods solves the problem of leaching to some extent.
(a) Open dumps
(b) Sanitary landfills
(c) Landfills
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b)

Q- What is the primary source of food for marine life?
(a) Phytoplankton
(b) Zooplankton
(c) Sea weed
(d) Grass
Ans: (a)

Q- Environmental friendliness of a vehicle could be measured by the amount of pollutants it emits per passenger per kilometre travelled. Rate the environmental friendliness (1 = best & 4 = worst) of the following vehicles as per this criterion : car : scooter : bus : bicycle
(a) 4 : 3 : 2 : 1 (b) 2 : 3 : 4 : 1
(c) 3 : 2 : 4 : 1 (d) 4 : 2 : 3 : 1
Ans: (a)

Q- A poisonous substance is produced in the spores of a fungal mould (‘Aspergillus Flavus’) that grows naturally on peanuts and grains. If ingested it can damage the immune system, cause liver cancer and is also mutagenic inducing chromosomal damage in a wide range of animals. Name this toxin.
(a) Betulinum toxin
(b) Aflatoxin
(c) Dioxin
(d) All of the above
Ans: (b)

Q- Nutrient cycling often operates at the scale of
(a) Biogeographic scales
(b) Individual space
(c) Local patches(d) Closed systems
Ans: (d)

Q- Which type of experiment has the maximum spatial scale?
(a) Laboratory experiment
(b) Natural experiment
(c) Field experiment
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b)

Q- In a natural community, the primary consumers are
(a) Herbivorous (b) Carnivorous
(c) Scavengers (d) Decomposers
Ans: (a)

Q- Proper disposal of hazardous toxic waste is essential as exposure to it can cause serious problems to the health. Which is potentially the safest means of disposing of the most toxic wastes : organic solvents, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and oilbase compounds (including PCBs and dioxins)?
(a) Municipal incineration
(b) Industrial high temperature incineration
(c) Landfills
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b)

Q- In India, Tropical rain forest occurs in
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(b) Andaman and Nicobar
(c) Uttar Pradesh
(d) Himachal Pradesh
Ans: (b)

Q- Which of the following is a primary consumer?
(a) Cow (b) Dog
(c) Hawk (d) Bear
Ans: (a)

Q- The green colour of plants is produced from organelles called
(a) Chloroplasts
(b) Vacuoles
(c) Cell membranes
(d) Cytoplasm
Ans: (a)

Q- “Green house effect” with respect to global warming refers to
(a) Cooling and moist condition
(b) Warming effect
(c) Increased rainfall and greenery
(d) Desertification
Ans: (b)

Q- Which one of the following pairs of organisms are exotic species introduced in India?
(a) Lantana Camara, Water hyacinth
(b) Water hyacinth, Prosopis cinereria
(c) Nileperch, ficus religiosa
(d) Ficus religiosa, lantana Camara
Ans: (a)

Q- Consumers in an ecosystem serve a ‘healthy’ role for a species by consuming animals that are either too weak or too
(a) old (b) fast
(c) young (d) hyper
Ans: (a)

Q- This species of bird native to North America was considered to have been one of the most numerous birds on earth. Intensive shooting and the destruction of the birds’ natural breeding ground brought about a sudden fall in their numbers. The last of this species on earth died in a zoo in Circinnati in 1914. Name this bird.
(a) The Passenger pigeon
(b) The Bald eagle
(c) The Egret
(d) The Falcon
Ans: (a)

Q- Quinine is obtained from
(a) Bark of Cinchona
(b) Root of Cinchona
(c) Wood of Cinchona
(d) Leaves of Cinchona
Ans: (a)

Q- Which element is depleted most from the soil after a crop is harvested?
(a) Nitrogen (b) Potassium
(c) Phosphate (d) Floride
Ans: (b)

Q- Due to advances in mechanization and the development of new strains of crops, food production and consequently human population has increased rapidly since the early 1800’s. This sudden increase in food productivity has been referred to as the
(a) Genetic revolution
(b) Biotechnological revolution
(c) White revolution
(d) Green revolution
Ans: (d)

Q- Evergreen forests in India house the most diverse species of plants and animals in the country and have two of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. Which of the following is not a region of evergreen forests in India?
(a) North-East India
(b) Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(c) Lakshadweep Island
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c)

Q- On the IUCN 2009 red list, how many species are threatened with extinction and listed as such?
(a) Fewer than 400
(b) Approximately 10,000
(c) Approximately 18,000
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c)

Q- An animal that only eats other animals is called a
(a) Omnivore (b) Carnivore
(c) Univore (d) Herbivore
Ans: (b)

Q- An animal that only eats plants is called a
(a) Omnivore (b) Herbivore
(c) Carnivore (d) Univore
Ans: (b)

Q- The Sun is a
(a) Producer of water
(b) Secondary source of energy
(c) Primary producer of energy
(d) Tertiary producer of energy
Ans: (c)

Q- An animal that eats both plants and animals is called a
(a) Omnivore (b) Univore
(c) Carnivore (d) Herbivore
Ans: (a)

Q- An endangered animal, the Elephas maximus is now predominantly found in the protected wildlife sanctuaries and national parks of Kerala, Karnataka and Odisha. Its common name is
(a) Black buck
(b) Asian elephant
(c) Wild buffalo
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b)

Q- The Gir forest was declared a protected area to ensure the safety of this animal and to protect its last habitat. This forest in Gujarat is famous for
(a) Lion
(b) Tiger
(c) Leopard
(d) Elephant
Ans: (a)

Q- Which year has been named International year of Biodiversity by the United Nations?
(a) 2005
(b) 2008
(c) 2010
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c)

Q- Which is not a theory of environmental ethics?
(a) Anthropocentricism
(b) Biocentricism
(c) Ethnocentricism
(d) Ecocentricism
Ans: (b)

Q- India generates about 4.3 million tonnes of hazardous wastes every year. Direct exposure to two chemicals in hazardous waste can cause death. Name them.
(a) Mercury and arsenic
(b) Cyanide and sulphur
(c) Sulphur and arsenic
(d) Mercury and cyanide
Ans: (d)

Q- The natural environment refers to
(a) the atmosphere in a forest
(b) the living organisms and non living object or factors in an area undisturbed by human activity
(c) the plant and animal in the forest
(d) the atmosphere of an area-a forest, lake or an ocean
Ans: (b)

Q- What does the term “locavore” mean?
(a) A bacteria
(b) An endangered species
(c) The consumer who eats only locally grown food products
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c)

Q- Which one among the following groups of items contains only biodegradable items?
(a) Wood, Grass, Plastic
(b) Wood, Grass, Leather
(c) Fruit peels, Lime juice, China clay cup
(d) Lime juice, Grass, Polystyrene cup
Ans: (b)

Q- The concept of ‘carbon credit’ originated from which one of the following?
(a) Kyoto Protocol
(b) Earth Summit
(c) Montreal Protocol
(d) G-8 Summit
Ans: (a)

Q- Which percentage of the world‘s population is still dependent upon “home-made” remedies produced from herbs and plants?
(a) 25%
(b) 50%
(c) 75%
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c)

Q- When a seed begins to grow and develop
(a) Transpiration
(b) Germs
(c) Germination
(d) Evaporation
Ans: (c)

Q- Which one among the following industries produces the most non-biodegradable wastes?
(a) Thermal power plants
(b) Food processing units
(c) Textile mills
(d) Paper mills
Ans: (a)

Q- In white tail deer populations in Michigan, individuals most often show a ………… pattern of dispersion.
(a) Clumped (b) Banded
(c) Uniform (d) Random
Ans: (d)

Q- The interrelated food chains in an ecological community
(a) Food Web
(b) Food Rope
(c) Food Chain
(d) Food Necklace
Ans: (a)

Q- The Ecological pyramid that is always upright
(a) Pyramid of energy
(b) Pyramid of biomass
(c) Pyramid of number
(d) None of the above
Ans: (a)

Q- ‘Nitrosomonas’ bacteria in the root modules of leguminous plants converts nitrogen gas from air into inorganic nitrogen compounds which enrich the soil and can be readily used by plants.Multiple cropping with legumes can thus significantly reduce the need for ………. .
(a) Pesticides
(b) Fertilizers
(c) Irrigation
(d) All of the above
Ans: (b)

Q- What is the main cause for the extinction of some species in tropical forest?
(a) Deforestation
(b) Afforestation
(c) Pollution
(d) Soil erosion
Ans: (a)

Q- Pollution of big cities can be controlled to large extent by
(a) Wide roads and factories away from city
(b) Cleanliness drive and proper use of pesticides
(c) Proper sewage and proper exit of chemicals from factories
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d)

Q- The following pollutant is not contained in the vehicular exhaust emissions
(a) Lead
(b) Ammonia
(c) Carbon monoxide
(d) Particulate matter
Ans: (b)

Q- In India, we find mangoes with different flavours, colours, fibrecontent, sugar content and even shelf-life. The large variation is an account of
(a) Species diversity
(b) Induced mutations
(c) Genetic diversity
(d) Hybridisation
Ans: (c)

Q- Which hypothesis, concerning diversity on Earth, states that biodiversity and ecosystem function are not linked?
(a) Redundancy hypothesis
(b) Rivet hypothesis
(c) Diversity-stability hypothesis
(d) Idiosyncratic hypothesis
Ans: (d)

Q- Following is the most widely discussed impact of climate change
(a) Increase in average sea level
(b) Deforestation
(c) Soil erosion
(d) None of the above
Ans: (a)

Q- When did the last female Alpine ibex disappear in France?
(a) 1980
(b) 2000
(c) 2010
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b)

Q- At what level does the Natura 2000 network operate?
(a) Global
(b) European
(c) French
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b)

Q- Which of the following is considered a hot-spot of biodiversity in India?
(a) Aravali hills
(b) Western Ghats
(c) Indo-Gangetic Plain
(d) Eastern Ghats
Ans: (b)

Q- Genetic diversity in agricultural crops is threatened by
(a) Introduction of high yielding varieties
(b) Intensive use of fertilizers
(c) Extensive intercropping
(d) Intensive use of biopesticides
Ans: (c)

Q- Insectivorous plant generally grow in soil which is deficient in
(a) Water (b) Nitrogen
(c) Potassium (d) Calcium
Ans: (b)

Q- Atomospheric ozone layer which protect us from UV-B & C is getting depleted most by addition of
(a) Chloroflurocarbon
(b) Carbon monoxide
(c) Carbon dioxide
(d) Sulphur dioxide
Ans: (a)

Q- A symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit is best described as
(a) Commensalism
(b) Competative exclusion
(c) Mutualism
(d) Parasitism
Ans: (c)

Q- A one-way relationship where one species benefits at the expense of another is called
(a) Commensalism
(b) Competative exclusion
(c) Parasitism
(d) An obligatory relationship
Ans: (c)

Q- Under optional conditions, the fruit fly (Drosophilia)is capable of producing a new generation every two weeks. This ability is referred to as the ………… of the species.
(a) Carrying capacity
(b) Niche
(c) Biotic potential
(d) Optimal yield
Ans: (c)

Q- The ………… of a species describes the tropic function it fills in its environment.
(a) Niche
(b) Habitat
(c) Carrying capacity
(d) Biotic potential
Ans: (a)

Q- ………… is the least influential in determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes.
(a) Light intensity
(b) Rainfall
(c) Salinity
(d) Temperature
Ans: (c)

Q- The biome concept illustrates
(a) Dominant plant communities
(b) Insect populations
(c) Old field succession
(d) Animal diversity
Ans: (a)

Q- Which creature is featured on the logo for International Year of Biodiversity 2010?
(a) A greater flamingo
(b) A bison
(c) A whale
(d) None of the above
Ans: (a)

Q- Which key person in the promotion of sustainable development and biodiversity issued the following quotation : “the library of life is burning and we don’t even know the titles of the books”?
(a) Jacques Chirac
(b) Gro Harlem Brundtland
(c) Fredrick Reinfeldt
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b)

Q- A study of a meadow ecosystem revealed the following tropic relationships : sweet clover — grasshoppers — toads — snakes. The primary producer (s) in the meadow is (are) …………
(a) Sweet clover
(b) Grasshoppers
(c) Toads
(d) Snakes
Ans: (a)

Q- Bacteria and fungi act as ………… within an ecosystem.
(a) Primary producers
(b) Primary consumers
(c) Secondary consumers
(d) Decomposers
Ans: (d)

Q- The best source of Vitamin C among the following
(a) Lycopersicum esculentum
(b) Cirus medica
(c) Capsicum annum
(d) Phyllanthus emblica
Ans: (d)

Q- Wind erosion is one of the key causes of desertification and occurs when soil is left bare of vegetation. State the major cause of wind erosion in arid and semi-arid lands where this problem is most severe.
(a) Cleaning of land for agriculture
(b) Deforestation
(c) Overgrazing by livestock
(d) Forest fires
Ans: (a)

Q- How many million hectares of forest are destroyed each year around the world?
(a) Approximately 10 million
(b) Approximately 13 million
(c) Approximately 15 million
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b)

Q- Which of the following is not obtained from the bark of a tree?
(a) Cinnamon
(b) Quinine
(c) Tannin
(d) Bhang
Ans: (d)

Q- What is not an indirect service of the world’s ecosystems?
(a) Atmospheric gas regulation
(b) Nutrient cycling
(c) Waste treatment
(d) Water supply
Ans: (d)

Q- What is not an advantage to the Aswan Dam?
(a) Increased prevalence of schistosomiasis
(b) Increased hydroelectric power
(c) Increased area of agricultural land
(d) Increased number of crops per year
Ans: (a)

Q- First national park developed in India is
(a) Gir
(b) Kaziranga
(c) Jim Corbett
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c)

Q- Which of the following is not done in a wildlife sanctuary?
(a) Fauna is conserved
(b) Flora is conserved
(c) Soil and flora is utilised
(d) Hunting is prohibited
Ans: (a)

Q- One of the following bird species was thought to be extinct but has been rediscovered in India by the BNHS (Bombay Natural History Society) in 2002. Name the species.
(a) Pink-headed Duck
(b) Himalayan Mountain Quail
(c) Forest Owlet
(d) Masked Finfoot
Ans: (c)

Q- Which of the following ecosystem are not managed by human?
(a) Urban Parks
(b) Farms
(c) National Parks
(d) Plantations
Ans: (c)

Q- The state’s and citizen’s responsibilities for environmental protection is enshrined in the Constitution of India in the following two articles
(a) 38G and 58 A
(b) 55B and 51D
(c) 48 A and 51G
(d) 59 B and 12D
Ans: (c)

Q- On this day in 1972, the Stockholm Conference on Human Environment was held in Sweden. Since then the World Environment Day is celebrated on this day. State the date.
(a) March 8
(b) June 5
(c) May 22
(d) October 8
Ans: (b)

Q- Which of the following represents the most complex level?
(a) Community (b) Species
(c) Ecosystem (d) Population
Ans: (c)

Q- What is the term for the maximum number of individuals that an area can support indefinitely?
(a) Biotic potential
(b) Carrying capacity
(c) Niche
(d) Maximum density
Ans: (b)

Q- Which sector is the largest emitter of greenhouse gases in India?
(a) Transport
(b) Domestic
(c) Agricultural
(d) Electric power generation
Ans: (d)

Q- The removal of ginseng growing in the Great Smoky Mountain National park is an example of
(a) Stealing
(b) Theft
(c) Plant poaching
(d) Plant rusting
Ans: (c)

Q- Sea turtles are called living fossils for they have been on the earth in their present form for over 150 million years. Of the five species of sea turtles found in the waters of the Indian subcontinent, which is the most populous species?
(a) Keneps Ridley
(b) Loggerhead
(c) Olive Ridley
(d) Flatback
Ans: (c)

Q- CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are greenhouse gases that have caused a rise of 0.3 ºC in the global temperatures in the past century. Name the CFC that is used in refrigerators.
(a) Carbon dioxide
(b) Freon
(c) Methane
(d) Ammonia
Ans: (b)

Q- Name the gas released from landfills, decaying organic matter under shallow water in marshes and bogs, flooded paddy fields, by ruminant animals & termites, and by the burning of biomass. A molecule of this gas has 21 times more global warming potential than a molecule of CO2.
(a) Sulphur dioxide
(b) Methane
(c) Ammonia
(d) Nitrous oxide
Ans: (b)

Q- The Giant Panda is the official symbol of the WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature). In which country is this animal found?
(a) China
(b) India
(c) Myanmar
(d) New Zealand
Ans: (a)

Q- Name a commercially used, genetically modified cotton plant resistant to the deadly cotton pest ‘heliothis’.
(a) PR Cotton (b) Bt Cotton
(c) HR Cotton (d) Ht Cotton
Ans: (b)

Q- Name the term commonly used for a technology that renders seeds sterile after the first generation.
(a) Terminator Technology
(b) Sterile Technology
(c) Killer Technology
(d) None of the above
Ans: (a)

Q- India would phase out the production and consumption of the controlled ODS (ozone-depleting substances) within the time frame and limits specified in the
(a) Vienna Convention
(b) Basel Convention
(c) Montreal Protocol
(d) Agenda 21
Ans: (c)

Q- The massive hole in the ozone layer over the Antarctica was first discovered in
(a) 1976
(b) 1985
(c) 1960
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b)

Q- Bhopal gas tragedy struck in the year 1984 due to the leakage of the following gas
(a) Methyl-iso-cyanate
(b) Nitrous oxide
(c) Methane
(d) Carbon monoxide
Ans: (a)

Q- The specific aim of ecology is to study
(a) how to best preserve diversity
(b) pollution
(c) the distribution patterns of plants and animals on Earth.
(d) All of the above are correct
Ans: (c)

Q- Which one of the following is not included under in-situ conservation?
(a) National park
(b) Sanctuary
(c) Botanical garden
(d) Biosphere reserve
Ans: (c)

Q- The greatest threat to organisms and biodiversity in
(a) Species extinction all over the world
(b) Reduced carrying capacity of the habitat
(c) Biodiversity hotspots
(d) Process of habitat loss
Ans: (d)

Q- Which of the following animals have a diet mainly consisting of bamboo?
(a) Sloth bears
(b) Red pandas
(c) Golden langurs
(d) Hares and rabbits
Ans: (b)

Q- Which of the following is correctly matched pair of an endangered animal and a national park?
(a) Great Indian bustard – Keoladeo National Park
(b) Lion – Corbett National Park
(c) Rhinoceros – Kaziranga National Park
(d) Wild ass – Dudhwa National Park
Ans: (c)

Q- All of the organisms living in a particular area make up
(a) A food chain
(b) A population
(c) A biological community
(d) A biosphere
Ans: (c)

Q- All the populations of different species that occupy and are adapted to a given area, are referred to as a(n)
(a) Ecosystem
(b) Community
(c) Biosphere
(d) Niche
Ans: (b)

Q- A lichen is actually composed of two organisms-a fungus and an algae. They depend on each other for survival. The most specific term that describes their relationship is
(a) Parasitism
(b) Mutualism
(c) Commensalism
(d) Symbiosis
Ans: (b)

Q- An organism’s “trophic” level refers to
(a) The rate of which it uses energy
(b) Where it lives
(c) What is eats
(d) Whether it is early or late in ecological succession
Ans: (c)

Q- Project Tiger, a programme to maintain a viable population of tigers in the country and to chalk out areas for their habitat, was launched in the year
(a) 1975 (b) 1973
(c) 1974 (d) 1971
Ans: (b)

Q- The term used for the conservation of ecosystems and natural habitats and the maintenance and recovery of viable populations of species in their natural surroundings is
(a) Core conservation
(b) In-situ conservation
(c) Ex-situ conservation
(d) Peripheral conservation
Ans: (c)

Q- Which of the following animals is protected in Kaziranga Sanctuary of Assam?
(a) Indian bison
(b) Indian lion
(c) Indian rhinoceros
(d) Indian elephant
Ans: (c)

Q- Climate change may have an impact on the following
(a) Agriculture, natural terrestrial ecosystems and water resources
(b) Air quality, oceans and coastal zones
(c) Energy and human health
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d)

Q- The CERES Principles are
(a) Codes for protection of salmon fisheries
(b) A set of voluntary environmental standards for business
(c) Anti-pollution codes that were adopted at the first Earth Summit in 1992
(d) Designed to eliminate the production of greenhouse gases
Ans: (b)

Q- Which is the first state to implement the path-breaking proposal that environment should be included as a separate subject in schools?
(a) Delhi
(b) Maharashtra
(c) Kerala
(d) Tamil Nadu
Ans: (b)

Q- The formation of ozone hole in the Antarctic region has been a cause of concern. What could be the reason for the formation of this hole?
(a) Presence of prominent tropospheric turbulence; and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons
(b) Presence of prominent polar front and stratospheric: Clouds; and inflow of chlorofluorocarbons
(c) Absence of polar front and stratospheric clouds; and inflow of methane and chlorofluorocarbons
(d) Increased temperature at polar region due to global warming
Ans: (b)

Q- By 2100 AD, global temperature is expected to rise by about 2ºC and consequently, the sea level by about 50 cm from the present level. How is a rise in temperature expected to increase the level of the sea?
(a) By expanding ocean water
(b) By melting mountain glaciers
(c) By causing ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland to melt and slide into the oceans
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d)

Q- Which is of the following does not fit into a preservation ethic attitude towards the environment?
(a) Nature has intrinsic value
(b) Continual change and human progress is good in itself
(c) A reverence for life and respect for the rights of all creatures
(d) Human species depends on, and learn from nature
Ans: (b)

Q- Forests ecosystems that have suffered a tremendens destruction of habit comprise
(a) Temperate forests
(b) Tropical rain forests
(c) Tropical deciduous forests
(d) None of the above
Ans: (b)

Q- Which of the following pairs of an animal and a plant represents endangered organisms in India?
(a) Banyan and black duck
(b) Bentinckia nicobarica and red panda
(c) Tamarind and rhesus monkey
(d) Cinchona and leopard
Ans: (b)

Q- The rate of growth of a natural population
(a) Always reaches the carrying capacity of the ecosystem
(b) Is limited by the carrying capacity of the ecosystem
(c) When graphed, always has a positive slope
(d) Is calculated by subtracting death rate from birth rate
Ans: (b)

Q- All of the logic and mathematical calculations done by the computer happen in/on the
(a) system board
(b) central control unit
(c) central processing unit
(d) motherboard
Ans: (c)

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