Translation is of immense importance today. With rapid commercialization, the narrow barriers between nations are fast disappearing. In the past, there used to be practically no communication amongst nations. The modern world, however, is no longer divided into watertight compartments. We are heading towards one world, thanks to development in the fields of communication among nations today. Translation forges bonds of unity amongst people who speak different languages. Even if we do not know a particular language or the literature of a particular nation, we can know its richness and the depth of its ideas through translation. Translation also helps in understanding the rich cultural heritage of a nation. Thus a multilingual person has a multifocal view of the world. Translation also serves as a mode of cultural exchange in a multilingual country. It plays a pivotal role in the evolution of a pluralistic national identity. The achievement of translation is both the globalisation of culture and the promotion of intra and intercultural bonding. One may appreciate and enjoy through translation the plays of Shakespeare even if one does not know the English language. One may also know the rich world of Homer, Virgil, Dante, Milton, Dickens, Hardy, Leo Tolstoy, Zola and Munshi Prem Chand through translation. Translation responds to our intellectual, cultural and spiritual needs. It is necessary for information and for the exchange of ideas. Translation, which has hitherto been neglected and marginalized, has assumed importance with rapid globalization. It is now considered an art which requires mastery and perfection. A good translator is able to do away with superficiality and has a clear understanding of the text to be translated. He should have mastery over the subtle nuances of the language from which he is translating. Translating a passage of one language into another literally is not only impossible but would also result in incorrect grammar and syntax. MEANINGS OF WORDS/PHRASES (a) forges (V.): to put a lot of effort into making something successful/ strong so that it will last (b) hither to (Adv.): up to the present time (c) subtle (Adj.): not very noticeable/obvious (d) nuances (N.): a very slight difference in meaning, sound, colour/feelings (5) syntax (N.): a systematic orderly arrangement
Q1. According to the author, what does translation do?
(a) Translation divides the world into compartments.
(b) Translation brings together people speaking different languages.
(c) Translation gives rise to animosity among people.
(d) Translation is a means to succeed in the practical world.
Ans: (b) Translation brings together people speaking different languages.
Q2. How does translation help us?
(a) It creates a babel of tongues.
(b) It denies us access to other cultures.
(c) It provides an insight into the cultural heritage of a nation/people.
(d) It helps us to understand the ideas of the other languages.
Ans: (c) It provides an insight into the cultural heritage of a nation/ people.
Q3. Globalisation has _____
(a) neglected the importance of translation.
(b) made us aware of the importance of translation.
(c) allowed us to enjoy the works of great writers.
(d) given translation its rightful place.
Ans: (d) given translation its rightful place.
Q4. What should be the approach of a good translator?
(a) Have mastery over his language.
(b) Have good knowledge of the other literature.
(c) Do away with the nuances and express only the main ideas.
(d) Do away with the unwanted things and express only the main ideas.
Ans: (d) Do away with the unwanted things and express only the main ideas.
Q5. What should be the primary concern while translating a passage from one language into another?
(a) Structural lapses should be ignored.
(b) Word by word translation should be done
(c) The sense should be conveyed.
(d) The arrangement of the words in the original should be retained.
Ans: (c) The sense should be conveyed.
The Eiffel Tower is an iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris. It was named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. Erected in 1889, it was initially criticised by some of France’s leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but has become both a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world. The tower is the tallest structure in Paris and the most visited monument in the world; 6.98 million people ascended it in 2011. The tower received its 250 millionth visitor in 2010. The tower is 324 metres, about the same height as an 81-storey building. During its construction, the Eiffel Tower surpassed the washington Monument to assume the title of the tallest manmade structure in the world. The tower has three levels for visitors, with restaurants on the first and second. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift to the first and second levels. Although there are stairs to the third and highest level, these are usually closed to the public and it is generally only accessible by lift. As a global landmark, the Eiffel Tower is featured in media including films, video games, and television shows.
Q6. Choose the most appropriate response.
(a) The name of the tower is not connected with anyone.
(b) The name of the tower is connected with a real person.
(c) The name of the tower is connected with a certain company.
(d) The name of the tower is connected with another tower in Paris.
Ans: (b)The name of the tower is connected with a real person.
Q7. What is the Eiffel Tower made of?
(a) It is made of wood.
(b) It is made of stone.
(c) It is made of iron structure.
(d) It is made of silver.
Ans: (c) It is made of iron structure.
Q8. Select the most appropriate answer from the passage.
(a) The Eiffel Tower continues to be criticised by French intellectuals and artists.
(b) The Eiffel Tower has never been criticised by French intellectuals and artists.
(c) The Eiffel Tower will never be criticised by French intellectuals and artists.
(d) The Eiffel Tower was critic ised at the beginning by French intellectuals and artists.
Ans: (d)The Eiffel Tower was criticised at the beginning by the French intellectuals and artists.
Q9. Why is 2010 considered a significant year?
(a) A year marked by a decline in tourism.
(b) A year marked by unfortunate accidents.
(c) A year marked by a landmark achievement in French tourism.
(d) A year marked by stagnation.
Ans: (c) A year marked by a landmark achievement in French tourism.
Q10. Which statement truly reflects the status of the Eiffel Tower?
(a) The Eiffel Tower features prominently in popular culture.
(b) The Eiffel Tower is simply a regional icon.
(c) The Eiffel Tower has no international or aesthetic appeal.
(d) The Eiffel Tower has never captured public imagination.
Ans: (a) The Eiffel Tower features prominently in popular culture.
Is there any difference between “genius” and “talent” ? We generally feel that a man of genius is in some way higher than a man of talent; and that talented men are more common than genius. This is true, but it is rather vague. Genius implies “very extraordinary gifts or native powers, especially as displayed in original creation, discovery, expression or achievement; phenomenal capacity regarded as relatively independent of instruction and training”. Talent, on the other hand, consists of “mental endowments or capacities of superior character; marked mental ability“. “Talent” is more the capacity to learn to do a thing well; but “genius” is an inborn inspiration that drives a man to do a thing with original excellence. As Meredith said, “Genius does what it must, and talent does what it can”. Shakespeare in drama and poetry, Issac Newton in science, Napoleon in war, Beethoven in music, were geniuses; many wellknown poets, scientists, generals and musicaians have been men of talent.
Q11. What is the general view of a “genius” and a “talented” man?
(a) A genius is more superior than other men
(b) A talented man is a skilful man.
(c) A genius is superior to the man of talent and that talented men are more common than genius.
(d) A genius looks down on a talented man.
Ans: (c) A genius is superior to the man of talent and that talented men are more common than genius.
Q12. A genius is a man with _____ ideas.
(a) common (b) original
(c) clever (d) bright
Ans: (b) original
Q13. To learn to do a thing well is to be _____ .
(a) professional (b) skillful
(c) talented (d) a genius
Ans: (c) talented
Q14. Who can be considered a true genius ?
(a) Any independent thinker.
(b) An exceptionally intelligent person.
(c) An interesting person.
(d) Any amusing and constructive thinker.
Ans: (b) An exceptionally intelligent person.
Q15. As per the ideas expressed in the passage, Shakespeare, in drama and poetry, is genius and ______.
(a) Issac Newton is a talented scientist.
(b) There are many other wellknown talented musicians.
(c) Napoleon is a genius in music.
(d) There are many generals who are geniuses.
Ans: (b) There are many other well known talented musicians.
Marie Curie was one of the most accomplished scientists in history. Together with her husband, Pierre, she discovered radium, an element widely used for treating cancer, and studied uranium and other radio active substances. Pierre and Marie’s amicable collaboration later helped to unlock the secrets of the atom. Marie was born in 1867 in Warsaw, Poland, where her father was a Professor of Physics. At an early age, she displayed a brilliant mind and a casual personality. Her great exuberance for learning prompted her to continue with her studies after high school. She became disgruntled, however, when she learned that the university in Warsaw was closed to women. Determined to receive a higher education, she defiantly left Poland in 1891 entered the Sorbonne, a French University, where she earned her master’s degree and Doctorate in Physics. MEANINGS OF WORDS/PHRASES (a) accomplished (Adj.): highly skilled (b) amicable (Adj.): friendly (c) exuberance (N.): joyful enthusiasm (d) disgruntled (V.): put into a bad mood; annoyed (5) defiantly (Adv.): in a rebellious manner
Q16. What kind of collaboration helped Curie’s to unlock the secrets of the atom?
(a) friendly (b) competitive
(c) courteous (d) industrious
Ans: (a) friendly
Q17. What will best describe Marie Curie’s personality?
(a) strong (b) lighthearted
(c) humorous (d) envious
Ans: (b) light hearted
Q18. When she learned that she could not attend the university in Warsaw, Marie felt___.
(a) hopeless (b) annoyed
(c) happy (d) perversely excited
Ans: (b) annoyed
Q19. Marie _____ left Poland and travelled to France to enter the Sorbonne.
(a) boldly (b) showed intelligence
(c) behaved (d) was distressed
Ans: (a) boldly
Q20. Marie Curie’s doctorate was in which academic discipline?
(a) Medicine (b) Cancer studies
(c) Radiation Chemistry (d) Physics
Ans: (d) Physics
Directions: In the following questions, there are six passages. Read each passage carefully and choose the best answer to the given questions out of the four alternatives. PassageI In the past, man’s worst enemy was Nature. He lived under the continual threat of famine and pestilence, a wet summer could bring death to the whole Nation and every winter was a menace. Mountains stood like a barrier between people and sea was less a highway than an impassable division. Today Nature, though still an enemy, is an enemy almost completely conquered. Modern agriculture assures us of an ample food supply. Modern transportation has made the resources of the entire planet accessible to all its inhabitants. Modern medicine and sanitation allow dense populations to cover the ground without risk of pretence. True, we are still at the mercy of the more violent natural convulsions. Against earthquake, flood and hurricane man has, as yet, devised no adequate protection. At most times, Nature is no longer formidable, she has been subdued. MEANINGS OF WORDS/PHRASES (a) pestilence (N.): any infectious disease that spreads quickly and kills a lot of people (b) menace (N.): a threat (c) accessible (Adj.): capable of being reached (d) convulsions (N.): disturbances (5) formidable (Adj.): inspiring fear (6) subdued (Adj.): brought under control
Q21. In ancient times, Man had an apprehension of
(a) epidemics. (b) severe droughts.
(c) floods. (d) All of these
Ans: (d) All of these
Q22. Modern medicine has helped man
(a) to live longer everywhere in the world.
(b) to live a healthy life in hygienic conditions.
(c) to live in thickly populated areas without fear of epidemics.
(d) to balance population with available resources.
Ans: (c) to live in thickly populated areas without fear of epidemics
Q23. The modern transport system is a blessing as it
(a) has helped decrease the distance between towns and villages.
(b) has brought comfort to both towns and villages.
(c) has made all the commodities available to everyone.
(d) has encouraged people to travel for pleasure.
Ans: (c) has made all the commodities available to everyone.
Q24. Which of the following statement best reflects the underlying conviction of the passage?
(a) Man can do wonders.
(b) Man’s knowledge has no end.
(c) Man has been able to control Nature to a great extent.
(d) Man has been able to control Nature completely.
Ans: (c) Man has been able to control nature to a great extent.
Q25. Man has not yet succeeded in controlling the furies of
(a) earthquakes. (b) floods.
(c) hurricanes. (d) All of these
Ans: (d) All of these.
PassageII Akbar had quarreled with Birbal over something important and had asked him not to come to the palace again. Akbar started missing Birbal and wanted him back but could not find out where he was. Akbar hit upon a plan. He sent a message to all the villages that wells had been selected to wed the royal well and so they had to bring the bride to the capital immediately. The headmen of the various villages were alarmed at the impossible task and came rushing to the capital to apologise for their inability to move their wells. One man, Khaji, however, came to discuss the details of the wedding. Khaji wanted to know whether the marriage ceremony would be conducted in the traditional manner. Akbar assured him that all the formalities would be observed. Khaji was happy and assured Akbar that he would bring the bride to the gates of the city. Khaji added that according to the tradition, the bridegroom was to meet the bride at the village gates and take her into the city. He also asked Akbar when was the commitment date from the bridegroom so that they could set out with the bridal party. Akbar was happy to hear all this. He realized that such an intelligent idea could be thought out only by the fertile brain of Birbal and told Khaji that he did not want the well but the man who gave him the idea.
Q26. Why did Khaji come to meet Akbar ?
(a) He wanted to know whether the marriage would be performed in a traditional manner.
(b) He wanted to know whether the bridegroom could come to his village gate to receive the bride.
(c) He wanted to know why Akbar had thought of the marriage between wells.
(d) He wanted to know when the marriage ceremony was to be held.
Ans: (a) He wanted to know whether the marriage would be performed in a traditional manner.
Q27. Which of the following is TRUE in the context of the passage ?
(a) Akbar never quarreled with others on small matters.
(b) Akbar ordered all the village headmen to find out about Birbal.
(c) Every village headman did not react to Akbar’s marriage in the same way.
(d) Khaji was to bring the bridegroom to the village gates.
Ans: (c) Every village headman did not react to Akbar’s marriage in the same way.
Q28. Why did Akbar decide to perform the marriage ?
(a) He wanted to know how marriages are performed.
(b) He wanted to increase the water in his well.
(c) He wanted to test the intelligence of the village Headmen.
(d) He wanted to find out the where abouts of Birbal.
Ans: (d) He wanted to find out the uwhereabouts of Birbal.
Q29. Which of the following is NOT TRUE in the context of the passage ?
(a) According to Akbar, Birbal was the most intelligent man in his kingdom.
(b) Khaji thought of the idea that the marriage of wells should be conducted in a traditional manner.
(c) Akbar enjoyed Birbal’s company.
(d) The King’s well was to be the bridegroom.
Ans: (b) Khaji thought of the idea that the marriage of wells should be conducted in a traditional manner.
Q30. Why did Akbar say that he did not want the well which Khaji was offering ?
(a) Akbar did not like the demands which Khaji was making.
(b) Akbar’s intention behind his plan to perform the marriage was fulfilled.
(c) There was not much water in the well.
(d) None of these
Ans: (d) None of these