Implanting standards, right values, the science of good and evil are an essential part of education. Many forces thwart this to work, but two of the most serious hindrances to it are examinations and specialization. The examination system is both an opiate and a poison. It is an opiate because it lulls Man into believing that all is well when most is ill. It is a poison because it paralyses or at least slows down the natural activities of the healthy mind. Man finds himself a creature of unknown capacities in an unknown world, wants to learn what the world is like, what he should be and do in it. To help him in answering these questions is the one and only purpose of education. However, tests of progress are useful and necessary. Examinations are harmless when the examinee is indifferent to their result, but as soon as they matter, they begin to distort his attitude to education and to conceal its purpose. For disinterestedness is the essence of all good education and liberal education is impossible without it. MEANING OF WORDS/PHRASES (a) thwart (V.): to oppose successfully; prevent from accomplishing a purpose (b) opiate (N.): a drug derived from opium, to reduce severe pain (c) lulls: to calm someone/someone’s tears, suspicions, etc. especially by deception (d) indifferent (Adj.): lakcing importance (5) distort (V.): to change the shape, appearance/sound of something so that it is strange/not clear
Q1. The author considers specialization as
(a) a boon. (b) an obstacle.
(c) a curse. (d) a distraction.
Ans: (b) an obstacle.
Q2. One of the core elements of education is
(a) a right value system.
(b) a good examination system.
(c) a system with extracurricular activities.
(d) a system with specialization.
Ans: (a) a right value system.
Q3. The examination system is an opiate because
(a) it paralyses the mind.
(b) It lulls Man into believing that all is well when it is not.
(c) it slows the natural actvities of Man.
(d) it makes Man lazy.
Ans: (b) it lulls Man into believing that all is well when it is not.
Q4. The purpose of education is
(a) performing well in exams.
(b) learning the right values.
(c) knowing what is right and wrong.
(d) helping man to understand his potential, the world around him and his role in it.
Ans: (d) helping man to understand his potential, the world around him and his role in it.
Q5. The author
(a) encourages indifference to the outcome of examinations.
(b) encourages examinations.
(c) encourages specialization.
(d) encourages learning.
Ans: (a) encourages indifference to the outcome of examinations.
The man who is perpetually hesitating which of the two things he will do first, will do neither. The man who resolves, but suffers his resolution to be changed by the first countersuggestion of a friend, who fluctuates from opinion to opinion, from plan to plan, and veers like a weathercock to every point of the compass, with every breath of caprice that blowscan never accomplish anything great or useful. Instead of being progressive in any thing, he will be at best stationary, and more probably retrograde in all. It is only the man who first consults wisely, then resolves firmly, and then executes his purpose with flexible perseverance, undismayed by those petty difficulties which daunt a weaker spirit that can advance to eminence in any line. Take your course wisely, but firmly. and having taken it, hold upon it with heroic resolution, and the Alps and Pyrenees will sink before you. MEANING OF WORDS/PHRASES (a) perpetually (Adv.): without interruption (b) resolves (V.): to make a firm decision to do something (c) resolution (N.): finding a solution to a problem (d) fluctuates (V.): vary (5) veers (V.): turn sharply; change direction abruptly (6) caprice (N.): a sudden desire (7) retrograde (V.): to decline to an inferior state (8) perseverance (N.): the quality of continuing to try to achieve a particular aim despite difficulties (9) undismayed (Adj.): unshaken in purpose (10) daunt (V.): cause to lose courage (11) eminence (N.): the quality of being famous and respected
Q6. A man who cannot decide which of the two things he will do first, ends up doing_______.
(a) all (b) the second thing
(c) the first thing (d) nothing
Ans: (d) nothing
Q7. What is the meaning of retrograde in the passage?
(a) stop moving. (b) move backwards.
(c) move slowly. (d) crawl along.
Ans: (c)Move slowly.
Q8. What will the man who sticks to his resolve and executes it advance to?
(a) Wisdom. (b) Progress.
(c) Eminence. (d) Resolution.
Q9. Who is daunted by petty difficulties?
(a) Someone who fluctuates.
(b) One who hesitates.
(c) One with a strong spirit.
(d) One with a weak spirit.
Ans: (d) One with a weak spirit.
Q10. The writer advises us to be
(a) wise, firm and resolute.
(b) weak, firm and resolute.
(c) happy, firm and resolute.
(d) flexible, happy and resolute.
Ans: (a) wise, firm and resolute.
The public sector banks are witnessing in India a period of transition and are at crossroads, where they without giving up social responsibility, should also remain healthy. They need to undertake risky experiments yet perform it innovatively in a way it does not fail. They should make forays into new areas which are rarely tread by them and lose no emerging opportunities. It should be understood that absence of any bad advance is no sign of efficient banking system. It only indicates immense conservatism. However this is no guarantee for profit. There should be a balance between liquidity and risk. Past sins should be forgotten. Novel and pragmatic techniques should be adopted without which banks would be in danger. MEANING OF WORDS/PHRASES (a) transition (N.): the process/ a period of changing from one state/condition to another (b) cross roads (N.): a crisis situation/point in time when a critical decision must be made (c) forays (N.): an attempt to become involved in a different activity/profession (d) tread (V.): used; attempted (5) conservatism (N.): the tendency to resist great/ sudden change (6) liquidity (N.): the state of owning things of value that can easily be exchanged for cash (7) pragmatic (Adj.): solving problems in a practical and sensible way rather than by fixed ideas/theories (8) novel (Adj.): different from anything known before; new, interesting and often seeming slightly strange (9) penchant (N.): a special liking for something (10) at the cross roads (Id.): at an important point
Q11. What according to the author, are the public sector banks witnessing?
(a) A period of profit.
(b) A period of change.
(c) A period of certainity.
(d) A loss making period.
Ans: (b) A period of change.
Q12. In addition to being socially responsible, what does the author want the banks to be?
(a) Customer friendly.
(b) Able to attract foreign investors.
(c) Financially healthy.
(d) Senseless risk takers.
Ans: (c)Financially healthy.
Q13. How can the banks take risks without risking a failure?
(a) By being innovative.
(b) By soliciting the help of the government.
(c) By being financially healthy.
(d) By being conservative.
Ans: (a) By being innovative.
Q14. What does the absence of any bad advance indicate?
(a) A penchant for risks.
(b) Immense conservatism.
(c) Financial independence.
(d) A deepseated social commitment.
Ans: (b) Immense conservatism.
Q15. What would happen if novel and pragmatic techniques are ignored?
(a) It will put the banks in danger.
(b) It will undermine the banks social commitment.
(c) It will reveal the untapped talent.
(d) It will result in inefficient portfolio management.
Ans: (a) It will put the banks in danger.
The human eye is a complex part of the body that is used for seeing. Eyes enable people to perform daily tasks and to learn about the world that surrounds them. Sight, or vision, is a rapidly occurring process that involves continuous interaction between the eye, the nervous system, and the brain. When someone looks at an object, what he really sees is the light reflected from the object. This reflected light passes through the lens and falls on the retina of the eye. Here the light induces nerve impulses that travel through the optic nerve to the brain and then over other nerves to muscles and glands. The eye is similar to a television camera. Both the eye and the television camera convert light energy to electrical energy. The eye converts light to nerve impulses that are interpreted by the brain as the sense perception called sight. A television camera converts light to electronic signals that are broadcast and transformed into light images in a television receiver. It is wonderful that human eyes blink an average of once every six seconds. This washes the eye with the salty secretion from the tear or lachrymal glands. Each tear gland is about the size and shape of an almond. These glands are situated behind the upper eyelid at the outer corner of the eye. After passing over the eye, the liquid from the gland is drained into the nose through the tear duct at the inner corner of the eye. MEANING OF WORDS/PHRASES (a) interpreted (V.): understood (b) perception (N.): the way you notice things (with the senses) (c) lachrymal (Adj.): of, pertaining to, tears (d) duct (N.): a tube in the body through which liquid passes
Q16. What do we see when we look at an object?
(a) The object reflected by the light.
(b) The light reflected from the object.
(c) The shadow of the object.
(d) The object as it is.
Ans: (b) The light reflected from the object.
Q17. The eye is similar to the television camera because both
(a) convert light energy to mechanical energy.
(b) convert light energy to electrical energy.
(c) convert energy to mechanical light
(d) convert mechanical light to electrical energy.
Ans: (b) convert l ight energy to electrical energy.
Q18. The sense perception that the brain releases after the eye converts light to nerve impulses is known as
(a) blindness. (b) image.
(c) sight. (d) glare.
Ans: (c) sight.
Q19. The average rate of blinking of an eye is
(a) six times every second
(b) once every six seconds
(c) six times every six seconds
(d) once every second
Ans: (b) once in every six seconds.
Q20. Lachrymal glands or tear glands are situated
(a) inside the eye.
(b) in the black of the eye.
(c) at the outer corner of the eye.
(d) on the eyelid.
Ans: (c) at the outer corner of the eye.
Directions: Read the following passages carefully and choose the most appropriate answer to the question out of the four alternatives. Passage–I
Great books do not spring from something accidental in the great men who write them. They are the effluence of their very core, the expression of the life itself of the authors. And literature cannot be said to have served its true purpose until it has been translated into the actual life of him who reads. It is the vast reservoir of true ideas and emotions. In a world deprived of literature, the broad, the noble, the generous would tend to disappear and life would be correspondingly degraded, because the wrong idea and the petty emotion would never feel the upward pull of the ideas and emotions of genius. Only by conceiving a society without literature can it be clearly realised that the function of literature is to raise the plain towards the top level of the peaks. Literature exists so that where a man has lived finely, ten thousands may afterwards live finely. It is a means of life, it concerns the living essence. MEANINGS OF WORDS/PHRASES (a) effluence (N.): the process of flowing out (b) core (N.): the most important/central part of something
Q21. What does the words “effluence of their very core” mean?
(a) Expression which is the outflow from the heart of the author.
(b) Expression which is the influence from people’s talk.
(c) Expression of things that the author may have thought of.
(d) Expression that the author wrote accidentally.
Ans: (a)Expression which is the outflow from the heart of the author.
Q22. Literature cannot be said to have served its true purpose until it has been ___ into the actual life of the person who reads.
(a) transfigured (b) transgressed
(c) translated (d) transmuted
Ans: (c) translated
Q23. If a world is deprived of literature, what would happen to the broad, the noble and the generous?
(a) They would be living a free life without care.
(b) They would worry themselves into petty issues.
(c) They would tend to dissappear and life would be correspondingly degraded.
(d) They would celebrate life.
Ans: (c) They would tend to disappear and life would be corrspondingly degraded.
Q24. What is the function of literature?
(a) To raise the plain above sea level.
(b) To raise everything so that it does not sink to the sea level.
(c) To raise the peaks towards the highest mountain,
(d) To raise the plain towards the top level of the peaks.
Ans: (d) To raise the plain towards the top level of the peaks.
A classless society, however, does not mean a society without leaders. It means rather one in which every citizen becomes for the first time eligible for leadership, if he has the power to lead. It means a society in which every one is given, as far as possible, the chance to develop this power by the widest diffusion of educational opportunities in the broadest sense, and by keeping the career wide open to talents of every useful kind. It is often said that a community of equals will not allow itself to be led. But in fact, most men are, in most things, very willing to be led, and more in danger of giving their leaders too much than too little authority, especially if they are free to choose them, and assured that the leaders cannot exploit them for personal economic advantage; leadership, so far from disappearing, will come into its own in a truly democratic society. But it is likely to be a more diffused leadership than we are used to; for a betternurtured people will have more citizens with strong wills and minds of their own, wishful to lead; some in politics, some in industry, and some in professions and arts of life. This is the idea of a classless society. Some will reject it as contrary to their interest, some as utopian and against ‘Human nature’, for there are some who deny, indeed if not in word, that the aim of society should be to promote the greatest happiness and welfare of the greatest number and others who hold, with pessimistic honesty, that most men must be driven and not led. MEANINGS OF WORDS/PHRASES (a) Utopian (N.): an idealistic social reformer (b) Cynical (Adj.): having a sneering disbelief in others (c) Expository (Adj.): intended to explain/describe something (d) Factual (Adj.): existing in act/fact (5) Critical (Adj.): marked by a tendency to find and call attention to errors and flaws (6) Satirical (Adj.): exposing human folly to ridicule (7) diffusion (N.): spread of something
Q25. According to the passage, a classless society is _____
(a) A society in which there are no leaders.
(b) A society where no one is willing to be led.
(c) A society where everyone would not give authority to their leaders.
(d) A society where everyone can become a leader.
Ans: (d) A society where everyone can become a leader.
Q26. What kind of leadership would a classless society have?
(a) Leaders would not exploit others for their personal advantage.
(b) Leaders would not have too much authority over people.
(c) Many would develop leadership in the field of their interest.
(d) Every person would have a reason to lead.
Ans: (c) Many would develop leadership in the field of their interest.
Q27. What kind of people would be ideal for a classless society?
(a) People who are assertive enough to lead.
(b) People who book no opposition.
(c) People with conviction in their ideas.
(d) People willing to innovate.
Ans: (c) People with conviction in their ideas.
Q28. According to the passage, the kind of a people who deny the idea of a classless society may be called _____
(a) Utopian (b) Cynical
(c) Idealists (d) Dictatorial
Ans: (b) Cynical
Q29. What is the tone adopted by the author in this passage?
(a) Expository (b) Factual
(c) Critical (d) Satirical
Ans: (a) Expository