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Part 423 – Reading Comprehension Previous Year Questions

Directions: A passage is given with 5 questions following it. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. The first working steam–powered vehicle was designed and most likely built by Ferdinand Verbies, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65 cm long scale–model toy for the Chinese Emperor, that was unable to carry a driver or a passenger. It is not known if Verbiest’s model was ever built. Nicolas Joseph Cugnot is widely credited with building the first full scale, self propelled mechanical vehicle or automobile in about 1769; he also created a steam–powered tricycle. He constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of which is preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts. His inventions were however handicapped by problems of water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam–powered road vehicle. It was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods. Sentiment against steampowered road vehicles led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807 Nicephore Niepce and his brother Claude probably created the world’s first internal combustion engine which they called Pyreolophore.

Q1. The first fullscale, working steam- powered tricycle was built by
(a) Verbiest (b) Cugnot
(c) Trevithick (d) Niepce
Ans: (b) Cugnot

Q2. Cugnot built steam tractors for
(a) The Chinese Emperor
(b) The French Army
(c) The Jesuit mission
(d) The French Conservatory
Ans: (b) The French Army

Q3. The problem with Trevithick’s Puffing Devil was
(a) its incapability to carry a driver or a passenger
(b) with the water supply
(c) its inability to maintain steam pressure
(d) its combustion engine
Ans: (c) its inability to maintain steam pressure.

Q4. What is meant by Sentiment in the context of the given paragraph?
(a) depression (b) fascination
(c) celebration (d) resentment
Ans: (d) resentment

Q5. The Pyreolophore was
(a) a self–propelled mechanical vehicle
(b) a steam–powered tricycle
(c) a steam tractor
(d) The name of the world’s first internal combustion engine
Ans:
(d) the name of the world’s first internal combustion engine.
Directions: A passage is given with 5 questions following it. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. The Alaska pipeline starts at the frozen edge of the Arctic Ocean. It stretches southward across the largest and northernmost state in the United States, ending at a remote icefree seaport village nearly 800 miles from where it begins. It is massive in size and extremely complicated to operate. The steel pipe crosses windswept plains and endless miles of delicate tundra that tops the frozen ground. It weaves through crooked canyons, climbs sheer mountains, plunges over rocky crags, makes its way through thick forests, and passes over or under hundreds of rivers and streams. The pipe is 4 feet in diameter, and up to 2 million barrels (or 84 million gallons) of crude oil can be pumped through it daily. Resting on H–shaped steel racks called “bents”, long sections of the pipeline follow a zigzag course high above the frozen earth. Other long sections drop out of sight beneath spongy or rocky ground and return to the surface later on. The pattern of the pipeline’s up and down route is determined by the often harsh demands of the arctic and subarctic climate, the tortuous lay of the land, and the varied compositions of soil, rock, or permafrost (permanently frozen ground). A little more than half of the pipeline is elevated above the ground. The remainder is buried anywhere from 3 to 12 feet, depending largely upon the type of terrain and the properties of the soil. One of the largest in the world, the pipeline cost approximately $8 billion and is by far the biggest and most expensive construction project ever undertaken by private industry. In fact, no single business could raise that much money, so 8 major oil companies formed a consortium in order to share the costs. Each company controlled oil rights to particular shares of land in the oil fields and paid into the pipeline construction fund according to the size of its holdings. Today, despite enormous problems of climate, supply shortage, equipment breakdowns, labour disagreements, treacherous terrain, a certain amount of mismanagement, and even theft, the Alaska pipeline has been completed and is operating.

Q6. The Alaskan pipeline ends
(a) north of Alaska.
(b) at a seaport village.
(c) after passing through canyons and rivers.
(d) at a tundra covered village.
Ans: (b) at a seaport village.

Q7. What is the capacity of the Alaskan pipeline?
(a) 2 million gallons of crude oil.
(b) 4 million barrels of crude oil.
(c) 84 million gallons of crude oil.
(d) 84 billion barrels of crude oil.
Ans: (c)84 million galons of crude oil.

Q8. What are “bents”?
(a) Zigzag shape of pipeline.
(b) Pipeline’s up and down route.
(c) The section of the pipeline that drops out of sight.
(d) The H–shaped steel racks.
Ans: (d)The Hshaped steel racks.

Q9. How was the fund for pipeline construction generated?
(a) 8 major oil companies joined hands to share the cost.
(b) 8 major oil companies borrowed $8 billion.
(c) A single private company raised $8 billion.
(d) Oil rights were sold to 8 major oil companies.
Ans: (a)8 major oil companies joined hands to share the cost.

Q10. Which of the following were not problems faced while constructing the pipeline?
(a) Supply shortages
(b) Treacherous terrain
(c) Lack of funds
(d) Equipment breakdown
Ans:
(c) Lack of funds.
Directions: A passage is given with 5 questions following it. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. Dyslexia is a perceptual disorder often occurring in persons of normal, or even above average intelligence. The reader is unable to perceive correctly what is on a page. Letters and numbers often appear reversed: “b” seems to be “d”, “quite” is “quiet” and “from” is “form”. The reader tends to leave out letters or words or insert words or letters that are not there. Vowel and consonant sounds may be confused. Many dyslexics are lefthanded or able to write with either hand. They often confuse left and right. Learning to speak may also be delayed beyond infancy. The condition seems to be inherited. It may persist into adulthood. However, with early recognition and specialized approaches to teaching reading, most dyslexics can learn to read. Some researchers believe that latent dyslexia may be aggravated by the way reading is taught. The modern wholeword, or lookandsay, method seems to be more of a hindrance to learning for dyslexics than it is for ordinary pupils. The phonetic method of teaching students to learn letters and sound them out appears to achieve better reading results. The problem of words that cannot be sounded outsuch as rough, laugh or through isnot solved by phonetics. These words must simply be memorized. However, for children with dyslexia the problem can be compounded by the failure of parents or teachers to recognize the condition. This can easily lead to emotional problems for dyslexic children, who cannot understand their failure to keep up with their classmates. MEANINGS OF DIFFICULT WORDS/PHRASES (a) perceptual (Adj.): of/relating to the act of becoming aware of through the senses (b) infancy (N.): the early stage of growth/development (c) latent (Adj.): not presently active (d) aggravated (V.): make worse (5) ambidextrous (Adj.): equally skillful with each hand

Q11. Dyslexia, often occurring in persons of normal, or even above average intelligence, is a _______
(a) conceptual disorder (b) pathological disease
(c) perceptive disorder (d) perceptual disorder
Ans: (d) perceptual disorder.

Q12. In Dyslexia, letters and figures often appear _______
(a) inverted (b) blurred
(c) reversed (d) clustered
Ans: (c) reversed.

Q13. People suffering from dyslexia are often ________
(a) right handed (b) far sighted
(c) ambidextrous (d) only left handed
Ans: (c)ambidextrous.

Q14. Dyslexia may _________
(a) be noticed during infancy.
(b) last till childhood.
(c) persist into adulthood.
(d) end when one goes to school.
Ans: (c) persist into adulthood.

Q15. The problem of perception can be compounded by the failure of parents and teachers to
(a) provide treatment.
(b) recognize the condition.
(c) correct the child at infancy.
(d) understand the child.
Ans: (b) recognize the condition.
Directions: A passage is given with 5 questions following it. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. Ants have been living on the earth for more than 100 million years and can be found almost anywhere on the planet. It is estimated that there are about 20000 different species of ants. For this reason ants have been called Earth’s most successful species. If you watch ants for any length of time you will see that they really do communicate with each other and very effectively too. Ants communicate by touching each other with their antennae. Ants also use chemicals called pheromones to leave scent trails for other ants to follow. Ants build many different types of homes. Many ants build simple little mounds out of dirt or sand. Other ants use small sticks mixed with dirt and sand to make a stronger mound that offers protection from rain. Western Harvester ants make a small mound on top, but then tunnels up to 15 feet straight down to hibernate during winter. Ant mounds consist of many chambers connected by tunnels. Different chambers are used for nurseries, food storage, and resting places for the worker ants. Some ants live in wood like termites. Army ants don’t make a home at all but travel in large groups searching for food. Ants are social insects which means they live in large colonies or groups. Some colonies consist of millions of ants. There are three types of ants in each species, the queen, the sterile female workers and males. The male ants only serve one purpose, to mate with future queen ants and do not live very long. The queen grows to adulthood, mates, and then spends rest of her life laying eggs. A colony may have only one queen, or there may be many queens depending on the species. Ants go through four stages of development: egg, larva, pupa and adult. MEANINGS OF DIFFICULT WORDS/PHRASES (a) mounds (N.): a small natural hill (b) hibernate (V.): sleep during winter

Q16. Why are ants called the ‘Earth’s most successful species?
(a) Because they have been on earth for more than a 100 million years.
(b) Because they can be found anywhere on earth.
(c) Because they have been on earth for more than a 100 million years and because they can be found anywhere on earth.
(d) Because there are 2000 different species of ants on earth.
Ans: (c)Because they have been on earth for more than a 100 million years and because they can be found anywhere on earth.

Q17. Antennae are used by ants to
(a) leave a trail for other ants.
(b) communicate.
(c) find direction.
(d) touch and feel each other.
Ans: (b) communicate.

Q18. What does the Western Harvester do in winter ?
(a) It travels.
(b) It builds different types of homes.
(c) It hibernates.
(d) It searches for food.
Ans: (c) It hibernates.

Q19. What kind of homes do the army of ants build ?
(a) Simple little mounds made out of dirt or sand
(b) Stronger mounds of small sticks mixed with dirt and sand
(c) Small mounds on top but with tunnels upto 15 feet below
(d) They do not make homes but travel in search of food
Ans: (d) They do not make homes but travel in search of food.

Q20. What is the purpose of male ants ?
(a) To lay eggs.
(b) To protect the colony.
(c) To mate with future queen ants.
(d) To live a long life.
Ans: (c) To mate with future queen ants
Directions: Read the following passages carefully and choose the most appropriate answer to the questions out of the four alternatives. PassageI
True, It is the function of the army to maintain law and order in abnormal times. But in normal times there is another force that compels citizens to obey the laws and to act with due regard to the rights of others. The force also protects the lives and the properties of law abiding men. Laws are made to secure the personal safety of its subjects and to prevent murder and crimes of violence. They are made to secure the property of the citizens against theft and damage to protect the rights of communities and castes to carry out their customs and ceremonies, so long as they do not conflict with the rights of others. Now the good citizen, of his own free will obey these laws and he takes care that everything he does is done with due regard to the rights and wellbeing of others. But the bad citizen is only restrained from breaking these laws by fear of the consequence of his actions. And the necessary steps to compel the bad citizen to act as a good citizen are taken by this force. The supreme control of law and order in a State is in the hands of a Minister who is responsible to the State Assembly and acts through the Inspector General of Police.

Q21. The expression customs and ceremonies means
(a) fairs and festivals.
(b) habits and traditions.
(c) usual practices and religious rites.
(d) superstitions and formalities.
Ans: (b)habits and traditions.

Q22. Which of the following is NOT implied in the passage?
(a) Laws protect those who respect it.
(b) Laws ensure people’s religious and social rights absolutely and unconditionally.
(c) A criminal is detered from committing crimes for fear of the law.
(d) The forces of law help to transform irresponsible citizens into responsible ones.
Ans: (b) Laws ensure people’s religious and social rights absolutely and unconditionally.

Q23. According to the writer, which one of the following is NOT the responsibility of the police ?
(a) To protect the privilege of all the citizens.
(b) To check violent activities of citizens.
(c) To ensure peace among citizens by safeguarding individual rights.
(d) To maintain peace during extraordinary circumstances.
Ans: (c) To ensure peace among citizens by safeguarding individual rights.

Q24. “They are made to secure the property of citizens against theft and damage” means that the law
(a) helps in recoverring the stolen property of the citizens.
(b) assists citizens whose property has been stolen or destroyed.
(c) initiate process against offenders of law.
(d) safeguards people’s possessions against being stolen or lost.
Ans: (d) safeguards people’s possessions against being stolen/lost.

Q25. The last sentence of the passage implies that
(a) the Inspector General of Police is the sole authority in matters of law and order.
(b) in every state, maintenence of public peace is under the over all control of the responsible minister.
(c) the State Assembly exercises direct authority in matters pertaining to law and order.
(d) the Inspector General of Police is responsible to the State Assembly for maintaining law and order.
Ans: (d)The Inspector General of Police is responsible to the State Assembly for maintaining law and order.
PassageII
Riparian vegetation [the green band of vegetation along a watercourse] can help stabilize stream banks filter sediment from surface runoff and provide wildlife habitat, livestock forage, and scenic value. Welldeveloped vegetation also allows bank soils to absorb extra water during spring runoff, releasing it later during drier months, thus improving latesummer stream flows. In many parts of the arid West, trees and shrubs are found only in riparian areas. Woody plants are very important as winter cover for many wildlife species, including upland game birds such as pheasants and turkeys. Often this winter cover is the greatest single factor limiting game bird populations. Woody vegetation also provides hiding cover and browse for many other species of birds and mammals, both game and nongame. Dead trees (snags) are an integral part of streamside habitats and should be left standing whenever possible. Woodpeckers, nuthatches, brown creepers, and other birds eat the insects that decompose the wood. These insects usually pose no threat to nearby living trees. Occasionally a disease organism or misuse of pesticides will weaken or kill a stand of trees. If several trees in a small area begin to die, contact your local extension agent immediately . MEANING OF WORDS/PHRASES (a) runoff (N.): rain, water/ other liquid that runsoff land into streams and rivers (b) forage (N.): food for horses and cows (c) arid (Adj.): very dry (of land/climate) (d) riparian (Adj.): on, near or relating to the bank of a river (5) upland (Adj.): in/connected with an area of high land that is not near the coast (6) browse (N.): small twigs, leaves, and shoots that are fit for animals to eat

Q26. What is the effect of the word choice riparian ?
(a) It gives the article an authoritative, scientific tone.
(b) It causes confusion, since both streams and rivers could be viewed as riparian.
(c) It seems condescending, as if the author is bending over backwards to teach readers.
(d) It misleads reader into thinking they are getting scientific information when they are not.
Ans: (a) It gives the article an authoritative, scientific tone.

Q27. What is the overall sense conveyed by the author when the specific birds that live in riparian areas are listed in the passage?
(a) Urgency on behalf of endangered species.
(b) The rich and varied life in such areas.
(c) His or her own importance as a scientific expert.
(d) Poetic wander.
Ans: (b) The rich and varied life in such areas.

Q28. What is discussed in the second paragraph of this passage?
(a) The types of birds that live in riparian areas.
(b) The effect of winter cover on water purity.
(c) The role of trees and shrubs in riparian areas.
(d) How winter cover affects game bird populations.
Ans: (d)How winter cover affects game bird populations.

Q29. Overall the assertions seem to be based on
(a) rash opinion with little observation behind it.
(b) deeply held emotional convictions.
(c) facts derived from scientific literature.
(d) inconclusive evidence gathered in field studies.
Ans: (c) facts derived from scientific literature.

Q30. How dependent are plants and animals on each other?
(a) Not dependent. (b) Very dependent.
(c) Completely independent.
(d) Slightly dependent.
Ans: (b)Very dependent.

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