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Part 418 – Reading Comprehension Previous Year Questions

Directions: In the following questions, read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. PASSAGE The destructive process of Mountain Top Removal mining (MTR) has caused permanent damage to Appalachia. Although the law requires that mining companies restore the mountaintops after the mining has been completed, the 1.5 million acres of mountains that have already been removed cannot be regrown, rebuilt, or replaced. The companies do secure the rock formations to prevent erosion and landslides, but their efforts cannot recreate the once beautiful mountain landscape. Furthermore, while companies are usually vigilant about securing the rock formations, they seem less interested in restoring the native vegetation. MTR operations clear enormous tracts of forest. Environmental hazards are not only created in preparing a mountaintop for mining, they also continue once the coal has been extracted. After the blast, the excess mountaintop — which miners refer to as “overburden” — is usually dumped into nearby valleys or streams. The overburden contains a variety of toxic substances, including explosive residue, silica and coal dust.

Q1. The word opposite in meaning to vigilant is
(a) annoyed (b) lenient
(c) careless (d) displeased
Ans: (c) careless vigilant (Adj.): alert, watchful ; careful.

Q2. In the Appalachian region MTR has caused
(a) permanent beautification
(b) landslides
(c) floods
(d) widespread damage
Ans: (d) widespread damage.

Q3. MTR operations cause environmental hazards because
(a) it causes landslides.
(b) it causes explosion.
(c) mountaintops dumped in valleys and streams contain toxic substances.
(d) it destroys natural vegetation
Ans: (c)mountain tops dumped in valleys and streams contain toxic substances.

Q4. After the MTR operation, the mining companies
(a) restore native vegetation.
(b) secure rock formations to prevent erosion.
(c) beautify the mountains.
(d) replace the mountaintops.
Ans: (b) secure rock formations to prevent erosion.

Q5. The term overburden means
(a) debris from landslides.
(b) remnants of natural forests.
(c) weeds planted by mining companies.
(d) excess mountaintop left after the extraction of coal through the blast.
Ans: (d) excess mountaintop left after the extraction of coal through the blast.
Directions: In the following questions, read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. Flattery means ‘praising insincerely in order to please’. Every flatterer says words in which he himself does not believe. While flattering he is insincere to the man he is praising and to himself. In doing so he does not mind if he corrupts the minds of those whom he flatters. Flattery is immoral because it stains the human conscience. It creates a world of falsehood and thus an outrage of man’s sense of decency and gentlemanly behaviour. A man who feels happy when flattered lives in a fool’s paradise. Flattery is the ready weapon of the opportunist. This weapon easily conquers the weak willed man. It works on the general weakness of human beings. We all love to be told what we are not rather than what we are. Flattery is equally bad for him who is flattered and for him who flatters. Flattery deceives us by giving us false notions about ourselves. By falling a victim to it, we show lack of character. By accepting flattery we make ourselves small beings. It is an evil which ruins social and moral values by claiming what is not rightfully its own. It thrives on corruption and leads to human bankruptcy. It is thus the greatest of disease which can plague humanity.

Q6. Flattery means
(a) being anti – social
(b) insincere praise in order to please
(c) claiming what is not
(d) being immoral ours
Ans: (b) insincere praise in order to please flattery (N.): Praise that is not sincere.

Q7. ‘Thrives’ in the passage means
(a) fills (b) prospers
(c) provides (d) collects
Ans: (b) prospers

Q8. Flattery can stain the
(a) heart
(b) emotion
(c) mind
(d) human conscience
Ans: (d)human conscience.

Q9. How does flattery deceive us ?
(a) It makes us more corrupt.
(b) It makes us feel indecent.
(c) It makes us bankrupt.
(d) It gives us false ideas about ourselves.
Ans: (d) It gives us false ideas about ourselves

Q10. How does the weapon of flattery work ?
(a) It conquers the man with a weak will.
(b) it conquers the man with a strong will.
(c) A man feels sad.
(d) A man does not like it
(a) It conquers the man with a weak will.
Directions: In the following questions, you have a brief passage with 5 questions following the passage. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. Fat comes in two types; Omega-3 which is found in marine life and Omega-6 which is concentrated in vegetable oils. The first is good, the other is plain rotten. The best source of Omega-3 is preferably seafish. But frying it in Omega-6 rich vegetable oil kills all its goodness. Ageing brains have low levels of thiamin, which is concentrated in wheat germ and bran, nuts, meat and cereals. More good brainfood comes from liver, milk and almonds, which are rich in riboflavin and extremely good for memory. Carotene, available in deep green leafy vegetables and fruits, is also good for geriatric brains. So is a high iron diet; it can make old brains gallop hyperactively like young ones. Iron comes from greens; liver, shellfish, red meat and soyabeans. Seafood, very ligh in iron, is an excellent diet supplement. The New England Journal of Medicine reported in its May 1985 issue that 30 grams of fish a day could result in a dramatic drop in the chances of acquiring a cardiovascular disease. Sea fish, particularly shellfish, crabs, mackerel and sardines, are more effective than riverine fish because the latter is more vulnerable to chemical effluents.

Q11. 30 grams of fish a day could result in
(a) an increased chance of acquiring lung disease.
(b) a drop in the chances of getting lung cancer.
(c) a drop in the chances of getting heart disease.
(d) an increased chance of acquiring heart disease.
Ans: (c) a drop in the chances of getting heart disease.

Q12. Geriatrics pertains to
(a) adolescents (b) old people
(c) new born babies (d) toddlers
Ans: (b) old people geriatrics (N.): the branch of medicine concerned with the diseases and care of old people; old persons especially one with poor physical or mental health.

Q13. Almonds are rich in riboflavin and are good for
(a) memory (b) leukaemia
(c) sleep walking (d) anaemia
Ans: (a) memory

Q14. The best source of Omega-3 fat is found in
(a) vegetables (b) eggs only
(c) sea fish (d) all dairy products
Ans: (c) sea fish

Q15. Cardio vascular relates to the
(a) heart and cartillage
(b) heart and muscles
(c) heart and tendons
(d) heart and blood vessels
(d) heart and blood vessels cardio vascular (N.): connected with the heart and the blood vessels (the tubes that carry blood around the body).
Directions: In the following passage some of the words have been left out. Read the passage carefully and choose the correct answer to each question out of the four alternatives and fill in the blanks. The Dalmatian of the sole surviving semi- speaker, Tuone Udaina, was surveyed in the late 1870s and again towards the end of his life in the late 1890s. These fairly extensive records curiously suggest that a systematic (926) change took place in those two decades such that by the 1890s the distinction between present and imperfect indicative had largely been neutralized (a development unique among Romance languages) in favour of the imperfect tense is forms. I argue that the data is authentic and that the change, whether it occurred just in Udaina’s head or was already underway in the last years of Dalmatian as a spoken language, is purely ‘internal’ and not (927) by contact with other languages. I explore its internal mechanisms and show that what is involved is a kind of analogical formmeaning levelling whose signatum is an ‘empty’ element of (928) structure. Reinforcement of this essentially ‘nonsensical’ (929) of paradigmatic structure constitutes further evidence for my general view that intraparadigmatic coherence may be no less important than extramorphological transparency. It also suggests that such a development can as easily (930) in a dying language as anyhwere else.

Q16. (a) morphological (b) misleading
(c) nonsensical (d) common
Ans: (a)morphological

Q17. (a) deters (b) motivated
(c) encourages (d) restores
Ans: (b)motivated

Q18. (a) vulnerable (b) paradigmatic
(c) indifferent (d) unsuitable
Ans: (b) paradigmatic

Q19. (a) hazard (b) aberration
(c) fluke (d) oddity
Ans: (d) oddity

Q20. (a) occur (b) defy
(c) ensured (d) occurrence
(a) occur
Directions: In the following questions, you have two passages with 5 questions in each passage. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. A dolphin is an aquatic mammal. Dolphins are extremely intelligent and sociable animals and have their own way to communicate with each other using special sounds. Although they are often mistaken for fish, dolphins are actually mammals. They are members of the Cetacea (pronounced setayshia) family, which also contains whales and porpoises. One way of telling the difference between a cetacean and a fish is by looking at their tails. You can tell a cetacean because their tail fins (called flukes) are horizontal and move up and down. Fish have vertical tails which move from side to side. A dolphin’s body is designed to help them move quickly and easily through water. The dolphin’s fluke propels it through the water. On its back is a curved dorsal fin and on each side of the dolphin is a pectoral fin. The bump on a dolphins head is known as the melon. They trap their prey by using their teeth. Dolphins use a type of sonar to detect where objects are around them. This is called echolocation. Echolocation works when a dolphin bounces a high pitched sound off an object and then listens for the echo to come back. It is a very useful way for dolphins to find food and navigate. Dolphins communicate with each other through clicks, squeaks and whistles. They use these special sounds to greet each other and to indicate if they are in distress. Dolphins live in the sea, but they can’t breathe under water They breathe through a blowhole and have to come up for air every 15 minutes.

Q21. Cetacea does not include
(a) whales (b) sharks
(c) dolphins (d) porpoises
Ans: (b) sharks

Q22. To breathe dolphins use
(a) fins (b) echolocation
(c) flippers (d) blowhole
Ans: (d) blowhole

Q23. Dolphins use their teeth
(a) to eat their prey (b) to trap their prey
(c) to scare their prey (d) for aesthetic purposes
Ans: (b) to trap their prey

Q24. Which of these help dolphins to navigate through the water?
(a) Echolocation (b) Blowhole
(c) Fluke (d) Smooth skin
Ans: (c) fluke

Q25. Dolphins use echolocation to
(a) breathe (b) navigate
(c) communicate (d) hunt
(c) communicate
Directions: Read the following passage carefully and answer the given questions. After 500 years, Christopher Columbus’s ship the Santa Maria were claimed to be found by archaeological investigators led by Barry Clifford. Christopher Columbus’s flagship, the Santa Maria, got wrecked in the Caribbean. The vessel’s longlost remains was claimed to be lying at the bottom of the sea off the north coast of Haiti. An expedition was mounted by team of Barry Clifford a decade ago. He had found and photographed the wreck but had not realized its probable identity. Tentatively identifying the wreck as the Santa Maria was made possible by quite separate discoveries made by other archaeologists in 2003 suggesting that the probable location of Columbus’ fort relatively nearby. Santa Maria was the largest of the three ships used by Christopher Columbus in his first voyage. The ship was constructed in 1460 and was struck in 1492. The ship was used by Columbus in 1492 to find a direct trade route to India. MEANINGS OF DIFFICULT WORDS/PHRASES (a) archaeological (Adj.): related to/dealing with/ devoted to study of prehistoric people and their cultures (b) flagship (N.): the ship that carries the commander of a fleet and flies his flag (c) tentatively (Adv.): in a way that is not definite/ certain because you may want to change it later

Q26. What did Christopher Columbus aim at his first voyage?
(a) Fishing
(b) To find a direct trade route to India
(c) To discover new lands
(d) Globetrotting
Ans: (b) To find a direct trade route to India.

Q27. Where were the Santa Maria’s remains found?
(a) Florida Coast
(b) South coast of Hawaii
(c) North coast of Haiti
(d) South coast of Haiti
Ans: (c) North coast of Haiti

Q28. How long was Christopher Columbus’s ship laid at the bottom of the sea before it was discovered?
(a) 100 Years (b) 300 Years
(c) 400 Years (d) 500 Years
Ans: (d) 500 Years

Q29. How many other ships were accompanying the Santa Maria in Columbus’s voyage?
(a) 2 (b) 1
(c) 4 (d) 3
Ans: (a) 2

Q30. When was the Santa Maria constructed?
(a) 2003 (b) 1492
(c) 1460 (d) 1462
(c) 1460

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