Directions: In the following questions, you have a brief passage with 5 questions following the passage. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. (True, it is the function of the army to maintain law and order in abnormal times. But in normal times there is another force that compels citizens to obey laws and to act with due regard to the rights of others. The force also protects the lives and properties of law abiding men. Laws are made to secure the personal safety of its subjects and to prevent murder and crimes of violence. They are made to secure the property of the citizens against theft and damage and to protect the rights of communities and castes to carry out their customs and ceremonies, so long as they do not confict with the rights of others. Now the good citizen, of his own free will obeys these laws and he takes care that everything he does is done with due regard to the rights and well being of others. But the bad citizen is only restrained from breaking these laws by fear of the consequence of his action. And the necessary steps to compel the bad citizen to act as a good citizen are taken by this force. The supreme control of law and order in a state is in the hands of a Minister, who is responsible to the state Assembly and acts through the Inspector General of Police.
Q1. Which of the following statements is not implied in the passage ?
(a) The forces of law help to transform irresponsible citizens into responsible ones.
(b) Law protects those who respect it
(c) Law ensures people’s religious and social rights absolutely and uncoditionally.
(d) A criminal is deterred from committing crimes only for fear of the law
Ans: (c) Law ensures people’s religious and social rights absolutely and uncoditionally.
Q2. The expression customs and ceremonies means:
(a) fairs and festivals
(b) supersitions and formalities
(c) habits and traditions
(d) usual practices and religious rites
Ans: (d) usual practices and religious rites
Q3. ‘‘They are made to secure the property of citizens against theft and damage’’ means that the law:
(a) helps in recovering the stolen property of the citizens.
(b) safeguards people’s possessions against being stolen or lost.
(c) initiates process against offenders of law.
(d) assists the citizens whose property has been stolen or destroyed.
Ans: (b) safeguards people’s possessions against being stolen or lost.
Q4. Which one of the following statement is implied in the passage ?
(a) Criminals, who flout the law, are seledom brought to book
(b) The police check the citizens, whether they are good or bad, from violating the law.
(c) The police hardly succeed in converting bad citizens into good ones.
(d) Peaceful citizens seldom violate the law
Ans: (b) The police check the citizens, whether they are good or bad, from violating the law.
Q5. According to the writer, which one of the following is not the responsibility of the police ?
(a) To protect the privileges of all citizens.
(b) To maintain peace during extraordinary circumstances.
(c) To ensure peace among citizens by safeguarding individual rights.
(d) To check violent activities of citizens.
Ans: (b) To maintain peace during extraordinary circumstances.
Directions: In the following questions, you have a brief passage with 5 questions following the passage. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. (Journalists argue over functions of a newspaper. I feel that a provincial paper’s purpose is not only to present and project the news objetively and imaginatively, but to help its readers to express themselves more effectively, canalizing their aspirations, making more articulate their demands. A newspaper should reflect the community it serves – warts and all. When the mirror is held to society it reveals neglect, injustice, ignorance or complacency. It should help to eradicate them. It would be pretentious to think that a newspaper can change the course of world affairs – but at the local limit it can exert influence, it can probe, it can help get things done. The individual’s voice must not be stifled. Instead, the readers should be encouraged to express their opinions, fears, hopes, and their grievances on this platform.
Q6. How can a newspaper influence local affairs ?
(a) By focusing on world affairs.
(b) By influencing public opinion through half truths.
(c) By encouraging the readers to accept their grievances.
(d) By probing into the ills of society and rallying support for change.
Ans: (d) By probing into the ills of society and rallying support for change.
Q7. How can the readers air their grievances ?
(a) By writing to journalists.
(b) By supporting the local newspaper
(c) By writing to their local newspaper
(d) By being complacent
Ans: (c) By writing to their local newspaper
Q8. In this passage the writer highlights the fact that
(a) Journalists differ in their opinion on the function of a newspaper
(b) A newspaper should reflect the community it serves.
(c) A newspaper should only concentrate on local affairs.
(d) Newspaper can eradicate injustice.
Ans: (b) A newspaper should reflect the community it serves.
Q9. The expression warts and all in the passage means
(a) hopes and fears
(b) with no attempt to conceal blemishes and inadequacies
(c) the community’s problems
(d) the reader’s grievances
Ans: (d) the reader’s grievances
Q10. What is the main purpose of a newspaper ?
(a) Encourage the readers to be pretentious.
(b) Project news objectively and imaginatively.
(c) To present facts in a bluntway
(d) Exert influence on the individuals.
Ans: (d) Exert influence on the individuals.
Directions: In the following questions, you have a brief passage with 5 questions following the passage. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. (In September 2011, Hindustan Times did a study in Delhi and reported that the number of malaria (and dengue) cases at the time were actually thrice as many as revealed by the city authorities. Earlier, in Mumbai, a municipal claim that 145 people died due to malaria in 2010 was exposed a lie after Praja, a city NGO, extracted figures from the municipality itself. Following an RTI petition, Praja revealed 1190 deaths. This seems to be a habit. A paper in the leading UK medical journal The Lancet, published following nationwide interviews undertaken by an international team, reveals that the number of malarial deaths all over India every year may be as high as 205,000, which is many times the World Health Organization’s figure of about 15,000, of the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme’s figure of just around 1000. While the Lancet paper has been disputed, it is clear that there must be gross underreporting of malarial deaths. Wouldn’t that be one of the big reasons why malaria, which is easily cured if properly treated after timely diagnosis, continues to kill so many Indians ?
Q11. One of the big reasons for malarial death is
(a) lack of proper treatment
(b) underreporting of malarial deaths
(c) untimely diagnosis
(d) overreporting of malarial deaths
Ans: (b) underreporting of malarial deaths
Q12. The Lancet is a
(a) newspaper (b) medical book
(c) magazine (d) journal
Ans: (d) journal
Q13. What is the habit mentioned in the passage?
(a) Exposing the authority’s incompetence
(b) Hiding the real figures of malaria cases
(c) Filing RTIs
(d) Conducting studies and surveys in towns and cities
Ans: (b) Hiding the real figures of malaria cases
Q14. The findings of The Lancet were published after
(a) the international team left India
(b) international reviews of the findings were done
(c) proper verifications of the findings were done
(d) nationwide interviews were carried out
Ans: (d) nationwide interviews were carried out
Q15. The Hindustan Times found that the number of malaria cases in 2011 was
(a) twice than the numbers revealed by the authorities
(b) three times the numbers revealed by the authorities
(c) half the numbers revealed by the authorities
(d) exactly as the numbers revealed by the authorities
Ans: (b) three times the numbers revealed by the authorities
Directions: In the following questions, you have a brief passage with 5 questions following the passage. Read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. (The capitalist system does not foster healthy relations among human beings. A few people own all the means of production and others have to sell their labour under conditions imposed upon them. The emphasis of capitalism being on the supreme importance of material wealth, the intensity of its appeal is to the acquisitive tendency. It promotes worship of economic power with little regard to the means employed for its acquisition and the end that it serves. By its exploitation of human beings to the limits of endurance its concentration is on the largest profit rather than maximum production. Thus the division of human society is done on the basis of profit motive. All this is injurious to human dignity. And when the harrowed poor turn to the founders of religion for succour, they rather offer a subtle defense for the established order. They promise future happiness for present suffering. They conjure up visions of paradise to soothe the suffering majority and censure the revolt of the tortured men. The system imposes injustice, the religion justifies it.
Q16. In a capitalist system
(a) means which lead to exploitation are strictly prohibited
(b) the means justify the ends
(c) the means endorsed by religion are strictly followed
(d) the ends justify the means
Ans: (d) the ends justify the means
Q17. Capitalism divides society into the two categories of
(a) religions and irreligious people
(b) working and non–working people
(c) buyers and sellers
(d) exploiters and exploited people
Ans: (d) exploiters and exploited people
Q18. The passage indicates that the capitalist system is
(a) dehumanising (b) ambitious
(c) fair (d) prosperous
Ans: (a) dehumanising
Q19. In a capitalist system of society each man wishes
(a) to soothe the sufferings of other
(b) to have visions of paradise
(c) to acquire maximum wealth
(d) to produce maximum wealth
Ans: (c) to acquire maximum wealth
Q20. The established order is supported by religion to
(a) alleviate the suffering of the poor in the capitalist system
(b) help the tortured men to seek redress
(c) balance the suffering of the poor with hopes of future reward
(d) perpetuate the injustice imposed by the capitalist system
Ans: (d) perpetuate the injustice imposed by the capitalist system
Directions: In the following questions, read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. (Biogas is a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide, the major constituent being methane. Biogas is produced by anaerobic degradation of animal wastes (sometimes plant wastes) in the presence of water. Anaerobic degradation means break–down of organic matter by bacteria in the absence of oxygen. Biogas is a nonpolluting, clean and low cost fuel which is very useful for rural areas where a lot of animal waste and agricultural waste are available. India has the largest cattle population in the world (240 million) and has tremendous potential for biogas production. From cattle dung alone, we can produce biogas of a magnitude of 22,500 mm3 annually. Airtight digestion/degradation of animal waste is safe as it eliminates health hazards which normally occur in case of direct use of dung due to direct exposure to faecal pathogens and parasites.
Q21. What is Biogas ?
(a) A mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide.
(b) Fermentation of alcohols.
(c) A synthetic gas by catalytic conversion of methane.
(d) The smoke that contains impurities like sulphur.
Ans: (a) A mixture of methane, carbondioxide, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide.
Q22. Why is biogas useful ?
(a) It is very easy to use.
(b) It is nonpolluting, clean and low cost fuel.
(c) It can be easily obtained from plants and animals.
(d) It is abundant.
Ans: (b) It is non–polluting, clean and low cost fuel.
Q23. How is biogas produced ?
(a) By anaerobic degradation of animal wastes.
(b) By fertilizers containing bacterial biomass.
(c) By burning of waste products.
(d) By direct supply of gas from the plants.
Ans: (a) By anaerobic degradation of animal wastes.
Q24. During the process of degradation of matter by bacteria, what is necessary ?
(a) Both oxygen and water.
(b) Presence of oxygen and absence of water.
(c) Both oxygen and water are not required.
(d) The presence of water and absence of oxygen.
Ans: (d) The presence of water and absence of oxygen.
Q25. Why is India considered as a country that has tremendous potential for biogas production ?
(a) None of the above.
(b) It has been promoting the biogas programme.
(c) It has many Gobargas plants.
(d) It has the largest cattle population.
Ans: (d) It has the largest cattle population.
Directions: In the following questions, read the passage carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. (Both borrowers and lenders in the subprime mortgage market are wishing they had listened to the old sayings: neither a borrower nor a lender be. Last year people with poor credit ratings borrowed $ 605 billion in mortgages, a figure that is about 20% of the homeloan market. It includes people who cannot afford to meet the mortgage payments on expensive home they have bought, and lowincome buyers. In some cases, the latter could not even meet the first payment. Lenders include banks like HSBC, which may have lost almost $ 7 billion. Both sides can be blamed. Lenders, after the 2-3 percentage point premium they could charge, offered loans, known as ‘liar loans’, with no down payments and without any income verification of people with bad credit histories. They believed that rising house prices would cover them in the event of default. Borrowers ignored the fact that interest rates would rise after an initial period. One result is that ‘default rates on these subprime mortgages reached 14% last yeara record. The problems in this market also threaten to spread to the rest of the mortgage market, which would reduce the flow of credit available to the shrinking numbers of consumers still interested in buying property. So, the housing market will remain weak; borrowers with weak credit histories will find the credit window closed; people with adjustablerate mortgages will have to spend less so they can meet their increased payments; tighter lending standards and falling home prices will reduce consumer’s ability to tap the equity in their homes. But as long as the labour market remains strong, which it has done despite job losses in housingrelated industries, and as long as real incomes continue to go up, consumers might complain, but they are unlikely to go on a buyers’ strike on a scale that will make this slowdown become a recession. Therefore, we should not be too worried, but, at the same time, we should be a bit cautious and watch closely how things develop.
Q26. Borrowers have been caught out because
(a) house prices have risen.
(b) they wanted more than they could afford.
(c) interest rates rose after a while.
(d) they lied when applying for the loan.
Ans: (c) interest rates rose after a while.
Q27. Who is of the opinion that rising house prices would cover them in the event of a default ?
(a) lenders (b) borrowers
(c) capitalists (d) both borrowers and lenders
Ans: (a) lenders.
Q28. According to the text, people with adjustablerate mortgages
(a) will have to economize.
(b) have weak credit histories.
(c) will get credit whatsoever.
(d) will not be able to get credit
Ans: (a) w ill have to economize.
Q29. In the above passage, the writer is
(a) not at all worried about the housing market.
(b) advising against buying a house.
(c) advising people to proceed with care while investing in the housing market.
(d) very worried about the housing market.
Ans: (c) advising people to proceed with care while investing in the housing market.
Q30. The housing market problems
(a) are going to be resolved soon.
(b) could easily tip the country into recession.
(c) will reduce the flow of credit available to consumers.
(d) will not cause any problems for buyers.
Ans: (a) are going to be resdved soon.