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Part 396 – Reading Comprehension Previous Year Questions

Directions: You have eight brief passages with 5-10 questions following each passage. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each question out of the four alternatives. (PASSAGEI In the world have we made health an end in itself ? We have forgotten that health is really a means to enable a person to do his work and do it well. A lot of modern medicine is concerned with promotion of good health. Many patients as well as many physicians pay very little attention to health; but very much attention to health makes some people imagine that they are ill. Our great concern with health is shown by the medical columns in newspaper, the health articles in popular magazines and the popularity of the television programme and all those books on medicine. We talk about health all the time. Yet, for the most only result is more people are with imaginary illnesses. The healthy man should not be wasting any time talking about health, he should be using health for work, the work he does and the work that good health makes possible.

Q1. Modern medicine is primarily concerned with
(a) promotion of good health.
(b) people suffering from imaginary illnesses.
(c) people suffering from real illnesses.
(d) increased efficiency in work
Ans: (a) promotion of good health

Q2. A healthy man should be concerned with
(a) his work which good health makes possible.
(b) looking after his health.
(c) his health which makes work possible.
(d) talking about health.
Ans: (a) his work which good health makes possible

Q3. Talking about health all the time makes people
(a) always suffer from imaginary illnesses.
(b) sometimes suffer from imaginary illnesses.
(c) rarely suffer from imaginary illnesses.
(d) often suffer from imaginary illnesses.
Ans: (d) often suffer from imaginary illnesses

Q4. The passage suggests that
(a) health is an end in itself.
(b) health is a blessing.
(c) health is only a means to an end.
(d) we should not talk about health.
Ans: (a) health is an end in itself

Q5. The passage tells us
(a) how medicines should be manufactured.
(b) what a healthy man should or should not do.
(c) what the television programmes should be about.
(d) how best to imagine illnesses.
Ans: (b) what a healthy man should or should not do
PASSAGEII Time was when people looked heavenward and prayed, “Ye Gods, give us rain, keep drought away.” Today there are those who pray. “Give us rain, keep El Nino away.” El Nino and its atmospheric equivalent, called the Southern Oscillation, are together referred to as ENSO, and are household words today. Meteorologists recognize it as often being responsible for natural disaster worldwide. But this wisdom dawned only after countries suffered, first from the lack of knowledge, and then from the lack of coordination between policy making and the advances in scientific knowledge. Put simply, El Nino is a weather event restricted to certain tropical shores, especially the Peruvian coast. The event has diametrically opposite impacts on the land and sea. The Peruvian shore is a desert. But every few years, an unusually warm ocean current – El Nino – warms up the normally cold surfacewaters off the Peruvian coast, causing very heavy rains in the early half of the year, And then, miraculously, the desert is matted green. Crops like cotton, coconuts and banana grow on the otherwise stubbornly barren land. These are the Peruvians’ anos de abundencia or years of abundance. The current had come to be termed El Nino, or the Christ Child because it usually appears as an enhancement if a mildly warm current that normally occurs here around every Christmas. But this boon on land is accompanied by oceanic disasters. Normally, the waters off the South American coast are among the most productive in the world because of a constant upswelling of nutrient rich cold waters from the ocean depths. During an El Nino, however waters are stirred up only from near the surface. The nutrientcrunch pushes down primary production, disrupting the food chain. Many marine species, including anchoveta (anchovies) temporarily disappear. This is just one damning effect of El Nino. Over the years its full impact has been studied and what the Peruvians once regarded as manna, is now seen as a major threat.

Q6. Meteorologists took time to understand El Nino because
(a) it was neither a disaster nor a boon for the people living in desert areas.
(b) they recognized it as an atmospheric equivalent and hence called it Southern Oscillation.
(c) they suffered from lack of knowledge about El Nino as they were not scientifically advanced.
(d) All of the above
Ans: (c) they suffered from lack of knowledge about El Nino as they were not scientifically advanced.

Q7. El Nino in a layman language is
(a) a natural disaster. (b) Southern Oscillation.
(c) a weather event. (d) None of the above.
Ans: (c) a weather event

Q8. What are the two types of landscapes that are effected by El Nino ?
(a) Coastal areas and sea.
(b) Tropical shores and land.
(c) Deserts and oceans.
(d) All of the above.
Ans: (d) All of the above

Q9. Which word in Para 3 is the antonym for Fertile?
(a) matted. (b) abundance.
(c) barren. (d) None of the above.
Ans: (c) barren

Q10. What, according to the author, is a positive effect of El Nino ?
(a) It causes changes in atmosphere.
(b) It results in vegetation on barren lands.
(c) It comes around Christmas.
(d) It is regarded as manna.
Ans: (b) It results in vegetation on barren lands.

Q11. How can we say that El Nino proves to be a boon for South American Coast ?
(a) It causes an upswelling of rich nutrients making it the most productive in the world.
(b) It causes the destruction of many marine species such as anchoveta.
(c) It warms up normally cold surface waters off causing heavy rains.
(d) It enhances warm currents around every Christmas.
Ans: (a) It causes an upswelling of rich nutrients making it the most productive in the world.

Q12. The years of abundance is when
(a) El Nino occurs during Christmas.
(b) the deserts are matted green.
(c) marine species is destroyed.
(d) None of the above
Ans: (a) El Nino occurs during Christmas

Q13. The phrase, damning effect means
(a) negative effects. (b) destructive effects.
(c) full effects. (d) disrupting effects.
Ans: (b) destructive effects

Q14. People today, pray to God to keep
(a) rains and droughts away.
(b) drought away.
(c) El Nino away.
(d) El Nino and droughts away.
Ans: (d) El Nino and droughts away

Q15. The word which means – equal in value, power and meaning is
(a) unusual. (b) current.
(c) equivalent. (d) appear.
Ans: (c) equivalent
PASSAGE – III There is a general consensus that ‘International Understanding’ need to be taught as a separate subject at the school stage as that would add to the curricular load which is already too heavy. Instead it should be woven into the curriculum and the numerous opportunities that present themselves while teaching normal school subjects may be intelligently and imaginatively used by the teacher to promote International Understanding. The school subjects which can be most profitably used for this purpose are History, Geography, Civics, Economics, Sociology, Political Science, Social Sciences, Languages as well as Physical and Life Sciences. However, at the higher education level, international education can be prescribed as a separate subject of study. In fact, the present situation in India broadly conforms to this consensus so far as the school stage is concerned. At the undergraduate and the postgraduate levels, courses of study in subjects like History, Geography, Economics, Political Science, International Relations, International Law and International Organization have been prescribed by most of the universities and these contain content which has a direct or indirect bearing on promoting UNESCO ideals.

Q16. How International Understanding can be taught at the school level?
(a) Through various subjects like History, Civics, Geography, etc.
(b) By giving numerous opportunities to the students.
(c) By combining the subject content with the curriculum.
(d) All of these.
Ans: (d) All of these

Q17. Which phrase from the passage means “combined with the curriculum” ?
(a) Intelligently and imaginatively used in the curriculum
(b) Can be prescribed in the curriculum.
(c) Woven into the curriculum.
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c) Woven into the curriculum

Q18. What are the two stages where ‘‘International Understanding” should be taught as a separate subject ?
(a) Primary and Secondary stage.
(b) Undergraduate and postgraduate stage.
(c) Secondary and undergraduate stage.
(d) Postgraduate and doctoral stage.
Ans: (b) Undergraduate and postgraduate stage

Q19. Which word out of the given options mean – ‘feeling of most people’ ?
(a) Promote. (b) Numerous.
(c) Bearing. (d) Consensus.
Ans: (d) Consensus

Q20. Which word from the passage is the opposite of the word – narrow?
(a) Concern. (b) Broad.
(c) Direct. (d) None of the above.
Ans: (b) Broad

Q21. Find the word from the passage which means advised.
(a) Prescribed. (b) Proposed.
(c) Conformed. (d) Presented.
Ans: (b) Proposed

Q22. Pick out the name of the subject which deals with the study of society.
(a) Political Science. (b) Social Science.
(c) Sociology. (d) Life Sciences.
Ans: (c) Sociology

Q23. On reading Para 1, it can be inferred that
(a) all the subjects at school level may not be helpful in promoting International Understanding.
(b) school subjects may be used creatively to promote International Understanding.
(c) international Understanding may be treated as a separate subject in schools.
(d) the school curriculum is too heavy to incorporate International Understanding.
Ans: (b) school subjects may be used creatively to promote International Understanding.

Q24. The implied meaning of Para 3 is
(a) most of the universities have prescribed learning of International Understanding.
(b) the subject International Understanding is based on the UNESCO ideals.
(c) international Understanding is to be taught only at under graduate and post graduate level.
(d) international Understandingcontains subjects like International Relations, International Law and International Organization.
Ans: (a) most of the universities have prescribed learning of International Understanding

Q25. Pick out the most probable meaning of the phrase most profitably used.
(a) Most fruitfully used.
(b) Most rewardingly used.
(c) Most valuably used.
(d) Most commercially used.
Ans: (a) Most fruitfully used
PASSAGE – IV Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe are known for their theories about cycles of generations in American history. They refer to each cycle of four generations as a constellation, and they posit that each constellational era corresponds to “recurring types of historical events” and moods. They state that adjacent generations do not live similar lives, and that each generation ages as a singular cohort as time moves forward. According to Strauss and Howe, each generation is comprised of people who possess (a) common age (b) common beliefs and (c) perceived membership in the same generation. A generation is approximately 22 years in length. Since a lifetime may reach 80-90 years, members of 4 generations are alive at one time. The four generational archetypes identified by Strauss are Idealist, Reactive, Civic and Adaptive. Idealists are “increasingly indulged youths after a secular crisis,” who cultivate principle rather than pragmatism in midlife, and emerge as “visionary elders.” Reactives grow up “under protected and criticized youths during a spiritual awakening,” mature into risk taking adults, mellow into “pragmatic midlife leaders during a secular crisis,” and become reclusive elders. Civics grow up “increasingly protected youths after a spiritual awakening,” become “a heroic and achieving cadre of young adults,” build institutions as midlifers, and “emerge as busy midlifers, attacked by the next spiritual awakening.” Adaptives grow up as “overprotected and suffocated youths during a secular crisis,” become “riskaverse, conformist rising adults,” mature into “indecisive arbitrator leaders during a spiritual awakening,” and become sensitive elders.

Q26. What is the assumption made by Strauss and Howe?
(a) Alternate generations live similar lives.
(b) Four generations coexist at one and the same time.
(c) The cycles of generations share some common features and moods.
(d) Each constellational era corresponds to recurring types of historical events and moods.
Ans: (d) Each constellational era corresponds to recurring types of historical events and moods.

Q27. What is the dissimilarity between adjacent generations ?
(a) Adjacent generations do not live similar lives.
(b) Each generation focuses on its specific traits.
(c) Adjacent generations are not influenced by each other.
(d) Adjacent generations are not in touch with each other.
Ans: (a) Adjacent generations do not live similar lives.

Q28. According to the passage which of the following statements can be inferred ?
(a) Idealists are one generation younger than the Reactives.
(b) Adaptives are elders when Civics are midlifers.
(c) When Reactives are adults, Civics are youths.
(d) Reactives are one generation younger than the Civics.
Ans: (c) When Reactives are adults, Civics are youths.

Q29. According to the passage, what happens to the Civic generation as its members enter midlife ?
(a) It is attacked by Idealists, who are coming of age.
(b) It is attacked by Idealists, who are visionary elders.
(c) It is attacked by Adaptives, who are rising adults.
(d) It is attacked by Adaptives, who are youths.
Ans: (b) It is attacked by Idealists who are visionary elders.

Q30. Pragmatic most closely means
(a) behaving in a reckless way.
(b) acting in a practical way.
(c) acting on the basis of principle.
(d) behaving in a reclusive way.
Ans: (b) acting in a practical way

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