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Part 131 – Biology Previous Year Questions

Q1. Which of the following is a Dominant Autosomal Disorder?
(a) Albinism
(b) Cystic Fibrosis
(c) Phenyl Ketorunia
(d) Alzheimer’s Disease
Ans: (d) In an autosomal dominant disorder, the mutated gene is a dominant gene located on one of the nonsex chromosomes (autosomes). The early-onset form of Alzheimer disease is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In most cases, an affected person inherits the altered gene from one affected parent.

Q2. What is the transplantation of graft between genetically identical individuals ?

(a) Autograft (b) Isograft
(c) Allograft (d) Xenograft
Ans: (b) An isogenic graft or isograft is a graft between genetically identical individuals(i.e. monozygotic twins). Typically, isografts are either grafts between animals of a single highly inbred strain, between the F1 hybrids produced by crossing inbred strains, or between identical twins.

Q3. Which one of the following forms the base of vegetable fibres?

(a) Cellulose (b) Proteins
(c) Fats (d) Oils
Ans: (a) The principal chemical component of vegetable fibers is cellulose, with varying amounts of lignin and hemicelluloses also usually present; thus, the fibers are also referred to as cellulosic or lignocellulosic. Examples include cotton, hemp, jute, flax, ramie, sisal, bagasse, and banana. Vegetable fibers are usually stiffer but less tough than synthetic fibers.

Q4. Which light is least effective in photosynthesis?

(a) Blue light (b) Green light
(c) Red light (d) Sunlight
Ans: (b) Green is the least effective color of light in driving photosynthesis, the process of converting light energy into chemical energy. Photosynthesis occurs in plants and algae using chlorophyll, and because chlorophyll reflects rather than absorbs green light, green light cannot be used in the photosynthetic process.

Q5. The maximum fixation of solar energy is done by

(a) Bacteria (b) Protozoa
(c) Fungi (d) Green plants
Ans: (d) The photosynthetic efficiency is the fraction of light energy converted into chemical energy during photosynthesis in plants and algae. Approximately two thirds of the net global photosynthetic productivity worldwide is of terrestrial green plant origin. The remainder is produced mainly by phytoplankton (microalgae) in the oceans. Approximately 114 kilocalories of free energy are stored in plant biomass for every mole of CO2 fixed during photosynthesis.

Q6. Lichen is an association between which of the two ?

(a) Algae and fungus
(b) Algae and tree
(c) Fungus and tree
(d) Bacteria and legume plant
Ans: (a) A lichen is an organism that is formed by the symbiotic association of a fungus and an algae or cyanobacterium. It occurs as crusty patches or bushy growths on tree trunks, bare ground, etc. The properties are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants.

Q7. Among the given nutrients, milk is a poor source of which of the following ?

(a) Vitamin ‘C’
(b) Calcium
(c) Protein
(d) Carbohydrate
Ans: (a) Milk is a poor source of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C). It contains about 1 mg ascorbate per 100 g. Even the little Vitamin C is usually destroyed when the milk is heat treated. The richest sources of ascorbic acid are fruits and vegetables. Milk is a good source of retinol and thiamin.

Q8. What is a Pepper plant ?

(a) Bush (b) Shrub
(c) Vine (d) Tree
Ans: (c) Pepper plant is a vine. It is a climber and hence it needs support of some other plant (called standard) to climb. Pepper plants have long, vigorous vines and can reach twelve to fifteen feet high. The plants need a strong trellis or structure to scramble over. In addition to its culinary value, pepper makes a lovely houseplant with its glossy, evergreen leaves.

Q9. Among the following which one lays eggs and does not produce young ones directly?

(a) Echidna (b) Kangaroo
(c) Porcupine (d) Whale
Ans: (a) Along with duck-billed platypus, the four species are among the five species of monotremes, the only mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth. Echidna, also known as the Spiny Anteater, is a primitive oviparous (egg-laying) mammal that lives in Australia and New Guinea. Echidnas lay a single egg in a pouch on the female’s belly.

Q10. BCG is vaccine meant for protection against which of the following diseases?

(a) Mumps (b) Tuberculosis
(c) Leprosy (d) Tetanus
Ans: (b) Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine is a vaccine primarily used against tuberculosis. The vaccine was originally developed from Mycobacterium bovis which is commonly found in cows. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system,

Q11. What is cultivation of trees, in dwarf form?

(a) Bonsai (b) Ikebana
(c) Dwarfism (d) Etiolation
Ans: (a) Bonsai is the Japanese art of growing dwarf trees. By contrast with other plant cultivation practices, bonsai is not intended for production of food or for medicine. Instead, bonsai practice focuses on longterm cultivation and shaping of one or more small trees growing in a container. Bonsai uses cultivation techniques like pruning, root reduction, potting, defoliation, and grafting to produce small trees that mimic the shape and style of mature, full-size trees.

Q12. Solar energy is converted into chemical energy during :

(a) Combustion
(b) Transition
(c) Photosynthesis
(d) Fusion
Ans: (c) Photosynthesis in plants converts radiant energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of glucose (sugar) using electrons and protons from water. Plants take in water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight and turn them into glucose and oxygen. Water (6H2O) + Carbon Dioxide (6CO2) + Sunlight (Radiant Energy) = Glucose (C6H12O6) + Oxygen (6O2).

Q13. Which one of the following is not the excretory organ?

(a) Kidneys (b) Liver
(c) Lungs (d) Spleen
Ans: (d) The excretory system is a collection of organs tasked with removing excess nitrogen and other toxins from the body. Several parts of the body such as sweat glands (excretion of sweat), liver (detoxifies and breaks down chemicals, poisons and other toxins that enter the body), lungs (disposal of carbon dioxide through exhalation) and kidneys (excretion of waste through urinary system) are involved in this process. The spleen is the organ that is responsible for both the storage and purification of red blood cells.

Q14. Mechanism preventing interbreeding is called :

(a) Adaptation
(b) Isolation
(c) Reproduction
(d) Recombination
Ans: (b) Because interbreeding can destroy the genetic integrity of a species, causing it to become progressively infertile or extinct, evolutionary changes in anatomy and biology developed to prevent interbreeding between species. The specific term is Reproductive Isolation, which acts to prevent some, any, or all stages of reproduction from occurring. Reproductive Isolation is very important in keeping animal species separated.

Q15. Biodegradable wastes can usually be converted into useful substances with the help of :

(a) Bacteria
(b) Nuclear proteins
(c) Radioactive substances
(d) Viruses
Ans: (a) Biodegradable waste includes any organic matter in waste which can be broken down into carbon dioxide, water, methane or simple organic molecules by micro-organisms such as bacteria. Biodegradable waste can be used for composting or a resource for heat, electricity and fuel by means of incineration or anaerobic digestion.

Q16. The hormone that stimulates heart beat is :

(a) Thyroxine (b) Gastrin
(c) Glycogen (d) Dopamine
Ans: (a) Thyroxine is the main hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the thyroid gland. It plays vital roles in digestion, heart and muscle function, brain development and maintenance of bones. It increases heart rate, cardiac contractility and cardiac output and also promotes vasodilation, which leads to enhanced blood flow to many organs.

Q17. The presence of air bubble in blood stream is dangerous to life because

(a) Air combines with blood forming a complex
(b) The flow of blood increases manifold
(c) The flow of blood is obstructed
(d) The pressure of blood increases manifold
Ans: (c) The presence of air bubble in blood, known as air embolism, occludes blood vessels. The flow of blood is obstructed causing strokes, heart attacks, pulmonary complications. An arterial air embolism is far more dangerous than a venous embolism since it prevents oxygenated blood from reaching the target organ and cause ischemia. It can lead to heart attack and death.

Q18. Which of the following plays an important role in photosynthesis ?

(a) Chloroplast (b) Centrosome
(c) Tonoplast (d) Nematoblast
Ans: (a) A chloroplast is an organelle unique to plant cells that contains chlorophyll (makes plants green) and is responsible for enabling photosynthesis. The chloroplasts conduct photosynthesis, where the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll captures the energy from sunlight and converts it and stores it in the energystorage molecules while freeing oxygen from water.

Q19. The impact of Green Revolution was felt most in the case of

(a) Wheat (b) Rice
(c) Pulses (d) Oil seed
Ans: (a) The Green Revolution in India was a wheat-centric revolution that led to the higher-yielding varieties of wheat.The production of wheat increased by more than three times between 1967–68 and 2003– 04 while the overall increase in the production of cereals was only two times. On account of this, it is said that the Green Revolution in India is largely the Wheat Revolution.

Q20. At which stage in its life cycle does the silkworm yield the fiber of commercial use

(a) Larva (b) Egg
(c) Pupa (d) Imago
Ans: (c) It is during the pupa or cocoon stage that the silkworm yields the fiber of commercial use. As the silkworm prepares to pupate, it spins a protective cocoon. About the size and color of a cotton ball, the cocoon is constructed from one continuous strand of silk, perhaps 1.5 km long (nearly a mile). The silk cocoon serves as protection for the pupa.

Q21. The sigmoid colon is a part of

(a) Small Intestine
(b) Large Intestine
(c) Pharynx
(d) Rectum
Ans: (b) The sigmoid colon (pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus.It forms a loop that averages about 35-40 cm in length. Its function is to expel solid and gaseous waste from the gastrointestinal tract.

Q22. The connective tissue that connects a muscle to a bone is

(a) Cartilage (b) Ligament
(c) Tendon
(d) Interstitial fluid
Ans: (c) A tendon or sinew is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Tendons are similar to ligaments; both are made of collagen. Ligaments join one bone to another bone, while tendons connect muscle to bone.

Q23. Which one of the following is an insectivorous plant?

(a) Utricularia
(b) Sequoia Gigantia
(c) Nostoc
(d) Bryophyta
Ans: (a) Utricularia (also called bladderworts) is a genus of carnivorous plants. They occur in fresh water and wet soil as terrestrial or aquatic species. All Utricularia are carnivorous and capture small organisms by means of bladder-like traps. Terrestrial species feed on protozoa and rotifers swimming in watersaturated soil’ while aquatic species feed on water fleas (Daphnia), nematodes and even fish fry, mosquito larvae and young tadpoles.

Q24. ____ is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi.

(a) Cellulose (b) Glycogen
(c) Pectin (d) Chitin
Ans: (b) Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, and fungi. The polysaccharide structure represents the main storage form of glucose in the body. Glycogen is the analogue of starch, a glucose polymer that functions as energy storage in plants.

Q25. Which of the following gas leaked in the Bhopal Gas tragedy in December 1984?

(a) Methyl isocyanate
(b) Methyl isochlorate
(c) Methyl phosphate
(d) Methyl isopropate
Ans: (a) In the gas tragedy that occurred at the Union Carbide India Limited pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, on 2-3 December 1984, over 500,000 people were exposed to toxic methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas and other chemicals. An estimated 10,000 or more people died.

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