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Part 130 – Biology Previous Year Questions

Q1. Which is the largest gland in human body?
(a) Liver (b) Thyroid
(c) Pituitary (d) S a l i v a r y gland
Ans: (a) Liver is the largest gland in human body. It is also the largest (internal) organ in our body and can weigh up to 1.5-1.6 kg for a human adult. The large size of the liver is matched by its functional complexity and involvement in a diverse array of regulatory mechanisms. It plays a major role in regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, plasma protein synthesis, hormone production, and detoxification.

Q2. Which organ of human body secretes Insulin?

(a) Pancreas (b) Kidney
(c) Gall bladder (d) Liver
Ans: (a) Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that is important for metabolism and utilization of energy from the ingested nutrients – especially glucose. It keeps our blood sugar level from getting too high (hyperglycemia) or too low (hypoglycemia). The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

Q3. If a healthy freshwater fish is placed in salt water, what will be the expected consequence?

(a) The fish becomes dehydrated and dies
(b) The fish becomes bloated and dies
(c) The fish suffers from fungal or bacterial disease and dies
(d) There is no observable effect on the fish provided there is sufficient food
Ans: (a) When freshwater fish is placed in salt water, the water molecules contained in the fish’s body would pass through the cell membranes of the fish, causing the fish to lose water by diffusion. This sudden change in the molecular makeup of the fish would cause the fish to die.

Q4. Cod liver oil from fish is rich in which vitamin?

(a) Vitamin A (b) Vitamin D
(c) Vitamin C (d) Vitamin B
Ans: (b) Cod liver oil, as the name suggests, is the essential oil extracted from the livers of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). It is a nutrient-dense source of essential vitamins including vitamin D and vitamin A as well as anti-inflammatory omega-3 fatty acids. It one of the few and best vitamin D–rich foods.

Q5. Yeast is a _______

(a) Bacteria (b) Fungi
(c) Algae (d) Bryophyte
Ans: (b) Yeast are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classi fied as members of the fungus kingdom.They are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species. Yeasts, such as Candida albicans, are opportunistic pathogens and can cause infections in humans.

Q6. Which of the following is not connective tissue?

(a) Bone (b) Cartilage
(c) Blood (d) Skeletal muscle
Ans: (d) Skeletal muscle is a form of striated muscle tissue which is under the voluntary control of the somatic nervous system. Most skeletal muscles are attached to bones by bundles of collagen fibers known as tendons. It is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.

Q7. Ozone protects biosphere from

(a) X–rays
(b) Gamma rays
(c) Ultraviolet rays
(d) Infrared rays
Ans: (c) Ozone is an allotrope of oxygen that is formed from dioxygen by the action of ultraviolet light and also atmospheric electrical discharges. The ozone layer in the stratosphere acts as a filter for the shorter wavelength and highly hazardous ultraviolet radiation (UVR) from the sun, protecting life on Earth from its potentially harmful effects.

Q8. Ornithophily is effected by

(a) snails (b) bats
(c) insects (d) birds
Ans: (d) Ornithophily or bird pollination is the pollination of flowering plants by birds. This coevolutionary association is derived from insect pollination (entomophily) and is particularly well developed in some parts of the world, especially in the tropics and on some island chains.

Q9. Which of the following vitamins help in the absorption of calcium?

(a) Vitamin A (b) Vitamin D
(c) Vitamin B (d) Vitamin C
Ans: (b) Vitamin D is essential in helping the body absorb and use calcium; in fact, the body cannot absorb calcium at all without some vitamin D.Vitamin D helps our intestines absorb calcium from the food we eat and helps build stronger bones, partly by increasing the absorption of calcium.

Q10. Which of the following vitamins contain nitrogen?

(a) Vitamin A (b) Vitamin B
(c) Vitamin C (d) Vitamin D
Ans: (b) Vitamin B contains nitrogen atoms that allow them to participate in regulating metabolism. For example, Vitamin B3 is a water soluble vitamin containing compound Niacin or Niacinamide, a nitrogen containing vitamin.

Q11. If waste materials contaminate the source of drinking water, which of the following diseases will spread?

(a) Scurvy (b) Typhoid
(c) Malaria (d) Anaemia
Ans: (b) Typhoid is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, usually through ingestion of contaminated food or water. Typhoid is spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Risk factors include poor sanitation and poor hygiene.

Q12. Pneumonia is a bacterial disease caused by the type of bacteria called _________

(a) Bacilli (b) Cocci
(c) Sprilli (d) Vibrio
Ans: (b) Pneumonia is a bacterial disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a Gram-positive bacterium. It lives in the noses and throats of healthy people and can enter lungs through inhalation. Other important Gram-positive causes of pneumonia are Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis.

Q13. The chemical component that is invariably found in all viruses is :

(a) proteins (b) lipids
(c) DNA (d) RNA
Ans: (a) All viruses contain the following two components: a nucleic acid genome and a protein capsid that covers the genome. Together this is called the nucleocapsid. The proteinous coat surrounds and protects the genetic material. In addition, many animal viruses contain a lipid envelope. The entire intact virus is called the virion.

Q14. Which is used as an Air pollution indicator?

(a) Algae (b) Fungi
(c) Bacteria (d) Lichens
Ans: (d) Lichens are used as air pollution indicators, especially of the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere. If air is very badly polluted with sulphur dioxide there may be no lichens present, just green algae may be found. If the air is clean, shrubby, hairy and leafy lichens become abundant.

Q15. Which enzyme digests proteins in the stomach?

(a) Trypsin
(b) Pepsin
(c) Salivary amylase
(d) Pancreatic canal
Ans: (b) Protein digestion begins in the stomach with the action of pepsin. Pepsin is the active protein-digesting enzyme of the stomach. When pepsin acts on the protein molecule, it breaks the bonds that hold the protein molecule together, called peptide bonds. Once broken, peptide bonds yield chains of amino acids linked together called polypeptides that are digested in the small intestine with the help of trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase.

Q16. Fermentation is a type of ________ process .

(a) Aerobic Respiration
(b) Anaerobic Respiration
(c) Exothermic Reaction
(d) Transpiration
Ans: (b) Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions. It also occurs in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation.

Q17. Bacterial decomposition of biological material under anaerobic condition is

(a) fermentation
(b) fertilization
(c) contamination
(d) composting
Ans: (a) Fermentation is the process by which complex organic compounds, such as glucose, are broken down by the action of enzymes into simpler compounds in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic). Yeasts can convert sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide by fermentation. Fermentation is used to produce wine, beer, yogurt and other products.

Q18. The elements known as primary nutrients for plants

(a) Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium
(b) Nitrogen, Oxygen and Silicon
(c) Potassium, Boron and Nitrogen
(d) Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Iron
Ans: (a) Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K) are considered as the three essential or primary nutrients for plants. Together they make up the trio known as NPK. Other important nutrients are calcium, magnesium and sulfur. Plants also need small quantities of iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron and molybdenum, known as trace elements.

Q19. A genetically engineered form of brinjal known as the BT brinjal has been developed. The objective of this is

(a) to make it pest resistant
(b) to improve its taste and nutritive value
(c) to make it drought resistant
(d) to make its shelflife longer
Ans: (a) Bt Brinjal is a genetically modified (GM) crop created by inserting Cry 1Ac gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis into Brinjal. The insertion of the gene gives Brinjal plant resistance against lepidopteron pets/insects like the Brinjal Fruit and Shoot Borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) and Fruit Borer (Helicoverpa armigera).

Q20. Which of the following is least likely to be an effect of global warming?

(a) Increased frequency of hurricanes
(b) Loss of fertile delta region as for agriculture
(c) Decreased rate of photosynthesis in vegetation
(d) Shrinking of the polar ice regions
Ans: (c) Global warming is the current increase in temperature of the Earth’s surface (both land and water) as well as it’s atmosphere. Climatologists believe that it will lead to extreme weather conditions such as increase in the frequency and strength of hurricanes, increase in sea level and submergence of deltaic regions due to melting of polar ice, coupled with melting ice sheets and glaciers across Greenland, North America, South America, Europe and Asia. However, the gradual heating of Earth’s surface, oceans and atmosphere will not affect photosynthesis.

Q21. Growing agricultural crops between rows of planted trees is known as

(a) Social forestry
(b) Jhum
(c) Taungya system
(d) Agro forestry
Ans: (c) The Taungya system involves growing agricultural crops between rows of planted trees (sal, teak, etc). Along with jhum cultivation, it is one of the well-known systems of agro forestry programmes in practice in our country.

Q22. Which of the following increases the rate of heart beat?

(a) Peripheral nerves
(b) Sympathetic nerves
(c) Parasympathetic nerves
(d) Cranial nerves
Ans: (b) Heart rate is controlled by the two branches of the autonomic (involuntary) nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) releases the hormones (catecholamines – epinephrine and norepinephrine) to accelerate the heart rate. The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) releases the hormone acetylcholine to slow the heart rate.

Q23. The deficiency of Niacin-a vitamin of B complex group causes the disease _____

(a) Marasmus
(b) Pellagra
(c) Rickets
(d) Nightblindness
Ans: (b) Pellagra is a vitamin deficiency disease most frequently caused by a chronic lack of niacin (vitamin B3) in the diet. It can be caused by decreased intake of niacin or tryptophan, and possibly by excessive intake of leucine. It may also result from alterations in protein metabolism in disorders such as carcinoid syndrome or Hartnup disease.

Q24. A pair of contrasting characters controlling the same trait is called

(a) factors (b) loci
(c) allele (d) lineage
Ans: (c) An allele is one of a pair of genes that appear at a particular location on a particular chromosome and control the same characteristic, such as blood type or colorblindness. Alleles are also called alleleomorphs. If the two alleles are identical, the individual is called a homozygote; when the two alleles are different, the individual is a heterozygote.

Q25. Algal bloom results from

(a) Global warming
(b) Salination
(c) Eutrophication
(d) Biomagnification
Ans: (c) An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and are recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments. Algal blooms are the consequence of the enrichment of a water body with nutrients, usually with an excess amount of nutrients. This is known as eutrophication.

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