Q1. Christmas factor is involved in :
(a) Blood Coagulation
Ans: (a) In the collateral type of vascular bundle, xylem and phloem are arranged side by side on the same radius. This may be either open or closed. Usually xylem is seen towards the inner side and phloem towards outer side. The collateral vascular bundle is also known as conjoint.
Q2. If xylem and phloem are arranged in the same radius, such a vascular bundle is called :
(a) collateral (b) bicollateral
(c) concentric (d) radial
Ans: (a) Amino acids are required for the synthesis of body protein and other important nitrogen-containing compounds. Amino acids are constituents of protein and act as precursors for many coenzymes, hormones, nucleic acid, etc. Adult humans are unable to synthesize all twenty amino acids needed for protein synthesis; those which cannot be synthesized and which must then be acquired via the diet are referred to as essential.
Q3. Amino acids are required for the synthesis of :
(a) Alkaloids (b) Lipids
(c) Proteins (d) Carbohydrates
Ans: (c) Minamata disease is a neurological syndrome caused by severe mercury poisoning. The disease was first discovered in Minamata City in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan in 1956. It was caused by the release of methyl mercury in the industrial wastewater (point source pollution) from the Chisso Corporation’s chemical factory, which continued from 1932 to 1968.
Q4. Minamata disease is caused by pollution of water by :
(c) methy isocyanate
Ans: (d) Cork is a prime-subset of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber. It is endemic to the Mediterranean region. Cork is composed of suberin, a hydrophobic substance and, because of its impermeable, buoyant, elastic, and fire retardant properties, it is used in a variety of products, such as wine stoppers.
Q5. Commercially valued cork is obtained from :
(a) Quercus spp
(b) Cedrus Deodara
Ans: (a) BOD stands for Biochemical Oxygen Demand. It is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period. The BOD value is most commonly expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per litre of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20°C.
Q6. BOD stands for :
(a) Biological oxidation demand
(b) Biological oxygen demand
(c) Biochemical oxygen demand
(d) Biotic oxidation demand
Ans: (c) Dark fermentation is the fermentative conversion of organic substrate to bio-hydrogen. It is a complex process manifested by diverse groups of bacteria, involving a series of biochemical reactions using three steps similar to anaerobic conversion. Wastewater is used as a potential substrate for bio-hydrogen production in the dark fermentation process.
Q7. What do you understand by the term ‘Dark Fermentation’?
(a) It is a method to dispose nuclear wastes.
(b) It is a method to produce methane from organic wastes.
(c) It is a method to reduce COD in the atmosphere.
(d) It is a method to produce Hydrogen as a fuel from waste water.
Ans: (d) There are approximately 640 skeletal muscles within the typical human, and almost every muscle constitutes one part of a pair of identical bilateral muscles, found on both sides, resulting in approximately 320 pairs of muscles. Nevertheless, the exact number is difficult to define because different sources group muscles differently, e.g. regarding what is defined as different parts of a single muscle or as several muscles. Examples range from 640 to 850.
Q8. Approximate number of skeletal muscles is :
(a) 500 (b) 700
(c) 200 (d) 206
Ans: (b) Conditions which increase the rate of evaporation also increase the rate of transpiration. Transpiration is more rapid in hot, dry and windy conditions than it is in still or humid conditions. Plenty of light also speeds up transpiration. Factors that affect transpiration rate Factor Description Explanation Light In bright light transpiration increases The stomata (openings in the leaf) open wider to allow more carbon dioxide into the leaf for photosynthesis. Temperature Transpiration is faster in higher temperatures Evaporation and diffusion are faster at higher temperatures Wind Transpiration is faster in windy conditions Water vapour is removed quickly by air movement, speeding up diffusion of more water vapour out of the leaf Humidity Transpiration is slower in humid conditions Diffusion of water vapour out of the leaf slows down if the leaf is already surrounded by moist air
Q9. The Ozone layer protects us from:
(a) Cosmic rays
(b) Ultra-Violet rays
(c) Visible rays
(d) Infrared rays
Ans: (b) The ozone layer refers to a region of Earth’s stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It absorbs 97–99% of the Sun’s mediumfrequency ultraviolet light (from about 200 nm to 315 nm wavelength), which otherwise would potentially damage exposed life forms near the surface.
Q10. Blue Revolution is related to:
(a) Space research
(c) Drinking water
Ans: (b) Blue Revolution means the adoption of a package programme to increase the production of fish and marine products. The Blue Revolution in India was started in 1970 during the Fifth Five-Year Plan when the Central Government sponsored the Fish Farmers Development Agency (FFDA). It is related to fish breeding, fish rearing, fish marketing, and fish export.
Q11. Scurvey is caused by:
(a) Vitamin ‘D’ (b) Vitamin ‘A’
(c) Vitamin ‘C’ (d) Vitamin ‘B’
Ans: (c) Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C (ascorbic acid). It is sometimes also referred to as Barlow’s disease, named after Sir Thomas Barlow, a British physician who described it in 1883. Scurvy can be prevented by consuming enough vitamin C, either in the diet or as a supplement.
Q12. The most suitable soil for the production of cotton is :
(a) Black lava soil
(b) Alluvial soil
(c) Loamy soil
(d) Well drained soil
Ans: (a) Black soil is most suitable for the cultivation of cotton. The deep and medium black lava soil of the Deccan and Malwa plateaus is considered ideal, though it can be grown on alluvial and red soil as well. The black cotton soil is also known as regur.
Q13. Chromosome designation of Turner sydrome is :
(a) 44A+XO (b) 44A+XXX
(c) 44A+XXY (d) 44A+XYY
Ans: (a) Turner syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder characterized by partial or complete loss (monosomy) of one of the X chromosomes that affects females. Individuals with Turner syndrome have only 45 chromosomes, including just a single X chromosome. This monosomic has a chromosome complement of 44 autosomes and one X chromosome (44+XO). The abnormal condition probably originates from exceptional egg or sperm with no X chromosome.
Q14. The five key indicators of global climate change of our planet are :
(a) Antartic Sea ice, Oxygen, Rainfall, Drought and Sea level
(b) Sea-level, Rising temperatures, Rainfall, Nitrogen and Arctic Sea ice
(c) Arctic Sea ice, Carbon dioxide, Global Temperature, Sea level and Land ice.
(d) None of these
Ans: (c) National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a series of interactive maps and graphs to describe the global climate and how it has changed over time. They focus on 5 key climate indicators: l carbon dioxide concentration l global surface temperature l Arctic sea ice l land ice l sea level
Q15. Maximum oxygen is available from :
(b) Green forests
(c) Grass lands
Ans: (d) Most of Earth’s oxygen comes from tiny ocean plants – called phytoplankton – that live near the water’s surface and drift with the currents. Like all plants, they photosynthesize – that is, they use sunlight and carbon dioxide to make food. Scientists believe that phytoplankton contribute between 50 to 85 percent of the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere (National Geographic).
Q16. Which of the following is a form of sexual reproduction:
Ans: (b) Hermaphroditism is a form of sexual reproduction. Hermaphrodite is an organism that has reproductive organs normally associated with both male and female sexes. Hermaphroditic plants—most flowering plants, or angiosperms—are bisexual. Hermaphroditic animals—mostly invertebrates such as worms, moss animals, trematodes, snails, slugs, etc—are usually parasitic, permanently attached to another animal or plant.
Q17. Which of the following is true with reference to blood platelets?
(a) They have prominent nuclei.
(b) They are involved in phagocytosis
(c) They have a pigment called haemoglobin
(d) They are also called thrombocytes.
Ans: (d) Platelets, also called thrombocytes, are a component of blood whose function is to stop bleeding by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries. Unlike red and white blood cells, platelets are not actually cells but rather small fragments of cells.
Q18. The basic unit of biosystematics is
(a) Phenotype (b) Ecotype
(c) Florotype (d) Genotype
Ans: (b) Ecotype is the basic unit of Biosystematics. It is adapted to a particular environment but capable of producing fully fertile hybrids with other ecotypes. The term Ecotype was proposed by Turesson. According to him Ecotype is “an ecological unit to cover the product arising as a result of genotypical response of an ecospecies to a particular habitat.”
Q19. Which endocrine gland is found in chest cavity?
(a) Pineal gland
(b) Thymus gland
(c) Adrenal gland
(d) Thyroid gland
Ans: (b) The endocrine glands are widely distributed throughout the body. The pituitary gland, pineal gland and hypothalamus are located in the skull. The thyroid and parathyroid glands are in the neck, and the thymus gland is in the thoracic (chest) cavity. The thymus gland is only active until puberty. It helps the body protect itself against autoimmunity.
Q20. An organism that transmits disease from one individual to another is called
(a) Hybrid (b) Fragment
(c) Vector (d) Clone
Ans: (c) An organism that transmits a disease agent from an infected to a non-infected animal or plant is known as vector. The major classes of vectors are: l Non-living vectors (food, water, soil, other materials) l Arthropod vectors (fleas, ticks, mosquitoes) l Vertebrate vectors (rats, mice, cats, dogs, birds)
Q21. Which part of the cinchona yields a drug?
(a) Pericarp (b) Bark
(c) Endosperm(d) Leaf
Ans: (b) The bark of cinchona tree yields quinine, a white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), anti-malarial, analgesic (painkilling), and antiinflammatory properties. Quinine was the first effective Western treatment for malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum.
Q22. The part of brain which controls emotional reactions in our body is
(a) Hypothalamus (b) Cerebrum
(c) Meninges (d) Thalamus
Ans: (a) The brain’s limbic system controls emotional expression through the hypothalamus, which has control over the body’s emotional responses systems. The hypothalamus is responsible for regulating hunger, thirst, response to pain, levels of pleasure, sexual satisfaction, anger and aggressive behavior, etc. It also regulates pulse, blood pressure, breathing, and arousal in response to emotional circumstances.
Q23. To reduce tooth decay most toothpastes contain a
(a) Bromide (b) Fluoride
(c) Iodide (d) Chloride
Ans: (b) Fluoride in toothpastes prevent tooth decay from progressing and can even reverse, or stop, early tooth decay. It works by promoting a chemical reaction in tooth enamel that draws in replacement minerals including calcium. Fluoride incorporates itself into enamel weakened by acid attack, making the tooth more resistant to future acid attacks.
Q24. An example of hormone is
(a) Cytosine (b) Renin
(c) Oxytocin (d) Peprin
Ans: (c) Oxytocin is an hormone that is normally produced in the hypothalamus and stored in the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a role in social bonding, sexual reproduction in both sexes, and during and after childbirth. It is released due to stretching of the cervix and uterus during labor and with stimulation of the nipples from breastfeeding.
Q25. What is the famous ‘Chipko’ movement associated with?
(a) Saving the tigers
(b) Saving the wetland
(c) None of these
Ans: (d) The Chipko movement refers to an organized resistance to the destruction of forests that arose in India during the 1970s. The name of the movement comes from the word ‘embrace’, as the villagers hugged the trees, and prevented the contractors’ from felling them. In 1987, the Chipko Movement was awarded the Right Livelihood Award.