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Part 122 – Biology Previous Year Questions

Q1. Tachycardia is a condition characterized by
(a) heart-rate decreases from the normal
(b) heart- rate increases from the normal
(c) heart-beat stops
(d) heart fails to pump
Ans: (b) Tachycardia is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate. In general, a resting heart rate over 100 beats per minute is accepted as tachycardia in adults. A healthy adult heart normally beats 60 to 100 times a minute when a person is at rest. Tachycardia occurs when an abnormality in the heart produces rapid electrical signals.

Q2. Oxyntic cell is meant for the secretion of

(a) Pepsin
(b) Enterokinase
(c) Hydrochloric acid
(d) Lactic acid
Ans: (c) Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic cells), are the epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor. These cells are located in the gastric glands found in the stomach. They contain an extensive secretory network from which the HCl is secreted by active transport into the stomach.

Q3. Which one of the following is a vestigial organ ?

(a) Eye-brow
(b) Collar-bone
(c) Wisdom-teeth
(d) Nails
Ans: (c) Wisdom teeth are vestigial third molars that human ancestors used to help in grinding down plant tissue. The common postulation is that the skulls of human ancestors had larger jaws with more teeth, which were possibly used to help chew down foliage to compensate for a lack of ability to efficiently digest the cellulose that makes up a plant cell wall. As human diets changed, smaller jaws were naturally selected, yet the third molars, or “wisdom teeth,” still commonly develop in human mouths.

Q4. Water flows off the wings of birds and insects due- to the presence of

(a) Waxes (b) Sugars
(c) Proteins (d) Minerals
Ans: (a) Insects and birds have the simplest surface waxes that serve to water proof feathers. These consist of long chain hydrocarbons. The interlocking feather barbs and a special waxy coating create a shield that water runs off of. Besides, while a few components present in surface lipids can prevent growth of pathogens, the total surface was layer certainly functions to prevent microbial entry into the organism.

Q5. Which one of the following chemicals is associated with muscle fatigue?

(a) Uric acid (b) Acetic acid
(c) Pyruvic acid (d) Lactic acid
Ans: (d) Muscle fatigue refers to the decline in muscle force generated over sustained periods of activity. Intracellular acidosis due mainly to lactic acid accumulation has been regarded as the most important cause of skeletal muscle fatigue. Lactic acid accumulation leads to increased intracellular hydrogen ion (H+) concentration that leads to a weaker contraction.

Q6. Point out the incorrect pair :

(a) Green Revolution – Agricultural Development
(b) White Revolution – Dairy Development
(c) Blue Revolution – Development of Fisheries
(d) Operation Flood – Irrigation Development
Ans: (d) Operation Flood, launched in 1970 is a project of the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), which was the world’s biggest dairy development program. It made India, a milk-sufficient nation, the largest milk producer in the world, surpassing the USA in 1998. Operation flood is also called White Revolution of India.

Q7. In B.C.G. Vaccine the word ‘C’ stands for :

(a) Calmette (b) Cough
(c) Chlorine (d) Cadmium
Ans: (a) The acronym BCG stands for Bacillus Calmette– Guérin, a vaccine against tuberculosis and for the treatment of some bladder cancers. It is prepared from a strain of the attenuated (virulence-reduced) live bovine tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines.

Q8. The presence of pollutants in the environment is usually expressed in ppm, where ppm stands for:

(a) particles per mole
(b) purity per microgram
(c) pollutant prevent measures
(d) parts per million
Ans: (d) PPM is an abbreviation of Parts Per Million. It is commonly used as a measure of small levels of pollutants in air, water, body fluids, etc. Parts per million is the mass ratio between the pollutant component and the solution.

Q9. Which one of the following is an autotroph?

(a) Butterfly (b) Algae
(c) Grasshopper (d) Mushroom
Ans: (b) An autotroph is an organism that can produce its own food using light, water, carbon dioxide, or other chemicals. Plants are the most familiar type of autotroph, but there are many different kinds of autotrophic organisms. Algae, which live in water and whose larger forms are known as seaweed, is autotrophic.

Q10. Soilless agriculture refers to

(a) Hydroponics
(b) Hygroponics
(c) Sericulture
(d) Inter–cropping
Ans: (a) Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture and is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil. Terrestrial plants may be grown with their roots in the mineral nutrient solution only, or in an inert medium, such as perlite or gravel. Hydroponics is a subset of soilless culture.

Q11. ‘Red Data Book’ provides an account of

(a) Endangered plants only
(b) Fossil plants
(c) Endangered plants and animals
(d) Extinct animals only
Ans: (c) The Red Data Book is the state document established for documenting rare and endangered species of animals, plants and fungi as well as some local sub-species that exist within the territory of the state or country. This book provides central information for studies and monitoring programmes on rare and endangered species and their habits.

Q12. First human heart transplant was performed in

(a) 1972 (b) 1955
(c) 1967 (d) 1959
Ans: (c) Christiaan Barnard, a South African cardiac surgeon, performed the world’s first successful humanto- human heart transplant at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town on 3 December 1967. The recipient o heart transplant was Louis Washkansky, a fifty three year old grocer with a debilitating heart condition.

Q13. In India, Dugong (sea cow) is found in the bioreserve site of:

(a) Gulf of Mannar
(b) Nokrek
(c) Manas
(d) Sundarban
Ans: (a) The sea mammal Dugong is found in the Gulf of Mannar biosphere reserve. It feeds on sea grasses like Halodule uninervis which occur in abundance in the waters around the Krusadai and Shingle islands and off the coast of Mandapam. Gulf of Mannar is the first Marine Biosphere Reserve not only in India, but also in south and Southeast Asia.

Q14. Life originated by chemosynthesis was proved in the laboratory by :

(a) Sanger (b) Pasteur
(c) Miller (d) Aristotle
Ans: (c) The Miller–Urey experiment of 1952 simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions in a laboratory. The experiment demonstrated how amino acids could be generated in a lab environment from simple compounds subjected to electrical discharges in the early Earth’s atmosphere. The spontaneous creation of amino acids was used in this experiment to explain life’s origins by chemosynthesis.

Q15. Normal blood pressure reading of an adult human :

(a) 80/120 mm Hg
(b) 120/80 mm Hg
(c) 130/90 mm Hg
(d) 160/95 mm Hg
Ans: (b) According to the American Heart Association (AHA), normal blood pressure is a systolic pressure of less than 120 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and a diastolic pressure of less than 80 mm Hg, or 120/80 mm Hg. Having a blood pressure greater than 140/ 90 mm Hg is considered high blood pressure or hypertension.

Q16. The disease which has been eradicated :

(a) Mumps (b) Measles
(c) Small pox (d) Chicken pox
Ans: (c) Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. After vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the global eradication of smallpox in 1979. Smallpox is one of two infectious diseases to have been eradicated, the other being rinderpest which was declared eradicated in 2011.

Q17. Which of the following is commonly used in preparing custard powder ?

(a) raagi (b) wheat
(c) maize (d) rice
Ans: (c) Custard powder is primarily made up of thickeners that give the pudding its texture. It is primarily made from edible maize starch or corn flour. Cornstarch is great for thickening liquids, dissolves easily and is almost foolproof. The powder also contains flavorings such as vanilla.

Q18. Excretion in Hemichordates takes place by

(a) Glomerulus (b) Pronephron
(c) Mesonephron (d) Metanephron
Ans: (a) The glomerulus functions as an excretory organ in hemichordates. Soluble wastes are collected from the blood by the glomerulus, lying within the proboscis cavity, and excreted from that cavity through a dorsal pore (an opening on the upper side) to the outside.

Q19. People with Down’s syndrome invariably affected by:

(a) Huntington’s disease
(b) Alzheimer’s disease
(c) Meningitis
(d) Brain haemorrhage
Ans: (b) The best-known and most common chromosome abnormality in humans is Down’s syndrome, a condition associated with an extra chromosome 21. Down’s syndrome individuals also almost invariably develop Alzheimer’s disease, a form of dementia that is fairly common among the elderly. People with Down’s syndrome develop this disease in their fourth or fifth decade of life, much sooner than other people.

Q20. Damping off of seedlings is caused by

(a) Peronospola parasitica
(b) Albugo Candida
(c) Phytophthora infestans
(d) Pythium debaryanum
Ans: (d) Damping off is a horticultural disease or condition, caused by a number of different pathogens that kill or weaken seeds or seedlings before or after they germinate. Pythium, a genus of parasitic oomycete, are most often responsible for damping-off. Along with Rhizoctonia solani, attacks by Pythium are most associated with producing roughly circular patches of dead seedlings.

Q21. The deficiency of vitamin A causes

(a) night blindness
(b) beri-beri
(c) rickets
(d) pellagra
Ans: (a) Nyctalopia (night blindness) is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in relatively low light. It is one of the first signs of Vitamin A deficiency. Xerophthalmia, keratomalacia, and complete blindness can also occur since Vitamin A has a major role in phototransduction.

Q22. The use of heat treatment of ore that includes smelting and roasting is termed as :

(a) Electrometallurgy
(b) Hydrometallurgy
(c) Pyrometallurgy
(d) Cryometallurgy
Ans: (c) Pyrometallurgy consists of the thermal treatment of minerals and metallurgical ores and concentrates to bring about physical and chemical transformations in the materials to enable recovery of valuable metals. During pyrometallic processing, an ore, after being beneficiated (concentrated by crushing, grinding, floating and drying), is sintered or roasted (calcined) with other materials such as baghouse dust and flux. The concentrate is then smelted, or melted, in a blast furnace in order to fuse the desired metals into impure molten bullion.

Q23. Natural system of classification was proposed by ______ botanists.

(a) Indian (b) German
(c) Swedish (d) British
Ans: (d) The best and a highly recognised natural system of classification was proposed by George Bentham and Sir Joseph Hooker, two great British botanists associated with Royal Botanical Garden at Kew, in their General Plantarum (1862-1883). They classified plants strictly on the basis of a natural scheme. This system is based not only on the characters of the reproductive organs and structural relationship, but all the other important characters are also taken into consideration and the plants are classified according to their related characters.

Q24. What is the Kyoto Protocol?

(a) It is an agreement among countries to take steps for reducing acid rain
(b) It is an agreement among countries to take steps for planting trees to control pollution
(c) It is an agreement among countries to start using nuclear energy
(d) It is an agreement among countries to take steps for reducing global warming
Ans: (d) The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty, which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, based on the premise that (a) global warming exists and (b) man-made CO2 emissions have caused it. It aims to fight global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The treaty was negotiated in December 1997 at the city of Kyoto, Japan and came into force on February 16, 2005.

Q25. Transpiration increases in :

(a) Hot, dry and windy condition
(b) Hot, damp and windy condition
(c) Cool, damp and windy condition
(d) Cool, dry and still condition
Ans: (a) Factor IX, also known as Christmas factor, is one of the serine proteases of the coagulation system; it belongs to peptidase family S1. Deficiency of this protein causes hemophilia B. It was discovered in 1952 after a young boy named Stephen Christmas was found to be lacking this exact factor, leading to haemophilia.

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