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Part 118 – Biology Previous Year Questions

Q1. Cultivable land is defined as
(a) land actually under crops
(b) cultivable waste land + fallow land
(c) old fallow lands + current fallow lands
(d) total fallow lands + net sown area
Ans: (d) Cultivable land refers to the land capable of being cultivated. It consists of net area sown, total fallow lands (current fallows + fallow lands other than current fallows), culturable wasteland and land under miscellaneous tree crops.

Q2. From which part ofOpium plant we get morphine ?

(a) Leaves (b) Stem
(c) Bark (d) Fruit coat
Ans: (d) Morphine is the predominant alkaloid found in the varieties of opium poppy plant. It is obtained in form of liquid from the fruit capsule of the poppy. The latex which oozes from the incisions is collected, and dried to produce “raw opium” (about 8-14% morphine by dry weight).

Q3. Glucose is a type of

(a) Pentose sugar
(b) Hexose sugar
(c) Tetrose sugar
(d) Diose sugar
Ans: (b) Three common sugars (glucose, galactose and fructose) share the same molecular formula: C6H12O6. Because of their six carbon atoms, each is a hexose. They are “single” sugars or monosaccharides.

Q4. Number of mitochondria in bacterial cell is

(a) one (b) two
(c) many (d) zero
Ans: (d) Bacteria are prokaryotes, which, by definition, are cells that don’t possess membrane-bound organelles. Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles. Cellular respiration, in prokaryotes, occurs within the cytoplasm or inner surfaces of the cell.

Q5. In cactus, the spines are the modified

(a) stem (b) stipulse
(c) leaves (d) buds
Ans: (c) Most cactus morphologists have concluded that cactus spines are modified leaves. They are wholly transformed leaves that protect the plant from herbivores, radiate heat from the stem during the day, and collect and drip condensed water vapour during the cooler night.

Q6. The smallest known prokaryotic organism is

(a) Microcystis
(b) Mycoplasma
(c) Bacteria
(d) Chlorella
Ans: (b) Mycoplasmas are the smallest and simplest prokaryotes capable of self-replication. Keeping the number of structural elements, metabolic pathways and components of the protein synthesizing machinery to an essential minimum places Mycoplasmas closest to the concept of ‘minimum cells’.

Q7. The oilseed which is not edible

(a) Sunflower (b) Cottonseed
(c) Sesamum (d) Groundnut
Ans: (b) Cottonseed is a non-edible oilseed. Gossypol is a toxic compound found in the cotton plant. This compound is concentrated in the cottonseed but can also be found in other parts of the plant such as hulls, leaves and stems. Gossypol affects mainly the heart and liver.

Q8. Which fruit has its seed outside ?

(a) Strawberry (b) Banana
(c) Groundnut (d) Cashew nut
Ans: (a) True berries, such as blueberries and cranberries have seeds inside. The strawberry, however has its dry, yellow “seeds” on the outside (each of which is actually considered a separate fruit). The “seeds” seen on the outside of a strawberry are actually the plant’s ovaries and are called “achenes.”

Q9. Enzymes are

(a) Proteins (b)Minerals
(c) Oils (d) Fatty acids
Ans: (a) Enzymes are biological molecules (proteins) that act as catalysts and help complex reactions occur everywhere in life. They are in general globular proteins. They speed up reactions by providing an alternative reaction pathway of lower activation energy.

Q10. The largest cells in mammalian blood are

(a) Erythrocytes
(b) Monocytes
(c) Basophils
(d) Lymphocytes
Ans: (b) Various components of blood are: Plasma, Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells), Leucocytes (White Blood Cells) and Thrombocytes/Platelets. Monocytes, also known as macrophages, are the largest blood cells in most mammals, measuring 10-15 m in diameter. They are leucocytes. Their nuclei are kidney-shaped and cytoplasm is abundant.

Q11. Who proposed Binomial Nomenclature ?

(a) Linnaeus (b) John Ray
(c) Huxley (d) Aristotle
Ans: (a) Binomial nomenclature is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms. The formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Swedish natural scientist Carl Linnaeus, effectively beginning with his work ‘Species Plantarum’ in 1753.

Q12. Who proposed Five Kingdom Classification ?

(a) R.H. Whittaker
(b) John Ray
(c) Carolus Linnaeus
(d) H.F. Copeland
Ans: (a) R.H Whittaker proposed the five kingdom classification in 1969. Those five kingdoms are: Monera, Protista, Mycota (Fungi), Metaphyta (Plantae) and Metazoa (Animalia). It is the most accepted system of modern classification as the different groups of animals are placed phylogenetically.

Q13. The vitamin which is very labile and easily destroyed during cooking as well as storage is vitamin

(a) D (b) C
(c) B6 (d) K
Ans: (b) Vitamin C is quite unstable when cooked or stored improperly. It is very liable and easily destroyed during cooking as well as storage. It is most susceptible to heat destruction.

Q14. ‘Survival of the fittest’ was coined by

(a) Darwin (b) Lamarck
(c) Mendel (d)Weismann
Ans: (a) The ‘survival of the fittest’ quotation is attributed to Charles Darwin. He said, “It is not the strongest or the most intelligent who will survive but those who can best manage change.” However, Herbert Spencer first used the phrase – after reading Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species – in his Principles of Biology (1864).

Q15. Name the Japanese art of miniaturisation of trees.

(a) Bonsai (b) Kirigami
(c) Origami (d) Ikebana
Ans: (a) Bonsai is the art of aesthetic miniaturization of trees and plants in containers. A bonsai plant is not a dwarf plant but equal to the full sized flowering plant. The main objective of bonsai plants is to create a tree or plant, and even landscapes, in miniature.

Q16. Which one of the following is not a photosynthetic pigment ?

(a) Chlorophyll (b) Phycobilin
(c) Carotenoid (d) Anthocyanin
Ans: (d) There are three basic classes of photosynthetic pigments: Chlorophylls (greenish pigments), Carotenoids (usually red, orange, or yellow pigments) and Phycobilins (water-soluble pigments found in the cytoplasm). Anthocyanins play no part in photosynthesis.

Q17. Which of the following is a fibrous protein ?

(a) Haemoglobin (b) Albumin
(c) Keratin (d) Enzymes
Ans: (c) Keratin is a family of fibrous structural proteins. It is the key structural material making up the outer layer of human skin. It is also the key structural component of hair and nails. Another example of fibrous protein is collagen.

Q18. Typhoid fever is caused by

(a) Bacteria (b) Virus
(c) Protozoa (d) Fungi
Ans: (a) Typhoid fever is an infection that causes diarrhea and a rash. It is most commonly due to a type of bacterium called Salmonella typhi (S. typhi). S. typhi is spread through contaminated food, drink, or water.

Q19. The International Commisson on Zoological Nomenclature was established in

(a) 1898 (b) 1988
(c) 2001 (d) 1664
Ans: (*) The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) was founded in 1895. It provides and regulates a uniform system of zoological nomenclature ensuring that every animal has a unique and universally accepted scientific name.

Q20. Carolus Linnaeus System of classification is

(a) Natural (b) Artificial
(c) Binomial (d) Phylogenetic
Ans: (c) Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus established the binomial system of naming living organisms, setting a format and a structured process for classifying the interrelationships between plants (among which he included all fungi), and between animals. The binomial system that Linnaeus devised enables an author to refer to a species confident that it will mean the same thing to informed readers anywhere else in the world.

Q21. Cactus is referred to as

(a) Hydrophyte (b) Mesophyte
(c) Xerophyte (d) Epiphyte
Ans: (c) Cactus is a xerophyte as it specializes in surviving in hot and dry environments. Xerophytes are plants that are adapted to survive in an environment with little water, such as a desert or an ice- or snowcovered region in the Alps or the Arctic.

Q22. How many neck canal cells are found in the archegonium of a fern ?

(a) One (b) Two
(c) Three (d) Four
Ans: (a) Archegonium is the female reproductive organ in ferns and mosses. The upper part of the archegonium, the neck, consists of four rows of cells containing central neck cells. The uppermost of the neck cells are the neck canal cells; the lowest cell is the ventral canal cell. It has one neck canal cell with two nuclei.

Q23. Which angiosperm is vesselless ?

(a) Hydrilla (b) Trochodendron
(c) Maize (d)Wheat
Ans: (b) Trochodendron is a genus of flowering plants with one living species. It is vesselless angiosperm. Fewer than 200 species of angiosperms have the primitive feature of vesselless wood. With two exceptions— Trochodendron and Tetracentron—, all vesselless angiosperms occur in the Magnoliidae.

Q24. Who was the first child born after operative procedure ?

(a) Caesar (b) Huxley
(c) William (d) Pasteur
Ans: (a) Julius Caesar is commonly believed to have been born due to operative procedure from his mother Aurelia. It is from his name that the word ‘Caesarean section’ is derived. It is a surgical procedure in which one or more incisions are made through a mother’s abdomen and uterus to deliver baby.

Q25. Myrmecology is study of

(a) Insects (b) Ants
(c) Crustaceans (d) Arthropods
Ans: (b) Myrmecology is the scientific study of ants, a branch of entomology. The word myrmecology was coined by William Morton Wheeler (1865–1937), although human interest in the life of ants goes back further, with numerous ancient folk references.

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