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Part 115 – Biology Previous Year Questions

Q1. Endoscope is an instrument used to detect the ulcers in the stomach has a long narrow tube
(with a small glowing bulb at one end) which is inserted in to the stomach through the mouth contains.

(a) small current carrying wire
(b) a narrow tube containing water
(c) optical fibre
(d) a narrow tube containing some chemical solution
Ans: (c) An endoscope can consist of a rigid or flexible tube and a light delivery system to illuminate the organ or object under inspection. The light source is normally outside the body and the light is typically directed via an optical fiber system. A lens system transmits the image from the objective lens to the viewer, typically a relay lens system in the case of rigid endoscopes or a bundle of fiber optics in the case of a fiberscope.

Q2. When a single gene controls the expression of more than one character, it is said to be

(a) Heterotrophic
(b) Autotrophic
(c) Allotropic
(d) Pleiotropic
Ans: (d) When a single gene has an effect on the expression of two or more phenotypic traits, it is said to have a pleiotropic effect on the traits. For example, testosterone controls the development of what are referred to as secondary sexual characteristics, but it also relates to behavioral traits like aggression. Thus, a gene that controls the levels of testosterone would have a pleiotropic effect on the expression of many secondary sexual traits which are morphological, as well as behavioral.

Q3. The plants which grow well, only in light are known as

(a) Sciophilous (b) Xerophytes
(c) Heliophytes (d) Epiphytes
Ans: (c) In botany, heliophytes refer to plants that thrive in bright sunlight; while those growing best in shade are known as sciophytes. Heliophytes are capable of a more efficient use of high light intensities than sciophytes. Examples of heliophytes are sugar cane, sunflower and maize.

Q4. Food crops comprise.

(a) Cotton, Tobacco, Sugarcane
(b) Linseed, Castor, Turmeric
(c) Foodgrains, Pulses, Edible oilseeds
(d) Jute, Cotton, Chillies
Ans: (c) Food crops are any agricultural product that can be eaten. Examples of food crops include food grains (Wheat, Rice, Maize) pulses, soybeans, sunflowers, sorghum, and edible oils (mustard, sunflower, etc). On the contrary, the term non food crop applies to the use of agricultural crops for uses other than human (as food) or animal consumption (as feed).

Q5. The pancreas secretes

(a) Insulin
(b) Bile juice
(c) Peptic juice
(d) None of these
Ans: (a) Functioning as an exocrine gland, the pancreas excretes enzymes to break down the proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids in food. Functioning as an endocrine gland, the pancreas secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon to control blood sugar levels throughout the day.

Q6. When we touch leaves of “Touch me not plant”, they close, these movements are called

(a) Photonastic movements
(b) nyctinastic movements
(c) seismonastic movements
(d) chemonastric movements
Ans: (c) These types of movements have been termed seismonastic movements. The movement occurs when specific regions of cells lose turgor pressure, which is the force that is applied onto the cell wall by water within the cell vacuoles and other cell contents.

Q7. The concept of tissue culture was introduced by

(a) Halfmeister (b) Hanstein
(c) Haberlandt (d) Hanning
Ans: (c) Wilhelm Roux is credited with the establishment of the basic principle of tissue culture in 1885. However, it was Gottlieb Haberlandt, an Austrian botanist, who first pointed out the possibilities of the culture of isolated tissues, plant tissue culture.

Q8. Beak is formed by

(a) cheeks (b) jaws
(c) teeth (d) None
Ans: (b) Although beaks vary significantly in size and shape from species to species, their underlying structures have a similar pattern. All beaks are composed of two jaws, generally known as the upper mandible (or maxilla) and lower mandible (or mandible).

Q9. Pinna (external ear) is present in

(a) Amphibian (b) Fish
(c) Mammal (d) Reptile
Ans: (c) Outer Ear or Pinna is found only in terrestrial mammals. It is composed of a thin plate of yellow elastic cartilage, covered with integument, and connected to the surrounding parts by ligaments and muscles.

Q10. Cell becomes turgid because of

(a) Plasmolysis
(b) Exosmosis
(c) Endosmosis
(d) Diffusion
Ans: (c) When the plant cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, it takes up water by osmosis and starts to swell, but the cell wall prevents it from bursting. The plant cell is said to have become “turgid” i.e. swollen and hard. So it is because of endosmosis that cell becomes turgid.

Q11. The process of imbibition involves

(a) Diffusion
(b) Capillary action
(c) Absorption
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Ans: (c) The uptake or absorption of water by the solid substance without forming a solution is called imbibition. The substances absorbing water are called imbibants which do not dissolve in water. It is the initial step in the germination of the seeds.

Q12. A cell increases in volume when it is placed in

(a) Hypertonic solution
(b) Hypotonic solution
(c) Isotonic solution
(d) None of these
Ans: (b) When a cell is placed in a hypotonic solution, water rushes into the membrane, increasing the cell’s volume. Eventually, the cell’s membrane is enlarged such that it pushes against the cell’s rigid wall. At this point the cell is said to be turgid.

Q13. Translocation of water is

(a) Apoplastic
(b) Symplastic
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of the above
Ans: (c) The transport of soluble organic substances (sometimes called assimilates) within a plant is known as translocation. Both the Symplast and the apoplast function in transport within tissues and organs of plants. Water passes into the stele through symplastic route; Water passes into the xylem through apoplastic route.

Q14. Bacteriophage was discovered by

(a) Felix d’Herelle and Frederick Twort
(b) Kluyver and Niel
(c) Paul Ehrlich
(d) Burrill and Smith
Ans: (a) Bacteriophage refers to any of a group of viruses that infect bacteria. Bacteriophages were discovered independently by Frederick W. Twort in Great Britain (1915) and Felix d’Herelle in France (1917). D’Herelle coined the term Bacteriophage, meaning “bacteria eater.”.

Q15. Genes are not found in pairs

(a) in body cells
(b) in ovary after fertilization
(c) in gametes
(d) in zygotes
Ans: (c) Genes are a part of the chromosome and are found in pairs in somatic cells. One member of the gene pair segregates into a gamete, thus each gamete only carries one member of the gene pair. Gametes unite at random and irrespective of the other gene pairs involved.

Q16. The histogen, from which epidermis is formed, is

(a) Dermatogen
(b) Periblem
(c) Plerome
(d) Calyptrogen
Ans: (a) There are three meristematic layers in plants which consist of three sets of initials known as histogen. Dermatogen is the outermost layers, the cells of which divide anticlinally and give rise to the epidermis. Periblem and Plerome are the other two histogen.

Q17. The kidney shaped guard cells are present in

(a) Dicot plants
(b) Monocot plants
(c) Both the above
(d) Algae
Ans: (a) The guard cells in dicot plants are kidney shaped and dumbbell shaped in monocots. When guard cells expand on the outer edges of the stoma, but not on the inner side, they result in kidney-shaped cells, leading to an opening or pore between the two guard cells for gas exchange.

Q18. Dumb-bell shaped guard cells are present in

(a) Groundnut
(b) Gram
(c) Wheat (d) Mango
Ans: (c) Guard cells are dumb-bell shaped in monocots such as wheat. The central portion of the guard cells in wheat is narrow and two ends are bulbous. Guard cells are surrounded by adjacent subsidiary cells.

Q19. Stomatal opening is based on

(a) Exosmosis
(b) Endosmosis
(c) Plasmolysis in guard cells
(d) Decrease in concentration of cell sap
Ans: (b) According to the K+ ion theory the guard cells absorb K+ ions from the cells around them as they produce ATP (due to photosynthesis) and become hyper-tonic. This leads to absorption of water from nearby cells by endosmosis due to which the guard cells become turgid and the stomata opens. Decreasing light intensity and photosynthesis causes Stomatal closing.

Q20. The newly hatched tadpole breaths through its

(a) Lung
(b) External gills
(c) Internal gills
(d) All of the above
Ans: (b) A tadpole resembles a fish and breathes through external gills. Adult frogs breathe through their lungs and exchange gases through their skin and the lining of their mouths.

Q21. Virus in Latin means

(a) Sweet (b) Small
(c) Fluid (d) Poison
Ans: (d) The word Virus has been derived from the Latin ‘virus’ referring to poison and other noxious substances. A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

Q22. The biological process in which both aerobes and anaerobes degrade organic matter is

(a) Manuring (b) Composting
(c) Digesting (d) Nitrifying
Ans: (b) Composting is the depomposition of plant remains and other once-living materials to make an earthy, dark, crumbly substance that is excellent for enriching soil. It is the chief way to recycle wastes.

Q23. Statement I : Complex tissue is made up of more than one type of cells.
Statement II : Meristems are examples of permanent tissue.

(a) Statement I is correct, but Statement II is incorrect.
(b) Statement I is incorrect, but Statement II is correct.
(c) Both statements I and II are correct.
(d) Both statements I and II are incorrect.

Ans: (a) A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place. Meristems give rise to permanent tissues.

Q24. The cuticle is absent in

(a) Leaf (b) Stem
(c) Root (d) Fruit
Ans: (c) The epidermis of the stem and the leaf is usually surrounded by a thin, covering called cuticle. It is formed by a waxy substance called cutin. It is meant for preventing excessive evaporation of water. Cuticle is absent in the root epidermis.

Q25. Intercalary meristems are found in

(a) Node
(b) Lateral bud
(c) Terminal bud
(d) Inter node
Ans: (d) Intercalary meristem is meristem at the base of the internode in monocot stems (particularly grass stems). Only the apical meristem is active. If the tip of the stem is removed, the uppermost intact intercalary meristem becomes the apical meristem and starts intercalary growth.

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