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Part 096 – Biology Previous Year Questions

Q1. The oil which causes dropsy is
(a) Groundnut oil
(b) Coconut oil
(c) Sunflower oil
(d) Argemone oil
Ans: (d) Epidemic dropsy is a form of edema of extremities due to intoxication with Argemone Mexicana seed oil. Sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine are two major toxic alkaloids of argemone oil, which cause widespread capillary dilatation, proliferation and increased capillary permeability.

Q2. Universal donors are people with the blood group

(a) A (b) B
(c) O (d) AB
Ans: (c) Type O-negative blood does not have any antigens. It is called the “universal donor” type because it is compatible with any blood type. Type AB-positive blood is called the “universal recipient” type because a person who has it can receive blood of any type.

Q3. Aquatic animal with the most developed intelligence is

(a) Shark (b) Whale
(c) Flying fish (d) Sea horse
Ans: (a) In terms of brain shape, the shark brain differs a lot from that of mammals and birds. However, in proportion to the body size shark brains usually are similar sized or bigger than those of most mammals and birds, and while arranged in a different way it seems to share the seme level of mental capacity. Some shark species seem to be as intelligent as mammals such as dogs, which is really impressive for a non-tetrapod.

Q4. The blood vessel which carries oxygenated blood to the liver is

(a) Coronary Artery
(b) Pulmonary Artery
(c) Carotid Artery
(d) Hepatic Artery
Ans: (d) In anatomy, the common hepatic artery is a short blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the liver, pylorus (a part of the stomach), duodenum (a part of the small intestine) and pancreas.

Q5. Which of the following cells secrete insulin?

(a) Alpha cells (b) Delta cells
(c) Nerve cells (d) Beta cells
Ans: (d) Insulin is a hormone that is exclusively produced by pancreatic beta cells. Beta cells are located in the pancreas in clusters known as the islets of Langerhans. When the beta cell is appropriately stimulated, insulin is secreted from the cell by exocytosis and diffuses into islet capillary blood.

Q6. In the human body, fats are stored in the

(a) Epidermis
(b) Adipose tissue
(c) Liver
(d) Epithelium
Ans: (b) Adipose tissue is also known as body fat. It contains several cell types, with the highest percentage of cells being adipocytes, which contain fat droplets. Its main function is to be a reserve of lipids, which can be burned to meet the energy needs of the body and to protect us from excess glucose by storing triglycerides produced by the liver from sugars.

Q7. Blood does not clot in the blood vessels due to the presence of

(a) Thrombin (b) Fibrinogen
(c) Heparin (d) Prothrombin
Ans: (a) There are two major facets of the clotting mechanism – the platelets, and the thrombin system. The thrombin system consists of several blood proteins that, when bleeding occurs, become activated.

Q8. The DPT vaccine is given toyoung babies to protect them from

(a) diphtheria, polio and tetanus
(b) diphtheria, pneumonia and tuberculosis
(c) diphtheria, smallpox and tetanus
(d) diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus
Ans: (d) DPT refers to a class of combination vaccines against three infectious diseases in humans: diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough) and tetanus. The vaccine components include diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and killed whole cells of the organism that causes pertussis.

Q9. Haemophilia is

(a) an organic disorder
(b) a metabolic disorder
(c) a genetic disorder
(d) a hormonal disorder
Ans: (c) Haemophilia is a group of hereditary genetic disorders that impair the body’s ability to control blood clotting or coagulation, which is used to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is broken. Haemophilia A (clotting factor VIII deficiency) is the most common form of the disorder, present in about 1 in 5,000–10,000 male births.

Q10. The blood vessel supplying blood to the kidney is

(a) the renal artery
(b) the hepatic artery
(c) the pulmonary artery
(d) the carotid artery
Ans: (a) The renal arteries normally arise off the side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood. Each is directed across the the diaphragm, so as to form nearly a right angle with the aorta.

Q11. The organ which stores carbohydrates as glycogen in the human body is

(a) Intestine (b) Stomach
(c) Pancreas (d) Liver
Ans: (d) Glycogen is a multi-branched polysaccharide that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles, and functions as the secondary long-term energy storage (with the primary energy stores being fats held in adipose tissue).

Q12. Haemoglobin is an important constituent of

(a) Red blood cells
(b) White blood cells
(c) Platelets
(d) Plasma
Ans: (a) Hemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates. Hemoglobin in the blood carries oxygen from the respiratory organs to the rest of the body where it releases the oxygen to burn nutrients to provide energy to power the functions of the organism, and collects the resultant carbon dioxide to bring it back to the respiratory organs to be dispensed from the organism.

Q13. Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the walls of

(a) Heart (b) Veins
(c) Arteries (d) Capillaries
Ans: (c) Blood pressure (BP), sometimes referred to as arterial blood pressure, is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. It usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. There are three major types of blood vessels: the arteries, which carry the blood away from the heart; the capillaries, which enable the actual exchange of water and chemicals between the blood and the tissues; and the veins, which carry blood from the capillaries back toward the heart.

Q14. Which one of the Endocrine glands is known as master gland?

(a) Pituitary (b) Adrenal
(c) Thyroid (d) Parathyroid
Ans: (a) The pituitary is sometimes referred to as the “master gland” as it controls hormone functions such as our temperature, thyroid activity, growth during childhood, urine production, testosterone production in males and ovulation and estrogen production in females. In effect the gland functions as our thermostat that controls all other glands that are responsible for hormone secretion.

Q15. Bile is produced by the

(a) Liver (b) Stomach
(c) Pancreas (d) Duodenum
Ans: (a) Bile or gall is a bitter-tasting, dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the process of digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In many species, bile is stored in the gallbladder and upon eating is discharged into the duodenum. Bile is a composition of the following materials: water (85%), bile salts (10%), mucus and pigments (3%), fats (1%), inorganic salts (0.7%) and cholesterol (0.3%).

Q16. Which part of the nervous system controls the activities of internal organs?

(a) Spinal cord
(b) Cerebrum
(c) Cerebellum
(d) Medulla Oblongata
Ans: (d) The medulla oblongata is a portion of the hindbrain that controls autonomic functions such as breathing, digestion, heart and blood vessel function, swallowing and sneezing. Motor and sensory neurons from the midbrain and forebrain travel through the medulla.

Q17. When the Left Ventricle in the human heart contracts, the blood moves to the

(a) Brain
(b) Pulmonary Artery
(c) Aorta
(d) Lungs
Ans: (c) As the left ventricle contracts, the oxygenated blood is pumped into the main artery of the body — the aorta. To get to the aorta, blood passes through the aortic semilunar valve, which serves to keep blood flowing from the aorta back into the left ventricle.

Q18. Which one of the following is a condition of delayed blood clotting?

(a) Heaemorrhage
(b) Hematuria
(c) Haemophilia
(d) Anaemia
Ans: (c) Haemophilia is a group of hereditary genetic disorders that impair the body’s ability to control blood clotting or coagulation, which is used to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is broken.

Q19. Housefly spreads

(a) Common cold
(b) Malaria
(c) Flu
(d) Typhoid
Ans: (d) House flies are strongly suspected of transmitting at least 65 diseases to humans, including typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, poliomyelitis, yaws, anthrax, tularemia, leprosy and tuberculosis. Flies regurgitate and excrete wherever they come to rest and thereby mechanically transmit disease organisms.

Q20. ‘Lockjaw’ is the last phase of which of the following diseases?

(a) Diptheria (b) Pneumonia
(c) Syphilis (d) Tetanus
Ans: (d) A common first sign of tetanus is muscular stiffness in the jaw (lockjaw), followed by stiffness of the neck, difficulty in swallowing, rigidity of abdominal muscles, and spasms.

Q21. Reflex actions are controlled by

(a) the Brain
(b) the Spinal Chord
(c) the Nerves
(d) the Cells
Ans: (b) Reflex actions are automatic, rapid and spontaneous and we do not have control over such actions. These are controlled by the spinal cord. They are not controlled by the brain.

Q22. The floral part that receives pollen-
grains during pollination is

(a) ovary (b) style
(c) stigma (d) ovules
Ans: (c) The stigma is the receptive tip of a carpel, or of several fused carpels, in the gynoecium of a flower. The stigma receives pollen at pollination and it is on the stigma that the pollen grain germinates. The style connects the stigma to the ovary.

Q23. Which of these is a micronutrient for plants?

(a) Carbon (b) Oxygen
(c) Nitrogen (d) Boron
Ans: (d) There are 7 essential plant nutrient elements defined as micronutrients (boron (B), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), chlorine (Cl)). A primary function of boron is related to cell wall formation, so boron-deficient plants may be stunted. Sugar transport in plants, flower retention and pollen formation and germination also are affected by boron. Seed and grain production are reduced with low boron supply.

Q24. The following sugar gives energy most readily

(a) Lactose (b) Cellulose
(c) Maltose (d) Glucose
Ans: (d) Glucose from glycogen is readily mobilized and is therefore a good source of energy for sudden, strenuous activity. Glucose that is not needed for energy is stored in the form of glycogen as a source of potential energy, readily available when needed. Most of the glycogen is stored in the liver and muscle cells. When these and other body cells are saturated with glycogen, the excess glucose is converted into fat and stored as adipose tissue.

Q25. A plant which reproduces by means of spores

(a) Mustard (b) Coriander
(c) Ferns (d) Petunia
Ans: (c) Unlike the other vascular plants, the flowering plants and conifers, where the adult plant grows immediately from the seed, ferns reproduce from spores and an intermediate plant stage called a gametophyte. Spores explode when they are mature by releasing a dark brown, dust-like substance. When they come in contact with warm and moist soil, they begin the process of reproduction.

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