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Part 089 – Biology Previous Year Questions

Q1. For how many years have the dinosaurs been extinct ?
(a) About 25 million years
(b) About 65 million years
Ans: (b) The Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, which wiped out the dinosaurs and more than half of species on Earth, was caused by an asteroid colliding with Earth and not massive volcanic activity, according to a comprehensive review of all the available evidence, published in the journal Science. A panel of 41 international experts, including UK researchers from Imperial College London, the University of Cambridge, University College London and the Open University, reviewed 20 years’ worth of research to determine the cause of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) extinction, which happened around 65 million years ago. The extinction wiped out more than half of all species on the planet, including the dinosaurs, bird-like pterosaurs and large marine reptiles, clearing the way for mammals to become the dominant species on Earth.

Q2. Which phenomenon do bats or dolphins use to find prey, predators or obstacles ?

(a) Refraction of sound
(b) Formation of beats
(c) Scattering of sound
(d) Echo location
Ans: (d) Echolocation, also called biosonar, is the biological sonar used by several kinds of animals. Echolocating animals emit calls out to the environment and listen to the echoes of those calls that return from various objects near them. They use these echoes to locate and identify the objects. Echolocating animals include some mammals and a few birds; most notably microchiro-pteran bats and odontocetes (toothed whales and dolphins), but also in simpler form in other groups such as shrews, one genus of megachiropteran bats (Rousettus) and two cave dwelling bird groups, the so-called cave swiftlets in the genus Aerodramus (formerly Collocalia) and the unrelated Oilbird Steatornis caripensis.

Q3. ‘Cod’ is a variety of

(a) Goat (b) Fish
(c) Crop (d) Coral
Ans: (b) Cod is the common name for the genus Gadus of demersal fishes, belonging to the family Gadidae. Cod is also used as part of the commons name for a number of other fishes, and there are species suggested to belong to genus Gadus that are not called cod (the Alaska pollock). Cod is popular as a food with a mild flavour and a dense, flaky white flesh. Cod livers are processed to make cod liver oil, an important source of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin in English and omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA). Young Atlantic cod or haddock prepared in strips for cooking is called scrod. In the United Kingdom, Atlantic cod is one of the most common ingredients in fish and chips, along with haddock and plaice.

Q4. A large number of identical plants can be obtained in a short span of time through

(a) large number of seeds of a single plant
(b) stem cuttings
(c) tissue culture technique
(d) hydroponics method
Ans: (c) Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plant cells, tissues or organs under sterile conditions on a nutrient culture medium of known composition. Plant tissue culture is widely used to produce clones of a plant in a method known as micropropagation. Plant tissue culture relies on the fact that many plant cells have the ability to regenerate a whole plant (totipotency). The culture medium contains a gel (agar) with the proper mixture of nutrients, sugars, vitamins and hormones, which causes the plant part to grow at very rapid rates to produce new plantlets. It has been estimated that one chrysanthemum apex placed in tissue culture could produce up to 1,000,000 new plantlets in one year. Thus, tissue culture is used for rapid multiplication of plants.

Q5. The smallest flowering plant is :

(a) Wolffia (b) Lemma
(c) Azolla (d) Ficus
Ans: (a) Wolffia is a genus of 9 to 11 species which include the smallest flowering plants on Earth. Commonly called watermeal or duckweed, these aquatic plants resemble specks of cornmeal floating on the water. Wolffia species are free-floating thalli, green or yellowgreen, and without roots. The flower is produced in a depression on the top surface of the plant body. It has one stamen and one pistil. Individuals often float together in pairs or form floating mats with related plants, such as Lemna and Spirodela species. Most species have a very wide distribution across several continents.

Q6. Leukaemia or blood cancer is characterised by abnormal in crease of the –

(a) Red blood cells
(b) White blood cells
(c) Blood platelets
(d) Blood plasma
Ans: (b) Leukemia is a type of cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal increase of immature white blood cells called “blasts”. Damage to the bone marrow, by way of displacing the normal bone marrow cells with higher numbers of immature white blood cells, results in a lack of blood platelets, which are important in the blood clotting process. This means people with leukemia may easily become bruised, bleed excessively, or develop pinprick bleeds (petechiae). White blood cells, which are involved in fighting pathogens, may be suppressed or dysfunctional. This could cause the patient’s immune system to be unable to fight off a simple infection or to start attacking other body cells. Because leukemia prevents the immune system from working normally, some patients experience frequent infection, ranging from infected tonsils, sores in the mouth, or diarrhea to life-threatening pneumonia or opportunistic infections. Finally, the red blood cell deficiency leads to anemia, which may cause dyspnea and pallor.

Q7. The total number of bones in our body is :

(a) 226 (b) 206
(c) 256 (d) 236
Ans: (b) Bones are rigid organs that constitute part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. They support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. Bone tissue is a type of dense connective tissue. At birth, there are over 270 bones in an infant human’s body, but many of these fuse together as the child grows, leaving a total of 206 separate bones in an adult. The largest bone in the human body is the femur and the smallest bones are auditory ossicles.

Q8. The poison of honey bee is :

(a) Acidic (b) Alkaline
(c) Saltish (d) Protein
Ans: (a) A bee sting is strictly a sting from a bee (honey bee, bumblebee, sweat bee, etc.). In the vernacular it can mean a sting of a bee, wasp, hornet, or yellow jacket. Bee venom is acidic as it contains the highly acidic peptide melittin, and these interventions are often recommended to neutralize the venom; however, neutralizing a sting is unlikely to be effective as the venom is injected under the skin and deep into the tissues, where a topically applied alkali is unable to reach, so neutralization is unlikely to occur. In any case, the amount of venom injected is typically very small (between 5 and 50 micrograms of fluid) and placing large amounts of alkali near the sting site is unlikely to produce a perfectly neutral pH to stop the pain.

Q9. Birds which swim in water have –

(a) webbed feet
(b) broad wings
(c) long beaks
(d) toes with claws
Ans: (a) Almost all the swimming birds have webbed feet which propel them when they are fishing or pursuing a prey into the water. The short legs are situated far towards the lower belly, in order to make easier the swimming action. Flamingos are the exception, gathering both the long legs of the shorebirds and the webbed feet of the ducks. It can feed in deep water and walk easily. Except the Laridae which are more similar to other birds and are able to swim and to walk, all the web-footed birds are very clumsy when they move on the ground. Finally, humans use similar tools when they add flippers to swim faster

Q10. The tallest and thickest type of grass is

(a) Alfalfa (b) Fodder
(c) Bamboo (d) Lichens
Ans: (c) The bamboo actually belongs to the grass family and is actually the tallest grass of all. There are kinds of bamboo which are said to grow as tall as 100 feet in height. The thickest bamboo can be 0.2m – 0.3m (8-12″) thick. Bamboo is a perennial grass with woody stems that are divided into sections by joints called nodes. One of the fastest-growing plants on the planet, bamboo comes in over 1,000 varieties. Plants classified as giant bamboo are the thickest and tallest of the species.

Q11. The process of preventing the birds from flying is called

(a) brailing (b) debeaking
(c) dubbing (d) pecking
Ans: (a) Brailing is the practice of preventing a bird from flying by tying the wing so that it is impossible for the bird to open it fully. The brail is a clear plastic strap, fastened by rivets, which will be used to restrain his wing. Brailing the birds helps prevent injuries during shipment.

Q12. Veins seen in the leaves, serve the function of

(a) Photosynthesis
(b) Transpiration
(c) Storage
(d) Conduction
Ans: (d) The veins are the vascular tissue of the leaf and are located in the spongy layer of the mesophyll. They are typical examples of pattern formation through ramification. The pattern of the veins is called venation. The veins are made up of: Xylem: tubes that bring water and minerals from the roots into the leaf; and Phloem: tubes that usually move sap, with dissolved sucrose, produced by photosynthesis in the leaf, out of the leaf. Veins lend support to the leaf tissue, helping it keep its shape, like the ribs of an umbrella help it keep its umbrella shape. They conduct substances within the leaf, rather like the veins in our own bodies conduct blood. So their primary function is the conduction or transportation of nutrients.

Q13. The edible part of Cabbage is

(a) fruit
(b) condensed flower
(c) vegetative bud
(d) inflorescence
Ans: (c) In cabbage, the edible part is vegetative bud. Vegetative buds are buds from which vegetative parts like leaves and stems arise, rather than flowers. Enlarged buds or parts of buds form the edible portion of some horticultural crops. Cabbage and head lettuce are examples of unusually large terminal buds.

Q14. Which of the following processes are associated with plants during dark period?

(a) Photosynthesis and respiration
(b) Respiration and transpiration
(c) Transpiration and conduction
(d) Conduction and respiration
Ans: (d) Conduction is the process by which vital nutrients are transported to the different parts of a plant. This process is independent of the light factor. Respiration process in plants is the intake of carbon-dioxide and exhales oxygen during the day as the plants gets energy through the photosynthesis process in which the carbon-dioxide is converted into sugars using the sun light energy, as this process uses carbon-dioxide and water, the resulting gas oxygen is given out as a waste product. During the night, as the photosynthesis process cannot be happening without sun, so it exhales the carbon-dioxide itself.

Q15. Goitre is caused by the deficiency of

(a) Iodine (b) Chlorine
(c) Sodium (d) Calcium
Ans: (a) A goitre or goiter is a swelling of the thyroid gland, which can lead to a swelling of the neck or larynx (voice box). Goitre is a term that refers to an enlargement of the thyroid (thyromegaly) and can be associated with a thyroid gland that is functioning properly or not. Worldwide, the most common cause for goitre is iodine deficiency, usually seen in countries that do not use iodized salt. Selenium deficiency is also considered a contributing factor. In countries that use iodized salt, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common cause.

Q16. The total number of biosphere reserves present in India are

(a) eleven (b) ten
(c) fifteen (d) twelve
Ans: (*) The Indian government has established 18 Biosphere Reserves of India, (categories roughly corresponding to IUCN Category V Protected areas), which protect larger areas of natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary), and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses. Protection is granted not only to the flora and fauna of the protected region, but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions, and their ways of life. Eight of the Eighteen biosphere reserves are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list. In 2009, India designated Cold Desert of Himachal Pradesh as a Biosphere Reserve. And, on September 20, 2010, Ministry of Environment and Forests designated Seshachalam Hills as another Biosphere Reserve taking the count to number of such designated areas to 17. And, on August 25, 2011 Panna (Madhya Pradesh) became India’s 18th Biosphere Reserve.

Q17. The green colour of the leaves is due to the presence of

(a) Proteins
(b) Lipids
(c) Chlorophyll
(d) Carbohydrates
Ans: (c) The green color in leaves is caused by the presence of a compound called “chlorophyll,” which the plant produces to do photosynthesis, which is how plants get energy from sunlight. The purpose of chlorophyll is to assist the plant in making food for itself by utilizing energy from sunlight and nutrients from the soil. The chlorophyll is green because it absorbs red and blue wavelengths of light — and so green is not absorbed and is reflected, making the plant look green to our eyes.

Q18. The edible part of an onion is

(a) Modified root
(b) Aerial flower
(c) Aerial stem
(d) Fleshy leaves
Ans: (d) Edible plant stems are one part of plants that are eaten by humans. Most plants are made up of roots, stems, leaves, flowers, buds and produce fruits containing seeds. The edible portion in an onion is swollen leaves with a bit of stem. They are bulbs which, like garlic and leeks, are modified stems in which the primary storage tissue is expanded leaf bases. They come in white, yellow, and red varieties.

Q19. To which group of blood an universal recipient belongs?

(a) A group (b) B group
(c) 0 group (d) AB group
Ans: (d) Type AB+ is the universal recipient. Although those with AB blood type may be referred to as universal recipients, in actuality, type AB+ blood is that of the universal recipient, whereas type AB- is not. This is an important distinction to make.

Q20. The normal body temperature of human beings is

(a) 96.4 °F (b) 97.4 °F
(c) 98.4 °F (d) 99.4 °F
Ans: (c) The normal core body temperature of a healthy, resting adult human being is stated to be at 98.6 degrees fahrenheit or 37.0 degrees celsius. Though the body temperature measured on an individual can vary, a healthy human body can maintain a fairly consistent body temperature that is around the mark of 37.0 degrees celsius. The normal range of human body temperature varies due to an individual’s metabolism rate, the higher (faster) it is the higher the normal body temperature or the slower the metabolic rate the lower the normal body temperature. Other factors that might affect the body temperature of an individual may be the time of day or the part of the body in which the temperature is measured at.

Q21. Columba livia is the scientific name of

(a) Pigeon (b) Snake
(c) Rabbit (d) Shark
Ans: (a) The Rock Dove (Columba livia) or Rock Pigeon, is a member of the bird family Columbidae (doves and pigeons). In common usage, this bird is often simply referred to as the “pigeon”. The species includes the domestic pigeon (including the fancy pigeon), and escaped domestic pigeons have given rise to feral populations around the world. The Rock Dove was first described by Gmelin in 1789. The genus name Columba is the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek (kolumbos), “a diver”. Aristophanes and others use the word kolumbis, “diver”, for the name of the bird, because of its swimming motion in the air.

Q22. Bones are pneumatic in

(a) Fishes (b) Amphibians
(c) Reptiles (d) Birds
Ans: (d) Pneumatic boneis ia hollow bone filled with air, connected to the respiratory system. Many of a bird’s bones are pneumatic, with struts across their hollow interiors to provide a combination of light weight and strength as an adaptation to flying. For flight to occur in Aves, four physical forces (thrust and drag, lift and weight) must work together. In order for birds to balance these forces, certain physical characteristics are required. Flying birds have evolved reduced weight through several characteristics. Pneumatic bone is hollow or filled with air sacs, reducing weight. The loss of teeth, gonadal hypertrophy, and fusion of bones also reduce weight. Teeth have been replaced by a light weight bill made of keratin, and chewing occurs in the bird’s gizzard. Other physical characteristics required for flight are a keel for the attachment of flight muscles, an enlarged cerebellum for fine motor coordination, and a furcula, which enhances skeletal bracing for the stresses of flight.

Q23. An insect – catching plant is :

(a) Australian Acacia
(b) Smilax
(c) Nepenthes
(d) Nerium
Ans: (c) Nepenthes mirabilis or the Common Swamp Pitcher-Plant, is a tropical carnivorous plant species of the pitfall trap variety. It has by far the widest distribution of any Nepenthes species and is known from the following countries and regions. A great number of infaunal organisms have been found in the pitchers of this species. These include the sarcophagid fly Sarcophaga papuensis and the mite Nepenthacarus warreni.

Q24. The method not used as a Biological control is :

(a) Use of predators of a pest.
(b) Pheromone traps
(c) Use of pesticides
(d) Use of neem extracts
Ans: (c) Pesticides are substances or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest. Pesticides are a special kind of products for crop protection. Crop protection products in general protect plants from damaging influences such as weeds, diseases or insects. A pesticide is generally a chemical or biological agent (such as a virus, bacterium, antimicrobial or disinfectant) that through its effect deters, incapacitates, kills or otherwise discourages pests. Target pests can include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, molluscs, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms), and microbes that destroy property, cause nuisance, spread disease or are vectors for disease.

Q25. Wisdom teeth is the :

(a) 1st molar teeth
(b) 2nd molar teeth
(c) 3rd molar teeth
(d) 4th molar teeth
Ans: (c) A wisdom tooth, in humans, is any of the usual four third molars. Wisdom teeth usually appear between the ages of 16 and 25. They are generally thought to be called wisdom teeth because they appear so late – much later than the other teeth, at an age where people are presumably “wiser” than as a child, when the other teeth erupt. The term probably came as a translation of the Latin dens sapientiae.

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