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Part 085 – Biology Previous Year Questions

Q1. Blood pressure is controlled by
(a) Adrenal gland
(b) Thyroid gland
(c) Thymus
(d) Corpus Luteum
Ans: (a) Adrenaline directly affects, regulates and determines the body’s ability to maintain a healthy blood pressure. When the adrenal gland becomes damaged or contains tumors, an excess of adrenaline greatly increases blood pressure levels, causing severe headaches, weight loss and other serious problems. Adrenaline produced by the adrenal medulla, located on the top section of the kidneys, helps stabilize a healthy blood pressure. Along with exercise and proper diet, the adrenaline produced by the adrenal medulla allows each individual to function correctly in normal and not so normal situations.

Q2. The carbon dioxide content in the air that we exhale is about

(a) 4% (b) 8%
(c) 12% (d) 16%
Ans: (a) Carbon dioxide exists in Earth’s atmosphere in this state, as a trace gas at a concentration of 0.039 per cent by volume. The air we breathe in contains about 0.04% carbon dioxide. The air we breathe out contains about 4% carbon dioxide. In other words, exhaled air contains about 100 times the concentration of carbon dioxide that inhaled air does.

Q3. Maximum harm to a tree is caused by

(a) Loss of half of its leaves
(b) loss of all leaves
(c) loss of half of its branches
(d) loss of its bark
Ans: (b) Maximum harm to a tree is caused by loss of leaves. This means that the tree will loose its ability to perform photosynthesis or food manufacture. Leaves are a plant’s main photosynthetic organs. Leaf structure is closely associated with its photosynthetic function. Leaves must permit carbon dioxide access to the photosynthetic cells but impede water from diffusing out. The oxygen that is a waste product of photosynthesis must be allowed to escape from the leaf.

Q4. Mineral constituent of chlorophyll is

(a) Iron
(b) Magnesium
(c) Calcium
(d) Potassium
Ans: (b) Chlorophyll is the molecule that absorbs sunlight and uses its energy to synthesise carbohydrates from CO2 and water. This process is known as photosynthesis and is the basis for sustaining the life processes of all plants. Since animals and humans obtain their food supply by eating plants, photosynthesis can be said to be the source of our life also. Chlorophyll is the molecule that traps this ‘most elusive of all powers’ – and is called a photoreceptor. It is found in the chloroplasts of green plants, and is what makes green plants, green. The basic structure of a chlorophyll molecule is a porphyrin ring, co-ordinated to a central atom. This is very similar in structure to the heme group found in hemoglobin, except that in heme the central atom is iron, whereas in chlorophyll it is magnesium.

Q5. Which of the part of tongue bears cells for sour taste ?

(a) Front (b) Back
(c) Sides (d) Middle
Ans: (c) Taste buds probably play the most important part in helping us to enjoy the many flavors of food. Our taste buds can recognize four basic kinds of tastes: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The salty/sweet taste buds are located near the front of our tongue; the sour taste buds line the sides of our tongue; and the bitter taste buds are found at the very back of our tongue.

Q6. The deficiency of Vitamin B causes

(a) Scurvy
(b) Dermatitis
(c) Beri – Beri
(5) Phynoderma
Ans: (c) Beriberi is a nervous system ailment caused by a thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in the diet. Thiamine is involved in the breakdown of molecules such as glucose and is also found on the membranes of neurons. Symptoms of beriberi include severe lethargy and fatigue, together with complications affecting the cardiovascular, nervous, muscular, and gastrointestinal systems.

Q7. In which vertebrate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood gets mixed ?

(a) Fish (b) Amphibian
(c) Bird (d) Mammal
Ans: (b) If the oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood mixed, then blood would circulate through the body without being fully oxygenated. Also the deoxygenated blood is supposed to take that trip through the lungs to give up the carbon dioxide. The mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood takes place in amphibians and most of the reptiles because thier heart is generally 2 or 3 chambered and do not prevent the mixing of oxygeneted and deoxygeneted blood. Humans have a 4 chambered heart. Our heart follows the process of double circulation.

Q8. The large amount of sugar present in human blood is

(a) sucrose (b) glucose
(c) fructose (d) lactose
Ans: (b) The blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or animal. The body naturally tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the body’s cells, and blood lipids (in the form of fats and oils) are primarily a compact energy store. The mean normal blood glucose level in humans is about 4 mM (4 mmol/L or 72 mg/dL, i.e. milligrams/ deciliter); however, this level fluctuates throughout the day.

Q9. Which one of the following is a viral disease in man ?

(a) Mumps (b) plague
(c) Cholera (d) Syphilis
Ans: (a) Mumps (epidemic parotitis) is a viral disease of the human species, caused by the mumps virus. Before the development of vaccination and the introduction of a vaccine, it was a common childhood disease worldwide. It is still a significant threat to health in the third world, and outbreaks still occur sporadically in developed countries. Painful swelling of the salivary glands (classically the parotid gland) is the most typical presentation..

Q10. The expansion for AIDS is

(a) Active Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
(b) Acquired Individual Disease Syndrome
(c) Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome
(d) Acquired Immuno Disease Syndrome
Ans: (c) Human immunodeficiency virus infection / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV is transmitted primarily via unprotected sexual intercourse (including anal and even oral sex), contaminated blood transfusions and hypodermic needles, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding. There is no cure or vaccine; however, antiretroviral treatment can slow the course of the disease and may lead to a nearnormal life expectancy. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is defined in terms of either a CD4+ T cell count below 200 cells per μL or the occurrence of specific diseases in association with an HIV infection.

Q11. Bee Keeping is known as

(a) Sericulture
(b) Apiculture
(c) Aquaculture
(d) Agriculture
Ans: (b) Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, bee) is the maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. A beekeeper (or apiarist) keeps bees in order to collect honey and other products of the hive (including beeswax, propolis, pollen, and royal jelly), to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or “bee yard”.

Q12. HYV refers to

(a) Hybrid yielding variety
(b) Human yellow virus
(c) High yielding variety
(d) Human yellow vaccine
Ans: (c) High Yielding Variety (HYV) seeds played vital role in the progress of agriculture. They are considered as ‘miracle seeds’. HYV seeds give better quality yielding. The maturity time of crop is less. Multiple crops can be grown easily. Seeds are mostly flood and drought resistant. Problems of pests and diseases are less. HYV seeds yield more under irrigated conditions. However, the crop demands controlled irrigation. These crop should be irrigated at right time as per the schedule and in right quantity. Most of the HYV seeds are dwarf varieties. They need higher doses of fertilizer. HYV crops are highly susceptible to pests. Right quantity of pesticides is used to overcome this problem.

Q13. Among the defects of eye, the shortsightedness is called

(a) coma
(b) hypermetropia
(c) myopia
(d) astigmatism
Ans: (c) Myopia, commonly known as being nearsighted and shortsighted. It is a condition of the eye where the light that comes in does not directly focus on the retina but in front of it. This causes the image that one sees when looking at a distant object to be out of focus but in focus when looking at a close object. Eye care professionals most commonly correct myopia through the use of corrective lenses, such as glasses or contact lenses. It may also be corrected by refractive surgery, though there are cases of associated side effects. The corrective lenses have a negative optical power (i.e. are concave) which compensates for the excessive positive diopters of the myopic eye.

Q14. Human cloning is permitted in Britain for the purpose of

(a) Reproduction
(b) Research
(c) Therapeutics
(d) Genetics
Ans: (c) Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. It does not refer to monozygotic multiple births or the reproduction of humans/animals cells or tissue. There are two commonly discussed types of human cloning: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning involves cloning cells from an adult for use in medicine and transplants, and is an active area of research. Reproductive cloning would involve making cloned humans, for couples wanting to have a child, but cannot naturally. On January 14, 2001 the British government passed The Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Research Purposes) Regulations 2001 to amend the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 by extending allowable reasons for embryo research to permit research around stem cells and cell nuclear replacement, thus allowing therapeutic cloning.

Q15. Pick out the viral disease among the following :

(a) Hepatitis (b) Meningitis
(c) Arthritis (d) Nephritis
Ans: (a) Hepatitis is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. The condition can be self-limiting (healing on its own) or can progress to fibrosis (scarring) and cirrhosis. A group of viruses known as the hepatitis viruses cause most cases of hepatitis worldwide, but hepatitis can also be caused by toxins (notably alcohol, certain medications, some industrial organic solvents and plants), other infections and autoimmune diseases. The most common causes of viral hepatitis are the five unrelated hepatotropic viruses Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis D, and Hepatitis E. In addition to the nominal hepatitis viruses, other viruses that can also cause liver inflammation include Herpes simplex, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or Yellow fever.

Q16. Dolly, the World’s First cloned animal was a

(a) sheep (b) cow
(c) goat (d) pig
Ans: (a) Dolly (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003) was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer. She was cloned by Ian Wilmut, Keith Campbell and colleagues at the Roslin Institute and the biotechnology company PPL Therapeutics near Edinburgh in Scotland. The funding for Dolly’s cloning was provided by PPL Therapeutics and the Ministry of Agriculture. She was born on 5 July 1996 and she lived until the age of six, at which point she died from a progressive lung disease. She has been called “the world’s most famous sheep” by sources including BBC News and Scientific American

Q17. Vegetables are easily perishable because of their high content of

(a) sugars (b) water
(c) vitamins (d) enzymes
Ans: (b) The perishability of food items depends a lot on their water content. High moisture decides their perishability or longer shelf life. Perishable food includes fruits and vegetables, fresh meat, foods purchased from chill cabinets, freshly cooked food stored to be used later. Vegetables normally contain more than 80-90 per cent water. Top vegetables by water content: Cucumber 96 %, Zucchini 95%, Spinach: 95 per cent, Tomato: 94 per cent, etc. Even potato contains about 79 per cent water in it.

Q18. Anaemia occurs due to the deficiency of

(a) riboflavin (b) thiamine
(c) folic acid (d) niacin
Ans: (c) Anemia is a decrease in number of red blood cells (RBCs) or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. However, it can include decreased oxygen-binding ability of each hemoglobin molecule due to deformity or lack in numerical development as in some other types of hemoglobin deficiency. Because hemoglobin (found inside RBCs) normally carries oxygen from the lungs to the capillaries, anemia leads to hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in organs. Megaloblastic anemia, the most common cause of macrocytic anemia, is due to a deficiency of either vitamin B12, folic acid, or both. Deficiency in folate and/or vitamin B12 can be due either to inadequate intake or insufficient absorption.

Q19. For a healthy heart, one needs to take a balanced diet, adequate sleep and

(a) indulge in vigorous mental activities
(b) play games like carrom, chess and cards
(c) do right amount of physical exercise
(d) do sedentary work
Ans: (c) Physical activity is any form of movement that works our muscles and uses more energy than we use when resting. Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga and gardening are examples of physical activity. Being physically active, along with following a healthy diet and not smoking, is one of the most important things one can do to keep heart and lungs healthy. Physical activity strengthens our heart and reduces coronary heart disease risk factors. It can also lower blood pressure; improve and manage levels of cholesterol and other fats in the blood; improve our body’s ability to manage blood sugar and insulin levels, which lowers our risk for type 2 diabetes; help us maintain a healthy weight; and reduce levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in our body, a sign of inflammation. High levels of CRP may raise the risk for heart disease.

Q20. AIDS is a/an

(a) bacterial disease
(b) viral disease
(c) fungal disease
(d) algal disease
Ans: (b) AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a disease caused by a virus cal led HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). The illness alters the immune system, making people much more vulnerable to infections and diseases. This susceptibility worsens as the disease progresses. HIV is found in the body fluids of an infected person (semen and vaginal fluids, blood and breast milk). The virus is passed from one person to another through bloodto- blood and sexual contact. In addition, infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivering the baby during childbirth, and through breast feeding.

Q21. Amoebic dysentery is caused by

(a) Entamoeba histolytica
(b) Salmonella typhi
(c) E. coli
(d) Streptococcus pyogenes
Ans: (a) Amoebic dysentery (or amebic dysentery) is a type of dysentery caused primarily by the amoeba Entamoeba histolytica. Amoebic dysentery is transmitted through contaminated food and water. Amoebae spread by forming infective cysts which can be found in stools, and spread if whoever touches them does not sanitize their hands. There are also free amoebae, or trophozoites, that do not form cysts, however trophozoites do not survive long outside of the human gastrointestinal tract, and are a purely diagnostic observation. Trophozoites are the agent responsible for symptoms.

Q22. DNA test was developed by

(a) Dr. Alec Jeffreys
(b) Dr. V.K. Kashyap
(c) Watson and Crick
(d) Gregor Mendel
Ans: (c) A genealogical DNA test looks at a person’s genetic code at specific locations. Results give information about genealogy or personal ancestry. James D. Watson and Francis Crick are the two scientists who discovered the structure of DNA in 1953.

Q23. An ECG shows the functioning of the

(a) brain (b) heart
(c) lungs (d) kidneys
Ans: (b) The electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a diagnostic tool that is routinely used to assess the electrical and muscular functions of the heart. The heart is a two stage electrical pump and the heart’s electrical activity can be measured by electrodes placed on the skin. The electrocardiogram can measure the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat, as well as provide indirect evidence of blood flow to the heart muscle.

Q24. Which of the following is incorrect?

(a) AIDS is retroviral disease
(b) AIDS is transmitted by homo and hetero-sexual contact
(c) AIDS was first recognised in USA in 1981
(d) AIDS causes ano-genital warts
Ans: (d) Warts are benign proliferations of skin and mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Currently, more than 100 types of HPV have been identified. Certain HPV types tend to infect skin at particular anatomic sites; however, warts of any HPV type may occur at any site. The primary clinical manifestations of HPV infection include common warts, genital warts, flat warts, and deep palmoplantar warts (myrmecia). Less common manifestations of HPV infection include focal epithel ial hyperplasia (Heck disease), epidermodysplasia verruciformis, and plantar cysts. Warts are transmitted by direct or indirect contact, and predisposing factors include disruption to the normal epithelial barrier.

Q25. If the radius of blood vessels of a person decreases his/her blood pressure will

(a) increase (b) decrease
(c) remain unaffected
(d) increase for males and decrease for females
Ans: (a) An obese person has a greatly increased number of blood vessels because of the amount of adipose tissue that must be serviced. As a result, the total length of his or her vascular tree is greatly increased and this person tends to have a higher blood pressure because of the greater resistance to blood flow. Resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the radius of the blood vessel. In other words, the smaller the diameter of the vessel, the greater the resistance it offers to blood flow. If the radius of a blood vessel decreases by ½, its resistance to blood flow increases 16 times (½ x ½ x ½ x ½ = 1/16).

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