Q1. The vaccination against small pox involves the introduction of
(a) killed germs
(b) weakened germs
(c) live antibodies
(d) activated germs
Ans: (b) The smallpox vaccine was the first successful vaccine to be developed. The process of vaccination was first publicised by Edward Jenner in 1796, who acted upon his observation that milkmaids who caught the cowpox virus did not catch smallpox. The vaccine consists of the virus which causes the related, yet far milder, cowpox disease; this virus is named vaccinia (the term vaccine is derived from it), from the Latin vacca which means cow. This vaccine has functional viruses in it. Vaccines generally consist of a weakened (attenuated) or killed antigens, associated with a particular disease that are capable of stimulating the body to make specific antibodies to that disease. Vaccines use a variety of different substances ranging from dead microorganisms to genetically engineered antigens to defend the body against potentially harmful microorganisms. Effective vaccines change the immune system by promoting the development of antibodies that can quickly and effectively attack a disease causing microorganism when it enters the body, preventing disease development.
Q2. Deficiency of Vitamin B6 in man causes
(a) rickets (b) scurvy
(c) beri-beri (d) anaemia
Ans: (d) Vitamin B6 is a member of the B complex family of vitamins. Known as pyridoxine, its deficiency may lead to microcytic anemia (because pyridoxyl phosphate is the cofactor for heme synthesis), depression, dermatitis, high blood pressure (hypertension), water retention, and elevated levels of homocysteine. Vitamin B6 is found in a wide range of foods, including meat, poultry, legumes, bananas and foods that are fortified with a supplemental form. Adults need 1.3 to 1.7 milligrams (mg) daily to meet their requirements.
Q3. First successful heart transplantation was done by
(a) D.S. Paintal
(b) C.N. Barnard
(c) D. Shetty
(d) P. K. Sen
Ans: (b) Christiaan Neethling Barnard was a South African cardiac surgeon who performed the world’s first successful human-to-human heart transplant. He performed the world’s first human heart transplant operation on 3 December 1967, in an operation assisted by his brother, Marius Barnard; the operation lasted nine hours and used a team of thirty people. The patient, Louis Washkansky, was a 54-year-old grocer, suffering from diabetes and incurable heart disease.
Q4. Yellow Fever is transmitted by
(a) Aedes (b) Anopheles
(c) House-fly (d) Culex
Ans: (a) Yellow fever (also known as Yellow Jack and Bronze John) is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease. The virus is a 40 to 50 nm enveloped RNA virus with positive sense of the Flaviviridae family. The yellow fever virus is transmitted by the bite of female mosquitoes (the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, and other species) and is found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa, but not in Asia. The only known hosts of the virus are primates and several species of mosquito.
Q5. Washing of peeled vegetables removes the vitamin
(a) A (b) C
(c) D (d) E
Ans: (b) B-complex vitamins and vitamin C are watersoluble vitamins that are not stored in the body and must be replaced each day. These vitamins are easily destroyed or washed out during food storage and preparation. Fat-soluble vitamins — vitamins A, D, in English and K — dissolve in fat before they are absorbed in the blood stream to carry out their functions. Excesses of these vitamins are stored in the liver.
Q6. Match List-I with List-II and give the correct answer from the code given below :
s. Flemming List-II (Discoveries)
1. blood grouping
4. double helix
(a) p – 3, q – 1, r – 2, s – 4
(b) p – 3, q – 4, r – 2, s – 1
(c) p – 3, q – 4, r – 1, s – 2
(d) p – 3, q – 2, r – 4, s – 1
Ans: (c) In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. The term entered popular culture with the publication in 1968 of The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA, by James Watson. It was in 1901, that Austrian-American immunologist and pathologist Karl Landsteiner discovered human blood groups. Karl Landsteiner’s work made it possible to determine blood groups and thus paved the way for blood transfusions to be carried out safely. For this discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930. Edward Anthony Jenner was an English physician and scientist from Berkeley, Gloucestershire, who was the pioneer of smallpox vaccine. Penicillin is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. The discovery of penicillin is attributed to Scottish scientist and Nobel laureate Alexander Fleming in 1928.
Q7. A man with colour blindness will see red as
(a) Yellow (b) Blue
(c) Green (d) Violet
Ans: (c) Colour-blindness is the inability to distinguish the differences between certain colours. This condition results from an absence of colour-sensitive pigment in the cone cells of the retina, the nerve layer at the back of the eye. A person with colour-blindness has trouble seeing red, green, blue, or mixtures of these colors. The most common type is red-green colourblindness, where red and green are seen as the same color.
Q8. The metal, which is a constituent of vitamin B12 is
(a) Iron (b) Magnesium
(c) Zinc (d) Cobalt
Ans: (d) Vitamin B12 is a “generic descriptor for compounds exhibiting the biologic activity of cyanocobalamin; the antianemia factor of liver extract that contains cobalt, a cyano group, and corrin in a cobamide structure. Vitamin B12 is vital for the formation of red blood cells, as well as for the proper functioning and health of nerve tissue. If left untreated, vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as B12 deficiency, can lead to anemia, as well as nerve and brain damage, which may eventually become irreversible.
Q9. According to WHO, the bird flue virus cannot be transmitted through food cooked beyond
(a) 60 degrees celsius
(b) 70 degrees celsius
(c) 90 degrees celsius
(d) 100 degrees celsius
Ans: (b) Outbreaks by the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza (bird flu) virus in poultry have raised concerns about the source of infection and the risk to humans from various exposures. The H5N1 virus is sensitive to heat. Normal temperatures used for cooking (70°C in all parts of the food) will kill the virus. Consumers need to be sure that all parts of the poultry are fully cooked (no pink parts) and that eggs, too, are properly cooked
Q10. The number of chambers in a human heart is
(a) Four (b) Two
(c) Three (d) Five
Ans: (a) The human heart has four chambers, two superior atria and two inferior ventricles. The atria are the receiving chambers and the ventricles are the discharging chambers. The pathway of blood through the human heart consists of a pulmonary circuit and a systemic circuit. Deoxygenated blood flows through the heart in one direction, entering through the superior vena cava into the right atrium and is pumped through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle before being pumped out through the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary arteries into the lungs. It returns from the lungs through the pulmonary veins to the left atrium where it is pumped through the mitral valve into the left ventricle before leaving through the aortic valve to the aorta.
Q11. A universal recipient belongs to the blood group
(a) AB (b) O
(c) B (d) A
Ans: (a) Blood type AB is the universal recipient because individuals who have blood type AB does not have the antibodies. They do not have the anti-A or Anti-B antibodies. They can receive all types of blood types: A, B, O, AB.
Q12. The vitamin that helps in blood clotting is
(a) Vitamin C (b) Vitamin D
(c) Vitamin in English (d) Vitamin K
Ans: (d) Vitamin K is a necessary participant in synthesis of several proteins that mediate both coagulation and anticoagulation. Vitamin K deficiency is manifest as a tendency to bleed excessively. Vitamin K is found in a number of foods, including leafy greens, cauliflower and, liver. However, the chief source of vitamin K is synthesis by bacteria in the large intestine, and in most cases, absence of dietary vitamin K is not at all deleterious. Vitamin K is a fatsoluble vitamin and both dietary and microbial vitamin K are absorbed into intestinal lymph along with other lipids.
Q13. Which of the following is a perfect match ?
(a) Coronary attack – vascular dilation
(b) Atherosclerosis – blockage of arteries
(c) Hypertension – low blood pressure
(d) Hypotension – heart attack
Ans: (d) In physiology and medicine, hypotension is abnormally low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation. Hypotension is the opposite of hypertension, which is high blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood. If it is lower than normal, then it is called low blood pressure or hypotension. Severely low blood pressure can deprive the brain and other vital organs of oxygen and nutrients, leading to a lifethreatening condition called shock. Decreased cardiac output despite normal blood volume, due to severe congestive heart failure, large myocardial infarction, heart valve problems, heart attack, heart failure, or extremely low heart rate (bradycardia), often produces hypotension and can rapidly progress to cardiogenic shock.
Q14. Which of the following is correct about cold blooded animals ?
(a) Their blood remains cold all the time
(b) Their body temperature changes in accordance with the atmosphere
(c) Their body temperature remains constant all the time
(d) They kill all the animals they come across
Ans: (b) A cold blooded animal, or ectotherm, is one that does not have an internal mechanism for regulating its body temperature. Instead, a cold blooded animal relies on solar energy captured by the environment. Reptiles, amphibians and fish are examples of cold blooded animals. To change their body temperature, cold-blooded animals move to different places in their habitat. They may burrow under the ground, crawl under a log or a rock, etc. Cold-blooded means that the animals are ectothermic. They are dependent on the environment to control their body temperature.
Q15. If the blood group of one parent is AB and that of the other O, the possible blood group of their child would be
(a) A or B
(b) A or B or O
(c) A or AB or O
(d) A or B or AB or O
Ans: (a) Everyone has two copies of the gene for blood type (and for most other genes as well). Since O is a recessive trait that means that someone with type O blood must have two copies of the O gene. Types A and B are dominant, and since they’re co-dominant, someone with type AB blood must have the A gene and the B gene. In reproduction, the offspring get one copy of each gene from each parent. Since the type O parent has two copies of the O gene, it’s assured that the offspring will get one of them. As for the type AB parent, the offspring has a 50/50 chance of getting the A gene or the B gene. The two possible outcomes are AO and BO. Since O is recessive and A and B are dominant, that means the possible blood types are A and B.
Q16. How many bones are there in the human body ?
(a) 187 (b) 287
(c) 206 (d) 306
Ans: (c) There are 206 bones in an normal adult skeleton. A typical adult human skeleton consists of 206 bones. Individuals may have more or fewer bones than this owing to anatomical variations. These include: 22 Cranial and Facial Bones; 6 Ear Bones; 1 Throat Bone; 4 Shoulder Bones; 25 Chest Bones; 26 Vertebral Bones; 6 Arm and Forearm bones; 54 Hand Bones; 2 Pelvic Bones; 8 Leg Bones; and 52 Foot Bones.
Q17. Dinosaurs were
(a) mammals that became extinct
(b) large herbivorous creatures which gave rise to hippopotamus species
(c) egg-laying mammals
(d) reptiles that became extinct
Ans: (d) Although the word dinosaur means “terrible lizard,” the name is somewhat misleading, as dinosaurs are not lizards. Rather, they represent a separate group of reptiles with a distinct upright posture not found in lizards, and many extinct forms did not exhibit traditional reptilian characteristics. Through the first half of the 20th century, before birds were recognized to be dinosaurs, most of the scientific community believed dinosaurs to be sluggish and cold-blooded. Most research conducted since the 1970s, however, has indicated that ancient dinosaurs, particularly the carnivorous groups, were active animals with elevated metabolisms and numerous adaptations for social interaction.
Q18. Sweat glands in mammals are primarily concerned with
(a) removal of excess salts
(b) excretion of nitrogenous wastes
Ans: (c) Sweat glands, or sudoriferous glands, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat. The cause of sweating and body odor stems from our body’s temperature regulation system, specifically our sweat glands. Sweating helps maintain our body temperature, hydrates our skin and balances our body fluids and electrolytes, chemicals in our body such as sodium and calcium.
Q19. The vitamin that helps to prevent infections in the human body is
(a) vitamin A (b) vitamin B
(c) vitamin C (d) vitamin D
Ans: (c) Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid, or simply ascorbate (the anion of ascorbic acid), is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. Vitamin C is found in high concentrations in immune cells, and is consumed quickly during infections. It is not certain how vitamin C interacts with the immune system; it has been hypothesized to modulate the activities of phagocytes, the production of cytokines and lymphocytes, and the number of cell adhesion molecules in monocytes.
Q20. The normal RBC count in adult male is
(a) 5.5 million (b) 5.0 million
(c) 4.5 million (d) 4.0 million
Ans: (b) An RBC count is a blood test that tells how many red blood cells (RBCs) we have. RBCs contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen. How much oxygen our body tissues get depends on how many RBCs we have and how well they work. The general the range is as follows: Male: 4.7 to 6.1 million cells per microliter (cells/mcL); and Female: 4.2 to 5.4 million cells/mcL.
Q21. Which of the following is the sweetest sugar ?
(a) Sucrose (b) Glucose
(c) Fructose (d) Maltose
Ans: (c) Sucrose has a relative sweetness of 1.0, while Splenda (Sucralose) of the same quantity is about 600 times sweeter. Fructose is the sweetest of all natural sugar types, with a relative sweetness of 1.73. Xylitol is roughly as sweet as sucrose. Glucose, which is the main component of starch, has a relative sweetness of 0.6-0.7. Of all the sugars, Lactose is the least sweet, with a relative sweetness of 0.16.
Q22. The H5N1 virus which causes bird flu was first discovered in
(a) 1991 (b) 1995
(c) 1997 (d) 2001
Ans: (c) Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as “bird flu”, A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. H5N1 isolates found in Hong Kong in 1997 and 2001 were not consistently transmitted efficiently among birds and did not cause significant disease in these animals. In 2002, new isolates of H5N1 were appearing within the bird population of Hong Kong. These new isolates caused acute disease, including severe neurological dysfunction and death in ducks. This was the first reported case of lethal influenza virus infection in wild aquatic birds since 1961.
Q23. Tetanus is caused by
Ans: (a) Tetanus s a medical condition characterized by a prolonged contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. The primary symptoms are caused by tetanospasmin, a neurotoxin produced by the Gram-positive, rodshaped, obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani which is a rod-shaped, anaerobic bacterium of the genus species Clostridium. C. tetani is found as spores in soil or in the gastrointestinal tract of animals. C. tetani produces a potent biological toxin, tetanospasmin, and is the causative agent of tetanus, a disease characterized by painful muscular spasms that can lead to respiratory failure and, in up to 40% of cases, death.
Q24. Vitamin in English is particularly important for
(a) development of teeth
(b) carbohydrate metabolism
(c) normal activity of sex glands
(d) general health of epithelial tissues
Ans: (c) Vitamin in English is an antioxidant that protects body tissue from damage caused by substances called free radicals. Free radicals can harm cells, tissues, and organs. They are believed to play a role in certain conditions related to aging. The body also needs vitamin in English to help keep the immune system strong against viruses and bacteria. Vitamin in English is also important in the formation of red blood cells and it helps the body use vitamin K. It also helps widen blood vessels and keep blood from clotting inside them. Vitamin in English aids sex hormone production and improves circulation and is found in whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Zinc is needed to produce testosterone, the male sex hormone and is contained in oysters, pumpkin and sunflower seeds, spinach and garlic.
Q25. Birds usually have a single
(a) Kidney (b) Lung
(c) Testis (d) Ovary
Ans: (d) Male birds have two testes that produce sperm, and most female birds usually have only one ovary that produces eggs. A bird’s testes or ovary greatly increase in size during the breeding season. Their small size during the rest of the year lightens the load for flight. The cloaca is the outlet for eggs or sperm.
Q1. The vaccination against small pox involves the introduction of