Q1. Which of the following has no skeleton at all ?
(a) Star fish (b) Sponge
(c) Jelly fish (d) Silver fish
Ans: (d) Silverfish are always wingless and are silvery to brown in color because their bodies are covered with fine scales. They are generally soft bodied.
Q2. What is an endoscope ?
(a) It is an optical instrument used to see inside the alimentary canal
(b) It is a device which is fitted on the chest of the patient to regularise the irregular heart beats
(c) It is an instrument used for examining ear disorders
(d) It is an instrument for recording electrical signals produced by human muscles
Ans: (a) Endoscopymeans looking inside and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an endoscope, an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body. Unlike most other medical imaging devices, endoscopes are inserted directly into the organ. Endoscopy can also refer to using a borescope in technical situations where direct line of-sight observation is not feasible. The following conditions and illnesses are most commonly investigated or diagnosed with an endoscopy: breathing disorders; chronic diarrhea; internal bleeding; irritable bowel syndrome; stomach ulcers, etc.
Q3. The age of a tree can be determined more or less accurately by
(a) counting the number of branches
(b) measuring the height of the tree
(c) measuring the diameter of the trunk
(d) counting the number of rings in the trunk
Ans: (d) When a tree has been cut down or felled, then it is relatively easy to work out its age by counting the growth or annual rings that can be seen on the sawnoff stump. Under the bark of a tree is a special tissue (called the cambium) which forms new cells so that the tree can grow. Differences in the rate at which cells are produced by this tissue give rise to the annual or growth rings. If conditions are good for growth (warm, regular rainfall) then the ring that is formed will be wider than that created in a year where the tree struggles for water, or it is cold. There is one ring for each year of a tree’s life.
Q4. Of all micro-organisms, the most adaptable and versatile are
(a) Viruses (b) Bacteria
(c) Algae (d) Fungi
Ans: (a) The viruses are adaptable and versatile with many variations worldwide and they reproduce within the cells of the immune system of infected people. Therefore virus collections are indispensable instruments in the development of a vaccine. Versatility is distinctive abilities and skills in productively managing a variety of situations. Adaptability is the amount of flexibility and versatility an individual has developed to respond to changing interpersonal situations and environmental requirements.
Q5. The disease in which the sugar level of blood increases is known as
(a) Diabetes mellitus
(b) Diabetes insipidus
(c) Diabetes imperfectus
(d) Diabetes sugarensis
Ans: (a) Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
Q6. Which one of the following is not a mosquito borne disease?
(a) Dengue fever
(c) Sleeping sickness
Ans: (c) Sleeping sickness is infection with germs carried by certain flies. It results in swelling of the brain. Sleeping sickness is caused by two germs, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosomoa brucei gambiense. The more severe form of the illness is caused by T. rhodesiense. Tsetse flies carry the infection
Q7. Who has been conferred the Dada Saheb Phalke Award (Ratna) for the year 2007 ?
(a) Dev Anand
(c) Dilip Kumar
(d) Shabana Azmi
Ans: (*) The Dadasaheb Phalke Award is India’s highest award in cinema given annually by the Government of India for lifetime contribution to Indian cinema. Prabodh Chandra Dey, better known by his nickname Manna Dey, received the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 2007. The Government of India honoured Dev Anand with the Padma Bhushan in 2001 and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 2002 for his contribution to Indian cinema. Rekha and Shabana Azmi have not received this award so far. The Government of India honoured Dilip Kumar with the Padma Bhushan in 1991 and the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 1994 for his contributions towards Indian cinema.
Q8. Which one of the following is the tallest bird?
(a) Peacock (b) Penguin
(c) Ostrich (d) Emu
Ans: (c) The largest living bird is the ostrich (Struthio camelus), from the plains of Africa and Arabia. A large male ostrich can reach a height of 2.8 m (9.2 ft), weighing over 156 kg (345 lb).
Q9. Which one of the following animals is called farmer’s friend ?
(a) Ant (b) Earthworm
(c) Bee (d) Butterfly
Ans: (b) Earthworms travel underground by the means of waves of muscular contractions which alternately shorten and lengthen the body. The shortened part is anchored to the surrounding soil by tiny claw-like bristles (setae) set along its segmented length. In all the body segments except the first, last and clitellum, there is a ring of S-shaped setae embedded in the epidermal pit of each segment (perichaetine). The whole burrowing process is aided by the secretion of lubricating mucus. Worms can make gurgling noises underground when disturbed as a result of the worm moving through its lubricated tunnels. They also work as biological “pistons” forcing air through the tunnels as they move. Thus earthworm activity aerates and mixes the soil, and is constructive to mineralization and nutrient uptake by vegetation. Certain species of earthworm come to the surface and graze on the higher concentrations of organic matter present there, mixing it with the mineral soil. Because a high level of organic matter mixing is associated with soil fertility, an abundance of earthworms is beneficial to the organic gardener.
Q10. The term ‘gene’ was coined by
(a) T. H. Morgan
(b) W. L. Johanssen
(c) G. Mendel
(d) De Vries
Ans: (b) Wilhelm Johannsen was a Danish botanist, plant physiologist and geneticist. His most well-known research concerned so-called pure lines of the selffertile common bean. He was able to show that even in populations homozygous for all traits, i.e. without genetic variation, seed size followed a normal distribution. This was attributable to resource provision to the mother plant and to the position of seeds in pods and of pods on the plant. This led him to coin the terms phenotype and genotype and first used in his paper Om arvelighed i samfund og i rene linier and in his book Arvelighedslærens Elementer.) This book was rewritten, enlarged and translated to German as Elemente der exakten Erblichkeitslehre.It was in this book Johannsen introduced the term gene. This term was coined in opposition to the then common pangene that stemmed from Darwin’s theory of pangenesis.
Q11. Which one of the following creatures has maximum number of ribs ?
(c) Ray fish
(d) Flying mammal
Ans: (b) Snakes have the maximum number of ribs. On an average they have 200 to 400 bones (Vertibrae) and each have a pair of ribs on either side.
Q12. Which one of the following is most important for the growth of children up to the age of 14?
(a) Protein (b) Vitamin
(c) Fat (d) Milk
Ans: (a) Protein is a vital part of a healthy diet for children. This substance, though important for all people, is especially necessary for developing and growing bodies. Protein is used as a source of energy, especially when carbohydrates and fats are at insufficient levels in the diet. In addition, a child needs adequate protein to support the body’s production of its own proteins. The manufactured proteins are used in strength maintenance, development of muscles and connective tissues, transportation of oxygen to all areas of the body and antibody production to fight infections.
Q13. Study of newly born up to the age of 3 months is called
(a) Chorology (b) Conchology
(c) Nematology (d) Neonatology
Ans: (d) Neonatology is a subspecialty of pediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn infant. It is a hospital-based specialty, and is usually practiced in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The principal patients of neonatologists are newborn infants who are ill or requiring special medical care due to prematurity, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, congenital malformations (birth defects), sepsis, pulmonary hyperplasia or birth asphyxias.
Q14. Which one of the following does not secrete any digestive enzyme?
(b) Salivary gland
(c) Glands of small intestine
Ans: (a) Digestive enzymes are enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body. Digestive enzymes are found in the digestive tracts of animals (including humans) and in the traps of carnivorous plants, where they aid in the digestion of food, as well as inside cells, especially in their lysosomes, where they function to maintain cellular survival. Digestive enzymes are diverse and are found in the saliva secreted by the salivary glands, in the stomach secreted by cells lining the stomach, in the pancreatic juice secreted by pancreatic exocrine cells, and in the intestinal (small and large) secretions, or as part of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract.
Q15. Which one of the following is related to Silviculture ?
(a) Culture of Hilsa
(b) Culture of silver carp
(c) Culture of oil-producing plants
(d) Forest crops
Ans: (d) Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values. The name comes from the Latin silvi- (forest) + culture (as in growing). The study of forests and woods is termed silvology. Forest regeneration is the act of renewing tree cover by establishing young trees naturally or artificially, generally promptly after the previous stand or forest has been removed.
Q16. The term ‘GM food’ refers to the food
(a) that grows under genetic measures
(b) that is genetically modified
(c) that grows under geographical modification
(d) with greater glucose metabolism
Ans: (b) Genetically, modified foods (GM foods) are foods derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), such as genetically modified crops or genetically modified fish. GMOs have had specific changes introduced into their DNA by genetic engineering techniques. These techniques are much more precise than mutagenesis (mutation breeding) where an organism is exposed to radiation or chemicals to create a non-specific but stable change. Other techniques by which humans modify food organisms include selective breeding; plant breeding, and animal breeding, and somaclonal variation.
Q17. Which of the following organisms is most likely to produce greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane?
(a) Fungi (b) Earthworm
(c) Bacteria (d) Green plants
Ans: (d) When it comes to greenhouse gases many of us think first of CO2. But a large proportion of global greenhouse gas emissions are actually other gases, such as N2O (nitrous oxide) and CH4 (methane). The emission of methane and nitrous oxide is largely the result of agricultural activities; nitrous oxide from fertilisers and methane mostly from cows. In peat pasture areas these emissions are particularly prevalent.
Q18. Which of the following is a fish?
(a) Silverfish (b) Starfish
(c) Dogfish (d) Cuttlefish
Ans: (c) The spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) is the most common shark and travels in schools. They are called dogfish because they travel and hunt in packs. They also migrate in schools, following cool waters. The spiny dogfish shark is found worldwide in temperate and subarctic waters, in the temperate and subarctic latitudes of the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans. These sharks have even been found in the Black sea and Mediterranean sea.
Q19. The colour of human skin is produced by
(a) Haemoglobin(b) Insulin
(c) Adrenaline (d) Melanin
Ans: (d) Human skin colour is primarily due to the presence of melanin in the skin. Skin colour ranges from almost black to white with a pinkish tinge due to blood vessels underneath. Variation in natural skin colour is mainly due to genetics, although the evolutionary causes are not completely certain. Melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes in a process called melanogenesis. Melanin is triggered by an enzyme called tyrosinase, which creates the color of skin, eyes, and hair shades. Melanin controls the amount of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun that penetrates the skin by absorption. While UV radiation can assist in the production of vitamin D, excessive exposure to UV can damage health.
Q20. Which one of the following is not transmitted via blood transfusion?
(a) Hepatitis (b) Typhoid
(c) HIV (d) Malaria
Ans: (b) Typhoid fever, also known as typhoid, is a common worldwide bacterial disease, transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person, which contain the bacterium Salmonella typhi, serotype Typhi. The bacteria which causes typhoid fever may be spread through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions, and sometimes also by flying insects feeding on feces. A person may become an asymptomatic carrier of typhoid fever, suffering no symptoms, but capable of infecting others.
Q21. Flat footed camels can walk easily in sandy deserts because
(a) pressure on the sand is decreased by increasing the area of the surface in contact
(b) pressure on the sand is increased by increasing the area of the surface in contact
(c) pressure on the sand is decreased by decreasing the area of the surface in contact
(d) pressure on the sand is increased by decreasing the area of the surface in contact
Ans: (a) Camels have broad, flat, leathery pads with two toes on each foot. When the camel places its foot on the ground the pads spread, preventing the foot from sinking into the sand. When walking, the camel moves both feet on one side of its body, then both feet on the other. This gait suggests the rolling motion of a boat, explaining the camel’s ‘ship of the desert’ nickname. The pad supports the animal on loose sand in much the same way that a snowshoe helps a person walk on snow.
Q22. Which one of the following is not a plant product?
(a) Caffeine (b) Piperine
(c) Nicotine (d) Saccharin
Ans: (d) Saccharin is an artificial sweetener. The basic substance, benzoic sulfilimine, has effectively no food energy and is much sweeter than sucrose, but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations. It is used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, cookies, medicines, and toothpaste. Saccharin derives its name from the word saccharine, meaning of, relating to, or resembling that of sugar.
Q23. Which is the anti-coagulant substance in blood?
(a) Fibrinogen (b) Heparin
(c) Thrombin (d) Globin
Ans: (b) Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant, and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. It can also be used to form an inner anticoagulant surface on various experimental and medical devices such as test tubes and renal dialysis machines. Although it is used principally in medicine for anticoagulation, its true physiological role in the body remains unclear, because blood anticoagulation is achieved mostly by heparan sulfate proteoglycans derived from endothelial cells.
Q24. In which of the following groups, animals bear no teeth?
(a) Peacock, Ostrich, Tortoise
(b) Owl, Loris, Crow
(c) Alligator, Turtle, Tortoise
(d) Turtle, Kiwi, Cow
Ans: (a) The sloth, which is not a bear, has no front teeth. Other mammals are the armadillo and anteater (Order Xenarthra) and baleen whales. Among reptiles the turtles and tortoise. Among amphibians most toads are toothless. Modern birds have a toothless beak or bill. Peacock do not have teeth. Within the fish, all the Cyprinids, some catfish, paddelfish.
Q25. Jaundice is a symptom of disease of
(a) Kidney (b) Liver
(c) Pancreas (d) Thyroid
Ans: (b) Jaundice is a yellowish pigmentation of the skin, the conjunctival membranes over the sclerae (whites of the eyes), and other mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in the blood). This hyperbilirubinemia subsequently causes increased levels of bilirubin in the extracellular fluid. Concentration of bilirubin in blood plasma does not normally exceed 1 mg/dL (>17μmol/L). A concentration higher than 1.8 mg/dL (>30μmol/L) leads to jaundice. Jaundice is often seen in liver disease such as hepatitis or liver cancer. It may also indicate leptospirosis or obstruction of the biliary tract, for example by gallstones or pancreatic cancer, or less commonly be congenital in origin.
Q1. Which of the following has no skeleton at all ?