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Part 082 – Biology Previous Year Questions

Q1. Lac, which is used as sealing wax is produced by
(a) stem (b) root
(c) insect (d) bird
Ans: (c) Lac is the scarlet resinous secretion of a number of species of insects. There are several lac insects, some of which secrete highly pigmented wax. The Indian lac insect Laccifer lacca is important commercially.

Q2. Triple vaccine is administered to a new born child to immunize it against

(a) whooping cough, tetanus and measles
(b) whooping cough, tetanus and diphtheria
(c) tetanus, diphtheria, measles and rubella
(d) tetanus, diphtheria, small pox and rubella
Ans: (b) Triple Antigen vaccine is a combination of Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis (whooping cough). The vaccine stimulates the production of antibodies to immunize the body against the causative agents of the three viruses listed above. It is recommended to children older than 2 months of age.

Q3. An antibiotic is

(a) a chemical synthesized by a human cell against a microorganism
(b) a chemical synthesised by a micro-organism against another micro-organisms
(c) a substance produced by blood cells against bacteria
(d) a substance produced by blood cells against infection.
Ans: (b) An antibacterial is an agent that inhibits bacterial growth or kills bacteria. The term is often used synonymously with the term antibiotic(s); today. The term antibiotic was first used in 1942 by Selman Waksman and his collaborators in journal articles to describe any substance produced by a microorganism that is antagonistic to the growth of other microorganisms in high dilution. This definition excluded substances that kill bacteria, but are not produced by microorganisms (such as gastric juices and hydrogen peroxide). It also excluded synthetic antibacterial compounds such as the sulfonamides. Many antibacterial compounds are relatively small molecules with a molecular weight of less than 2000 atomic mass units.

Q4. Which one of the following can be synthesized by Liver ?

(a) Vitamin – A
(b) Vitamin – E
(c) Vitamin – D
(d) Vitamin – K
Ans: (d) Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that are needed for the posttranslational modification of certain proteins required for blood coagulation and in metabolic pathways in bone and other tissue. This group of vitamins includes two natural vitamers: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Populations with an increased prevalence of vitamin K deficiency include those who suffer from liver damage or disease (e.g. alcoholics), cystic fibrosis, or inflammatory bowel diseases, or have recently had abdominal surgeries. The vitamin K – dependent coagulation proteins are synthesised in the liver and comprise factors II, VII, IX, and X, which have a haemostatic role.

Q5. Fluid part of blood devoid of corpuscles is called

(a) Tissue fluid (b) Plasma
(c) Serum (d) Lymph
Ans: (c) In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma with the fibrinogens removed. Serum includes all proteins not used in blood clotting (coagulation) and all the electrolytes, antibodies, antigens, hormones, and any exogenous substances (e.g., drugs and microorganisms). Serum is an essential factor for the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells in combination with the cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor.

Q6. Heart murmur indicates a

(a) defective valve
(b) poor oxygenation
(c) dislocation of the heart
(d) improper development of muscles
Ans: (a) Murmurs are pathologic heart sounds that are produced as a result of turbulent blood flow that is sufficient to produce audible noise. A functional murmur or “physiologic murmur” is a heart murmur that is primarily due to physiologic conditions outside the heart, as opposed to structural defects in the heart itself. Murmurs may also be the result of various problems, such as narrowing or leaking of valves, or the presence of abnormal passages through which blood flows in or near the heart. Such murmurs are known as pathologic murmurs.

Q7. The language used in writing the scientific name of animals is

(a) French (b) Latin
(c) German (d) Dutch
Ans: (b) Throughout most of the history of Western science, all scientific literature was written in Latin. Only recently has it been written in spoken languages like English. The use of Latin names has remained so that scientists that speak different languages can understand what they are talking about. Another reason is that many plants and animals have common names that differ by region. Having a Latin name avoids confusion among scientists.

Q8. Ripe grapes contain

(a) Fructose (b) Sucrose
(c) Galactose (d) Glucose
Ans: (a) Fully mature or ripe grapes contain about an equal concentration of glucose and fructose, which are the simple sugars yeast ferment to form alcohol and carbon dioxide. Ripe grapes contain ~ 20% of glucose. During ripening the sucrose molecules are hydrolyzed (inverted) by the enzyme invertase into glucose and fructose. By the time of harvest, between 15-25% of the grape will be composed of simple sugars. Both glucose and fructose are six-carbon sugars but three, four, five and seven-carbon sugars are also present in the grape. At time of harvest, there is usually an equal amount of glucose and fructose molecules in the grape; however, as the grape over ripens the level of fructose will become higher.

Q9. M.R.I. stands for

(a) Metered Resonance Imaging
(b) Magnetic Resonance Imaging
(c) Magnetic Reaction Imaging
(d) Metered Reaction Imaging
Ans: (b) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to visualize internal structures of the body in detail. MRI makes use of the property of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to image nuclei of atoms inside the body. An MRI scanner is a device in which the patient lies within a large, powerful magnet where the magnetic field is used to align the magnetization of some atomic nuclei in the body, and radio frequency fields to systematical ly alter the alignment of this magnetization. This causes the nuclei to produce a rotating magnetic field detectable by the scanner— and this information is recorded to construct an image of the scanned area of the body.

Q10. Raja Rao the famous Indian Novelist who died on 8th July 2006.
The title of his first novel was

(a) Kanthapura
(b) The Serpent and The Rope
(c) The Chess Master and His Moves
(d) The Cat and Shakespeare
Ans: (a) Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura (1938) is the first major Indian novel in English. It is a fictional but realistic account of how the great majority of people in India lived their lives under British rule and how they responded to the ideas and ideals of Indian nationalism. The book has been considered by many to be the first classic modern Indian writing in English and is thought of as one of the best, if not the best, Gandhian novels in English.

Q11. The science dealing with the study of teeth is

(a) Odontology (b) Ornithology
(c) Phenology (d) Cosmology
Ans: (a) Odontology is the study of the structure, development, and abnormalities of the teeth. Forensic dentistry or forensic odontology is the proper handling, examination and evaluation of dental evidence, which will be then presented in the interest of justice. The evidence that may be derived from teeth, is the age (in children) and identification of the person to whom the teeth belong. This is done using dental records including radiographs, ante-mortem (prior to death) and post-mortem photographs and DNA.

Q12. The enzyme in whose presence glucose and fructose are converted into alcohol is

(a) Diastase (b) Maltase
(c) Invertase (d) Zymase
Ans: (d) The slow decomposition of organic matter into simpler substances in presence of enzymes is known as fermentation. Fermentation is used for the preparation of alcoholic beverages from grape juice and other fruit juices in presence of yeast, which contains proper enzymes. In the first process, sugar from molasses or sugarcane, fruits or starch is first converted to glucose and fructose (isonomers) in presence of an enzyme cal led invertase. C12H22O11+ H2O C6H12O6 + C6H12O6. Glucose and fructose are both converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide in presence of another enzyme, zymase. Both the enzymes, invertase and zymase, are present in yeast. C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2

Q13. The study of visceral organs is

(a) Angiology
(b) Arthrology
(c) Anthrology
(d) Splanchnology
Ans: (d) Splanchology is the scientific study of the viscera and its organs. It studies the characteristics and structure of the visceral system of an animal. It is the study of viscera, which are the organs situated in the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities of the body, and are associated with pleura and peritoneum. There are four major systems identified in the viscera according to their functions, and they are the digestive system, the respiratory system, the urinary system, and the reproductive system. These four major systems are to process bodily intakes for metabolism such as nutrients and oxygen from surrounding and to remove the wastes from the body. One last function of the viscera is to ensure the survival of the species as a whole by conducting the process of reproduction.

Q14. The branch of biology dealing with the study of cells is known as

(a) Cytology (b) Histology
(c) Psychology (d) Physiology
Ans: (a) Cytology means “the study of cells”. Cytology is that branch of life science, which deals with the study of cells in terms of structure, function and chemistry. Based on usage it can refer to: Cytopathology: the study of cellular disease and the use of cellular changes for the diagnosis of disease; and Cell biology: the study of (normal) cellular anatomy, function and chemistry.

Q15. The study of extinct animals is called

(a) Herpetology
(b) Ornithology
(c) Geology
(d) Palaeontology
Ans: (d) Paleontology is the study of fossils to determine the structure and evolution of extinct animals and plants and the age and conditions of deposition of the rock strata in which they are found. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms’ evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology). As a “historical science” it attempts to explain causes rather than conduct experiments to observe effects. Palaeontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century B.C.E.

Q16. The medical term used for the sleeplessness is

(a) Somnambulism
(b) Insomnia
(c) Hallucination
(d) Nyctinuria
Ans: (b) Insomnia, or sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep as long as desired. It is most often thought of as both a sign and a symptom that can accompany several sleep, medical, and psychiatric disorders characterized by a persistent difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep or sleep of poor quality. Insomnia is typically followed by functional impairment while awake. Insomnia can occur at any age, but it is particularly common in the elderly.

Q17. The causative agent of Tuberculosis is

(a) Mycobacterium
(b) Aspergillus
(c) Rhabdovirus
(d) HIV
Ans: (a) Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae. The genus includes pathogens known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis and leprosy. Mycobacterial infections are notoriously difficult to treat. The organisms are hardy due to their cell wall, which is neither truly Gram negative nor positive. In addition, they are naturally resistant to a number of antibiotics that disrupt cell-wall biosynthesis, such as penicillin.

Q18. The enzyme that is present in the saliva of man is

(a) Pepsin (b) Renin
(c) Amylase (d) Trypsin
Ans: (c) Amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of starch into sugars. Amylase is present in human saliva, where it begins the chemical process of digestion. Foods that contain much starch but little sugar, such as rice and potato, taste slightly sweet as they are chewed because amylase turns some of their starch into sugar in the mouth. The pancreas also makes amylase (alpha amylase) to hydrolyse dietary starch into disaccharides and trisaccharides which are converted by other enzymes to glucose to supply the body with energy. Plants and some bacteria also produce amylase. As diastase, amylase was the first enzyme to be discovered and isolated.

Q19. Blood cancer is otherwise called as

(a) Anaemia
(b) Polycythemia
(c) Leucopenia
(d) Leukaemia
Ans: (d) Leukemia is a type of cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal increase of immature white blood cells called “blasts”. Leukemia is a broad term covering a spectrum of diseases. In turn, it is part of the even broader group of diseases affecting the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid system, which are all known as hematological neoplasms.

Q20. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a therapy used

(a) to cure lung cancer
(b) to cure AIDS
(c) to cure fractures in bones
(d) to detect antibodies and hormones present in the blood samples
Ans: (d) Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a very sensitive in vitro assay technique used to measure concentrations of antigens (for example, hormone levels in the blood) by use of antibodies. As such, it can be seen as the inverse of a radiobinding assay, which quantifies an antibody by use of corresponding antigens. Although the RIA technique is extremely sensitive and extremely specific, requiring specialized equipment, it remains the least expensive method to perform such tests. It requires special precautions and licensing, since radioactive substances are used. Today it has been supplanted by the ELISA method.

Q21. Which one of the following is not a true snake ?

(a) Glass snake
(b) Sea snake
(c) Tree snake
(d) Blind snake
Ans: (a) The glass lizards or glass snakes, genus Ophisaurus, are a group of reptiles that resemble snakes, but are actually lizards. Although most species have no legs, their head shape and the fact that they have movable eyelids and external ear openings identify them as lizards. A few species have very small stub-like legs near the rear vent. These are vestigial organs meaning they have evolved and they are no longer in use. These animals are also known as Glass Snakes or Jointed Snakes.

Q22. Which one of the following set belongs to the class Mammalia ?

(a) Lion, Hippopotamus, Penguin, Bat.
(b) Lion, Bat, Whale, Ostrich
(c) Hippopotamus, Penguin, Whale, Kangaroo
(d) Whale, Bat, Kangaroo, Hippopotamus
Ans: (d) Mammals are members of class Mammalia, airbreathing vertebrate animals characterized by the possession of endothermy, hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands functional in mothers with young. Most mammals also possess sweat glands and specialized teeth. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta which feeds the offspring during gestation. Among the mammals, pigs, hippopotamus, camels, giraffe, deer, antelope, cattle, sheep, goats belong to Order Artiodactyla; Order Cetacea: whales, dolphins and porpoises; etc. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 millimeter (1- to 1.5-inch) bumblebee bat to the 33-meter (108- foot) blue whale.

Q23. Which one of the following pairs belongs to cartilaginous fish ?

(a) Shark and Tuna
(b) Shark and Ray
(c) Skates and Hilsa
(d) Ray and Eel
Ans: (b) Chondrichthyes or cartilaginous fishes are jawed fish with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a twochambered heart, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone. The cartilaginous fish are so named because their skeleton is composed of cartilage which is not reinforced by the minerals that make bone. It includes elasmobranchs: sharks, rays and skates, etc.

Q24. Which one of the following is not a true fish ?

(a) Silver fish
(b) Saw fish
(c) Hammer fish
(d) Sucker fish
Ans: (a) Lepisma saccharina, frequently called a silverfish or fishmoth is a small, wingless insect in the order Thysanura. Silverfish are always wingless and are silvery to brown in colour because their bodies are covered with fine scales. They are generally soft bodied. Its common name derives from the animal’s silvery light grey and blue colour, combined with the fish-like appearance of its movements, while the scientific name indicates the silverfish’s diet of carbohydrates such as sugar or starches.

Q25. Johann Gregor Mendel is famous for propounding

(a) Theory of mutation
(b) Laws of heredity
(c) Cell theory
(d) Theory of acquired characters
Ans: (b) The Laws of Heredity are few; their implications for life are vast. The simplest genetic characteristics are those whose presence depends on the genotype at a single locus; i.e., one gene controls the expression of one characteristic. Such characters are known as Mendelian, after their original discoverer, the Austrian botanist Gregor Mendel. Over 10,000 Mendelian characters have been identified in humans. Mendelian laws of inheritance are statements about the way certain characteristics are transmitted from one generation to another in an organism.

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