Q1. Which of the following structures present in mammalian skin directly helps in keeping the body warm ?
(a) Pigmented cells
(b) Sweat glands
(c) Lymph vessels
(d) Blood capillaries
Ans: (c) The lymphatic system consists of a network of specialized lymphatic vessels and various tissues and organs throughout the body that contain lymphocytes (White Blood Cells) and other cells that help the body fight infection and disease. The lymphatic vessels are similar to veins but have thinner walls. Some of these vessels are very close to the skin surface and can be found near veins; others are just under the skin and in the deeper fatty tissues near the muscles and can be found near arteries.
Q2. Which from the following diseases usually spreads through milk?
Ans: (a) There are two forms of tuberculosis that cause significant disease in mammals. Human tuberculosis, a sometimes acute, but much more commonly, a chronic lung infection is caused by the bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bovine tuberculosis is a very similar disease that infects cattle, as well as deer, goats, elk and many other animals. This infection is caused by a related bacterium, Mycobacterium bovis. Human infections with the bovine form of the bacteria are transmitted through milk.
Q3. Which are the largest fixator of solar energy ?
(a) Bacteria (b) Protozoa
(c) Fungi (d) Green plants
Ans: (d) Ecological productivity refers to the primary fixation of solar energy by plants and the subsequent use of that fixed energy by plant-eating herbivores, animal-eating carnivores, and the detritivores that feed upon dead biomass. Ecologists refer to the productivity of green plants as primary productivity. Deserts, tundra, and the deep ocean are the least productive ecosystems, typically having an energy fixation of less than 0.5 × 103 kilocalories per square meter per year (thousands of kcal/m2/yr; it takes one calorie to raise the temperature of one gram of water by 34°F (1°C) under standard conditions, and there are 1,000 calories in a kcal). Grasslands, montane and boreal forests, waters of the continental shelf, and rough agriculture typically have productivities of 0.5-3.0 × 103 kcal/m2/yr. Moist forests, moist prairies, shallow lakes, and typical agricultural systems have productivities of 3-10 × 103 kcal/m2/yr. The most productive ecosystems are fertile estuaries and marshes, coral reefs, terrestrial vegetation on moist alluvial deposits, and intensive agriculture, which can have productivities of 10-25 × 103 kcal/m2/yr.
Q4. Correlate the following :
(a) Green leafy vegetables
(b) Raw cabbage
(c) Brewers yeast
(d) Wheat-germ oil Vitamin
(a) A (b) B1
(c) C (d) D
(a) (b) (c) (d)
(a) (a) (b) (c) (d)
(b) (a) (c) (b) (5)
(c) (b) (c) (d) (5)
(d) (b) (d) (5) (a)
Ans: (b) Vitamin A is found naturally in many foods: liver (beef, pork, chicken, turkey, fish) (6500 ìg 722%), including cod liver oil; dandelion greens (5588 IU 112%); carrot (835 ìg 93%); broccoli leaf (800 ìg 89%); spinach (469 ìg 52%); collard greens (333 ìg 37%), etc. Brewer’s yeast is often taken as a powder, or as tablets or capsules. High-quality brewer’s yeast powder or flakes contain as much as 60 mcg of chromium per tablespoon (15 grams). The B-complex vitamins in brewers yeast include B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine), B9 (folic acid), and H or B7 (biotin). These vitamins help break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, which provide the body with energy. Wheat germ oil is extracted from the germ of the wheat kernel, which makes up only 2.5% by weight of the kernel. Wheat germ oil is very high in vitamin E, and has the highest content of vitamin in English of any food that has not undergone prior preparation or vitamin fortification. Raw cabbage is a good source of vitamins, minerals, and fiber that help protect our body. All cabbage types provide vitamin C, folic acid, potassium, manganese, magnesium, riboflavin and thiamin.
Q5. Which of the following is a correct description of ‘tissue culture’?
(a) Conservation of forests and plantation
(b) Growth and propagation of horticultural crops
(c) Science of cultivating animal tissue in artificial medium
(d) Protection of wild animals
Ans: (c) Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism. This is typically facilitated via use of a liquid, semi-solid, or solid growth medium, such as broth or agar. Tissue culture commonly refers to the culture of animal cells and tissues, with the more specific term plant tissue culture being used for plants. In modern usage, tissue culture generally refers to the growth of cells from a tissue from a multicellular organism in vitro.
Q6. Study of field crops is called
(a) Pomology (b) Agronomy
(c) Olericulture(d) Floriculture
Ans: (b) Olericulture is the science of vegetable growing, dealing with the culture of non-woody (herbaceous) plants for food. The Pomo is a name for between five and seven different Native American groups with similar cultures but very different languages. Agronomy is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fiber, and reclamation. Agronomy encompasses work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology, and soil science. Agronomy is the application of a combination of sciences like biology, chemistry, economics, ecology, earth science, and genetics. Agronomists today are involved with many issues including producing food, creating healthier food, managing environmental impact of agriculture, and creating energy from plants.
Q7. Carrot is orange in colour because
(a) It grows in the soil
(b) It is not exposed to sunlight
(c) It contains carotene
(d) The entire plant is orange in colour
Ans: (c) The carrot gets its characteristic and bright orange colour from â-carotene, which is partly metabolised into vitamin A in humans. Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. The term carotene (also carotin, from the Latin carota, or carrot) is used for several related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but cannot be made by animals. Carotene is an orange photosynthetic pigment important for photosynthesis. Carotenes are all coloured to the human eye. They are responsible for the colours of many other fruits and vegetables (for example, sweet potatoes and orange cantaloupe melon).
Q8. Select the biofertilizer in the following :
(b) Ammonium sulphate
(c) Cattle dung
(d) Algae and blue-green algae
Ans: (d) A biofertilizer is a substance which contains living microorganisms which, when applied to seed, plant surfaces, or soil, colonizes the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promotes growth by increasing the supply or availability of primary nutrients to the host plant. Bio-fertilizers add nutrients through the natural processes of nitrogen fixation, solubilizing phosphorus, and stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth-promoting substances. Bio-fertilizers eco friendly organic agroinput and more cost-effective than chemical fertilizers. Bio-fertilizers such as Rhizobium, Azotobacter, Azospirillum and blue green algae (BGA) have been in use a long time. Blue green algae belonging to a general cyanobacteria genus, Nostoc or Anabaena or Tolypothrix or Aulosira, fix atmospheric nitrogen and are used as inoculations for paddy crop grown both under upland and low-land conditions.
Q9. Full form of the infectious disease SARS is
(a) Syndrome Associated with Respiratory Symptoms
(b) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
(c) Severe Asthmatic Respiratory Syndrome
(d) Syndrome Alarm on Respiratory System
Ans: (b) Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious form of pneumonia. It is caused by a virus that was first identified in 2003. Infection with the SARS virus causes acute respiratory distress (severe breathing difficulty) and sometimes death. SARS is a dramatic example of how quickly world travel can spread a disease. It is also an example of how quickly a connected health system can respond to a new health threat. SARS is caused by a member of the coronavirus family of viruses (the same family that can cause the common cold). It is believed the 2003 epidemic started when the virus spread from small mammals in China.
Q10. Insects responsible for transmitting diseases are called
(a) Vector (b) Transmitter
(c) Drones (d) Conductor
Ans: (a) A vector-borne disease is one in which the pathogenic microorganism is transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by an arthropod or other agent, sometimes with other animals serving as intermediary hosts. The transmission depends upon the attributes and requirements of at least three different living organisms: the pathologic agent, either a virus, protozoa, bacteria, or helminth (worm); the vector, which are commonly arthropods such as ticks or mosquitoes; and the human host. In addition, intermediary hosts such as domesticated and/or wild animals often serve as a reservoir for the pathogen until susceptible human populations are exposed. Nearly half of the world’s population is infected by vector-borne diseases.
Q11. Camel is a desert animal, that can live without water for many days, because
(a) it does not need water
(b) water is formed in the body due to oxidation of fat
(c) it has the water sac in the walls of the lumen of stomach
(d) All of the above
Ans: (d) Camels, in ideal conditions, can go 6-7 months without water but as the temperature rises they have to drink water more often. Camels are well known for their humps. They do not, however, literally store water in them as is commonly believed, though they do serve this purpose through roundabout means. Their humps are a reservoir of fatty tissue, while water is stored in their blood. However, when this tissue is metabolised, it is not only a source of energy, but yields through reaction with oxygen from the air 1111 g of water per 1000 g of fat. This allows them to survive without water for about two weeks, and without food for up to a month. Camels are able to withstand changes in body temperature and water consumption that would kill most other animals. Their temperature ranges from 34 °C at night and up to 40 °C during the day. Camels rarely sweat, even when ambient temperatures reach 49 °C. Any sweat that does occur evaporates at the skin level rather than at the surface of their coat, and the heat of vaporization therefore comes from body heat rather than ambient heat. Camels can withstand losing 25% of their body weight to sweating (most mammals can withstand only about 12–14% dehydration before cardiac failure results from circulatory disturbance). A feature of their nostrils is large amounts of water vapor in their exhalations is trapped and returned to their body fluids, thereby reducing the amount of water lost through respiration. The kidneys and intestines of a camel are very efficient at retaining water.
Q12. Which of the following is effective against tuberculosis ?
Ans: (d) Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and it was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. It is derived from the actinobacterium Streptomyces griseus. Streptomycin is a bactericidal antibiotic. Streptomycin cannot be given orally, but must be administered by regular intramuscular injections.
Q13. Which of these components of the blood is responsible for clotting ?
Ans: (d) Coagulation is the process by which blood forms clots. It is an important part of hemostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, wherein a damaged blood vessel wall is covered by a platelet and fibrin-containing clot to stop bleeding and begin repair of the damaged vessel. Disorders of coagulation can lead to an increased risk of bleeding (hemorrhage) or obstructive clotting (thrombosis). Coagulation begins almost instantly after an injury to the blood vessel has damaged the endothelium lining the vessel. Exposure of the blood to proteins such as tissue factor initiates changes to blood platelets and the plasma protein fibrinogen, a clotting factor. Platelets immediately form a plug at the site of injury; this is called primary hemostasis. Secondary hemostasis occurs simultaneously: Proteins in the blood plasma, called coagulation factors or clotting factors, respond in a complex cascade to form fibrin strands, which strengthen the platelet plug
Q14. Founder of Homeopathy is
(a) Samuel Hahnemann
Ans: (a) Homeopathy is a system of alternative medicine originated in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of similia similibus curentur (“like cures like”), according to which a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people will cure that disease in sick people. Homeopathy is a vitalist philosophy that interprets diseases and sickness as caused by disturbances in an immaterial vital force or life force. Disturbances are believed to manifest themselves first in mental symptoms, and eventually progress to physical disease if untreated. Homeopathy rejects germ theory, viewing the presence of pathogens as a symptom, rather than cause, of disease. Hahnemann observed from his experiments with cinchona bark, used as a treatment for malaria, that the effects he experienced from ingesting the bark were similar to the symptoms of malaria. He therefore decided cure proceeds through similarity, and treatments must be able to produce symptoms in healthy individuals similar to those of the disease being treated.
Q15. Development of an egg without fertilization is called
Ans: (b) Parthenogenesis is a form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization. In plants, parthenogenesis means development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell, and is a component process of apomixis. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in many plants, some invertebrate animal species (including nematodes, water fleas, some scorpions, aphids, some bees, some Phasmida, and parasitic wasps) and a few vertebrates (such as some fish, amphibians, reptiles, and very rarely birds). This type of reproduction has been induced artificially in a few species including fish and amphibians.
Q16. Match List I with List II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
List-I : Symptom
A. Weak sight
C. Skin problem
D. Breaking of bones List-II : Cause
1. Deficiency of Iron
2. Deficiency of Vitamin C
3. Deficiency of Vitamin A
4. Deficiency of Calcium A B C D
(a) 2 4 1 3
(b) 3 2 1 4
(c) 3 1 2 4
(d) 2 3 4 1
Ans: (c) The body needs access to iron to produce red blood cells. A lack of iron can lead to anaemia. Vitamin A has an essential role in vision (especially night vision), normal bone growth, reproduction and the health of skin and mucous membranes. It also acts as an antioxidant, protecting the body from harmful free radicals – this may help to reduce the risk of certain forms of cancer. Vitamin C is needed for normal growth and development, growth and repair of tissues within the body, formation of collagen, cartilage, bones and teeth, and wound healing. A deficiency can result in scurvy. This causes muscle weakness, joint pain and problems with wound healing. It can also lead to loose teeth, bleeding and swollen gums, easily bruised skin and fatigue, and sometimes depression. Having too little calcium in the diet increases risk of a hormone condition that can cause bone fractures and kidney stones. Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) affects around one in 800 people during their lifetime and is most common in post-menopausal women.
Q17. In the process of dialysis, used on patients with affected kidneys, the phenomenon involved is
(a) Diffusion (b) Absorption
(c) Osmosis (d) Electrophoresis
Ans: (c) Dialysis is the artificial process of getting rid of waste (diffusion) and unwanted water (ultrafiltration) from the blood. This process is naturally done by our kidneys. It is the artificial replacement for lost kidney function (renal replacement therapy). The elimination of unwanted water (ultrafiltration) occurs through osmosis – as the dialysis solution has a high concentration of glucose, it results in osmotic pressure which causes the fluid to move from the blood into the dialysate. Consequently, a larger quantity of fluid is drained than introduced.
Q18. What is the normal blood sugar level of a human being?
(a) Close to 10 mg/ml
(b) 120 – 150 mg/dl
(c) 80 – 90 mg/dl
(d) 150 – 200 mg/dl
Ans: (b) The blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or animal. The body naturally tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis. The mean normal blood glucose level in humans is about 4 mM (4 mmol/L or 72 mg/dL, i.e. milligrams/deciliter); however, this level fluctuates throughout the day. Glucose levels are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day (termed “the fasting level”), and rise after meals for an hour or two by a few millimolar. Normal Human Glucose Blood Test results should be 70 – 130 (mg/ dL) before meals, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals (as measured by a blood glucose monitor). So we find that before meals, the highest end is 130 and after meals it is 180. So 120-150 mg/dl can be taken to be the range.
Q19. Literal meaning of the term “Homo Sapiens” is
(a) Man – The Wise
(b) Man – The Supreme
(c) Man – The Omnivore
(d) Man – The Fool
Ans: (a) Humans are primates of the family Hominidae, and the only extant species of the genus Homo. They originated in Africa, where they reached anatomical modernity about 200,000 years ago. The species binomial Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae, and he himself is the lectotype specimen. The generic name Homo is a learned 18th century derivation from Latin homô “man”, ultimately “earthly being” (Old Latin hemô, a cognate to Old English guma “man”, meaning ‘earth’ or ‘ground’). The species-name sapiens means “wise” or “sapient”.
Q20. Bleeding of gums and loosening of teeth is caused due to deficiency of
(a) Vitamin A (b) Vitamin B
(c) Vitamin C (d) Vitamin D
Ans: (c) Scurvy s a disease caused by the deficiency of vitamin C or ascorbic acid. The symptoms are bleeding gums, loosening of teeth, swollen and painful joints, bleeding in tissues and general fatigue (tiredness). Vitamin C is destroyed on heating.
Q21. During photosynthesis in plants, the gas evolved is
(a) Carbon dioxide
Ans: (c) Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert the light energy captured from the sun into chemical energy that can be used to fuel the organism’s activities. Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, and many species of bacteria, but not in archaea. Photosynthesis is vital for all aerobic life on Earth. In addition to maintaining normal levels of oxygen in the atmosphere, photosynthesis is the source of energy for nearly all life on earth, either directly, through primary production, or indirectly, as the ultimate source of the energy in their food. In oxygenic photosynthesis water is the electron donor and, since its hydrolysis releases oxygen, the equation for this process is: 2n CO2 + 4n H2O + photons 2(CH2O)n + 2n O2 + 2n H2O (carbon dioxide + water + light energy carbohydrate + oxygen + water)
Q22. Which one of the following is true regarding plant cells and animal cells ?
(a) Plant cells contain chloroplast while animal cells do not.
(b) Plant cells are small while animal cells are large in size
(c) Plant cells contain nucleus while animal cells do not
(d) Plant cells and animal cells are similar in all respects
Ans: (a) Plant cells have several structures not found in other eukaryotes. In particular, organelles called chloroplasts allow plants to capture the energy of the Sun in energy-rich molecules; cell walls allow plants to have rigid structures as varied as wood trunks and supple leaves; and vacuoles allow plant cells to change size.
Q23. The blood cholesterol level in 100 ml of blood in a normal person varies between—
(a) 150 and 200 mg
(b) 120 and 200 mg
(c) 100 and 180 mg
(d) 80 and 160 mg
Ans: (a) Cholesterol is defined as a waxy alcohol, fat-like substance that occurs naturally in all areas of the human body. Cholesterol is measured in milligrams per 100 millimetres of blood. The normal level of cholesterol varies between 150-200 mg per 100 ml. Any increase in cholesterol level leads to hypercholesterolemia or high cholesterol. Normal cholesterol is 180 mg/dl or 180 mg/100ml. < 200 mg/dL is considered to be normal blood cholesterol; 200-239 mg/dL borderline-high; and > 240 mg/dL high cholesterol.
Q24. Silk is obtained from—
(a) Mulberry tree
(b) Saliva of the silk worm
(c) Larvae of silk worm
(d) Cocoon of silk worm
Ans: (*) Silk is a natural protein fibre, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fibre of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons. The best-known type of silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity (sericulture). Many silks are mainly produced by the larvae of insects undergoing complete metamorphosis, but some adult insects such as webspinners produce silk, and some insects such as raspy crickets produce silk throughout their lives. Among the options given in the question, multiple options are correct.
Q25. The body temperature is regulated by—
(a) Pituitory gland
(c) Pineal gland
(d) Thyroid gland
Ans: (b) Hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). The hypothalamus is responsible for certain metabolic processes and other activities of the autonomic nervous system. It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones, often called hypothalamic-releasing hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian cycles.
Q1. Which of the following structures present in mammalian skin directly helps in keeping the body warm ?