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Part 078 – Biology Previous Year Questions

Q1. The metal present in insulin is
(a) Copper (b) Iron
(c) Zinc (d) Magnesium
Ans: (c) Insulin storage vesicles in humans and many other species contain high concentrations of Zn2+ and Ca2+ ions. Zinc plays an important role in insulin hexamerisation, which is closely related to some of the processes in insulin biosynthesis and storage.

Q2. Roundworm is a human parasite found in the

(a) Small intestine
(b) Liver (c) Stomach
(d) Large intestine
Ans: (d) Roundworms, or nematodes, are a group of invertebrates (animals having no backbone) with long, round bodies. Most parasitic roundworm eggs or larvae (immature form) are found in the soil and enter the human body when a person picks them up on the hands and then transfers them to the mouth. The eggs or larvae also can enter the human body directly through the skin. With the exception of the parasitic roundworm that causes trichinosis, mature adult roundworms eventually end up or live in human large intestines and cause infection and disease.

Q3. Which of the following is a rich source of Vitamin B-12?

(a) Cashew nut
(b) Milk (c) Apple
(d) Watermelon
Ans: (b) Vitamin B12 also called cobalamin, is a watersoluble vitamin with a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood. Vitamin B12 is found in foods that come from animals, including fish and shellfish, meat (especially liver), poultry, eggs, milk, and milk products. While lacto-ovo vegetarians usually get enough B12 through consuming dairy products, vegans will lack B12 unless they consume B12-containing dietary supplements or B12-fortified foods.

Q4. What is the number of chromosomes in a normal human body cell ?

(a) 43 (b) 44
(c) 45 (d) 46
Ans: (d) A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences. Chromosomes also contain DNA-bound proteins, which serve to package the DNA and control its functions. Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes (22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes), giving a total of 46 per cell.

Q5. Xerophthalmia is a deficiency disease caused by lack of

(a) Vitamin A (b) Vitamin B
(c) Vitamin C (d) Vitamin D
Ans: (a) Xerophthalmia is a medical condition in which the eye fails to produce tears. It may be caused by a deficiency in vitamin A and is sometimes used to describe that lack, although there may be other causes. Xerophthalmia caused by a severe vitamin A deficiency is described by pathologic dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea. The conjunctiva becomes dry, thick and wrinkled. If untreated, it can lead to corneal ulceration and ultimately to blindness as a result of corneal damage.

Q6. Out of the following glands which is referred to as the master gland?

(a) Thyroid (b) Adrenal gland
(c) Pituitary (d) Pancreas
Ans: (c) The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland located at the base of the skull between the optic nerves. The pituitary gland secretes hormones. Hormones are chemicals that travel through our blood stream. The pituitary is sometimes referred to as the “master gland” as it controls hormone functions such as our temperature, thyroid activity, growth during childhood, urine production, testosterone production in males and ovulation and estrogen production in females. In effect the gland functions as our thermostat that controls all other glands that are responsible for hormone secretion.

Q7. What is an antibiotic ?

(a) A chemical compound produced by a living organism that inhibits the growth of other organisms
(b) A compound synthesised by a living organism that inhibits the growth of microbes
(c) A synthetic compound inhibiting the growth of other organisms
(d) A synthetic compound inhibiting the growth of bacteria
Ans: (d) Antibiotics, also known as antimicrobial drugs, are drugs that fight infections caused by bacteria. Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic, penicillin, in 1927. The term “antibiotic” originally referred to a natural compound produced by a fungus or another microorganism that kills bacteria which cause disease in humans or animals. Some antibiotics may be synthetic compounds (not produced by microorganisms) that can also kill or inhibit the growth of microbes.

Q8. Carbohydrate is stored in the body as

(a) glucose (b) starch
(c) glycogen (d) sucrose
Ans: (c) Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide that serves as a form of energy storage in animals and fungi. In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles, and functions as the secondary long-term energy storage (with the primary energy stores being fats held in adipose tissue). Glycogen is the analogue of starch, a glucose polymer in plants, and is sometimes referred to as animal starch, having a similar structure to amylopectin but more extensively branched and compact than starch. Polysaccharide represents the main storage form of glucose in the body.

Q9. Which was the first enzyme isolated in pure crystalline form ?

(a) Amylase (b) Catalase
(c) Lipase (d) Clrease
Ans: (*) The first enzyme molecule to be isolated in pure crystalline form was urease, prepared from the jack bean in 1926 by American biochemist J. B. Sumner, who suggested, contrary to prevailing opinion, that the molecule was a protein. In the period from 1930 to 1936, pepsin, chymotrypsin, and trypsin were successfully crystallized; it was confirmed that the crystals were protein, and the protein nature of enzymes was thereby firmly established. Urease is found in bacteria, yeast, and several higher plants.

Q10. Process of digestion is helped by

(a) Enzyme (b) Hormone
(c) Mineral (d) Vitamin
Ans: (a) Enzymes are large biological molecules responsible for the thousands of chemical inter-conversions that sustain life. They are highly selective catalysts, greatly accelerating both the rate and specificity of metabolic reactions, from the digestion of food to the synthesis of DNA. Most enzymes are proteins, although some catalytic RNA molecules have been identified. Enzymes such as amylases and proteases break down large molecules (starch or proteins, respectively) into smaller ones, so they can be absorbed by the intestines. Starch molecules, for example, are too large to be absorbed from the intestine, but enzymes hydrolyze the starch chains into smaller molecules such as maltose and eventually glucose, which can then be absorbed. Different enzymes digest different food substances.

Q11. Which is the organ that excretes water, fat and various catabolic wastes ?

(a) Kidney (b) Skin
(c) Spleen (d) Salivary glands
Ans: (a) The kidneys are organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in most animals, including vertebrates and some invertebrates. They are essential in the urinary system and also serve homeostatic functions such as the regulation of electrolytes, maintenance of acid–base balance, and regulation of blood pressure (via maintaining salt and water balance). They serve the body as a natural filter of the blood, and remove wastes which are diverted to the urinary bladder. In producing urine, the kidneys excrete wastes such as urea and ammonium, and they are also responsible for the reabsorption of water, glucose, and amino acids.

Q12. EEG is used to detect the functioning of

(a) Heart (b) Lung
(c) Kidney (d) Brain
Ans: (a) The electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a diagnostic tool that measures and records the electrical activity of the heart in exquisite detail. The heart is a two stage electrical pump and the heart’s electrical activity can be measured by electrodes placed on the skin. The electrocardiogram can measure the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat, as well as provide indirect evidence of blood flow to the heart muscle.

Q13. Locked jaw disorder is the other name of the disease

(a) Tetanus
(b) Muscular disorder
(c) Typhoid
(d) Filariasis
Ans: (a) Locked jaw syndrome is a disorder that is related to our jaw joint. It causes severe pain and sometimes cannot open the mouth. Tetanus, commonly called locked jaw, is a bacterial disease that affects the nervous system. Persons who have not been vaccinated adequately against tetanus are the most likely to get the disease. Tetanus occurs more often in older people who have not received adequate booster doses of vaccine and in agricultural workers where contact with animal manure is more likely. A common first sign of tetanus is muscular stiffness in the jaw (lockjaw), followed by stiffness of the neck, difficulty in swallowing, rigidity of abdominal muscles, and spasms.

Q14. Excretory products of mammalian embryo are eliminated out by

(a) Placenta (b) Amniotic fluid
(c) Allantois (d) Ureter
Ans: (a) The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother’s blood supply. “True” placentas are a defining characteristic of eutherian or “placental” mammals, but are also found in some snakes and lizards with varying levels of development up to mammalian levels.

Q15. In male sharks, Claspers are found attached to

(a) Anal fin (b) Pectoral fin
(c) Pelvic fin (d) Ventral fin
Ans: (c) Claspers are organs that found on male elasmobranchs. Each male has two claspers. They are located along the inner side of the shark or ray’s pelvic fin and are used in reproduction. During mating, the male deposits his sperm into the female’s cloaca (the opening that serves as the entrance to the uterus, intestine and urinary tract) via grooves that lie in the upper side of the claspers. Since the sperm is transferred into the female, these animals mate via internal fertilization, which is different from some other fish, who release their sperm and eggs into the water rather than mating.

Q16. What part of the eye gets inflamed and becomes pink when dust gets into ?

(a) Cornea (b) Choroid
(c) Conjunctiva (d) Sclerotic
Ans: (c) Conjunctivitis is inflammation of the conjunctiva or thin membrane covering the white of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelid. The inflamed conjunctiva will usually make the eye appear red or pink because the tiny blood vessels that are normally within the conjunctiva are now irritated and enlarged. The white of the eye (sclera) is covered by a thin, filmy membrane called the conjunctiva which produces mucus to coat and lubricate the surface of the eye. It normally has fine blood vessels within it, which can be seen on close inspection. When the conjunctiva becomes irritated or inflamed, the blood vessels which supply it enlarge and become much more prominent, and the eye turns red.

Q17. Clove, the commonly used spice, is obtained from the

(a) root (b) stem
(c) flower bud (d) fruit
Ans: (c) Cloves are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum. Cloves are native to the Maluku islands in Indonesia and used as a spice in cuisines all over the world. The English name derives from Latin clavus ‘nail’ (also the origin of French clou and Spanish clavo, ‘nail’) as the buds vaguely resemble small irregular nails in shape.

Q18. Milk is not considered a balanced diet now-a-days because of the absence of :

(a) Magnesium and Vitamin D
(b) Iron and Vitamin C
(c) Calcium and Vitamin C
(d) Iron and Vitamin A
Ans: (b) A balanced diet means getting the right types and amounts of foods and drinks to supply nutrition and energy for maintaining body cells, tissues, and organs, and for supporting normal growth and development. Milk is not considered a balanced diet as it lacks iron and some vitamins like Vitamin C. Calcium, phosphate, magnesium, sodium, potassium, citrate, and chlorine are all included as minerals and they typically occur at concentration of 5–40 mM.

Q19. Sea sickness is due to the effect of the motion of ship, on

(a) internal ear (b) heart
(c) stomach (d) eyes
Ans: (c) Motion sickness or kinetosis, also known as travel sickness, is a condition in which a disagreement exists between visually perceived movement and the vestibular system’s sense of movement. Depending on the cause it can also be referred to as seasickness, car sickness, simulation sickness or airsickness. If the motion causing nausea is not resolved, the sufferer will usually vomit. Ginger is reported to calm the pyloric valve located at the base of the stomach. This relaxation of the valve allows the stomach to operate normally whereby the contents will enter the small intestine instead of being retained within the stomach. It is this undesirable effect of retention in the stomach that eventually results in vomiting.

Q20. The main function of white blood cells in the body is to

(a) carry oxygen
(b) help in clot formation
(c) produce more red cells
(d) protect body against diseases
Ans: (d) White blood cells, or leukocytes are cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. They are produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. They live for about three to four days in the average human body. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system.

Q21. ‘ELISA’ test is employed to diagnose

(a) Polio virus
(b) AIDS antibodies
(c) Tuberculosis bacterium
(d) Cancer
Ans: (b) ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test is usually the first one used to detect infection with HIV. If antibodies to HIV are present (positive), the test is usually repeated to confirm the diagnosis. If ELISA is negative, other tests are not usually needed. This test has a low chance of having a false result after the first few weeks that a person is infected.

Q22. The largest cell in the human body is :

(a) Nerve cell (b) Muscle cell
(c) Liver cell (d) Kidney cell
Ans: (a) The ovum is the largest cell in the human body, typically visible to the naked eye without the aid of a microscope or other magnification device. The smallest is the male sperm cell, it is one-tenth of the diameter of a human hair. Now, it is true that neurons can have very long extensions or axons, the axon isn’t a cell, but a peripheral extension. The actual neuron is tiny compared to the egg cell.

Q23. Which of the following is known an body builder ?

(a) Protein
(b) Carbohydrates
(c) Vitamins
(d) Fats
Ans: (a) Proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acids. are essential nutrients for the human body. They are one of the building blocks of body tissue, and can also serve as a fuel source. As fuel, proteins contain 4 kcal per gram, just like carbohydrates and unlike lipids, which contain 9 kcal per gram.

Q24. Which of the following tests helps in diagnosis of cancer ?

(a) Urine test (b) Blood test
(c) Biopsy (d) X-Ray
Ans: (c) A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon or an interventional radiologist involving sampling of cells or tissues for examination. It is the medical removal of tissue from a living subject to determine the presence or extent of a disease. When cancer is suspected, a variety of biopsy techniques can be applied. An excisional biopsy is an attempt to remove an entire lesion. When the specimen is evaluated, in addition to diagnosis, the amount of uninvolved tissue around the lesion, the surgical margin of the specimen is examined to see if the disease has spread beyond the area biopsied. “Clear margins” or “negative margins” means that no disease was found at the edges of the biopsy specimen. “Positive margins” means that disease was found, and a wider excision may be needed, depending on the diagnosis.

Q25. During dehydration what is the substance that is usually lost by the body ?

(a) Sugar
(b) Sodium chloride
(c) Calcium phosphate
(d) Potassium chloride
Ans: (b) Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the formula NaCl, representing equal proportions of sodium and chloride. It is used as a carrier for other ingredients, dehydrating agent, enzyme inhibitor and tenderizer.

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