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Part 077 – Biology Previous Year Questions

Q1. Which of the following foodcrops has the maximum content of proteins ?
(a) Cassava (b) Soyabean
(c) Wheat (d) Maize
Ans: (b) Soybean is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many prepackaged meals. Soybeans produce significantly more protein per acre than most other uses of land. The beans contain significant amounts of phytic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and isoflavones. Together, soybean oil and protein content account for about 60% of dry soybeans by weight (protein at 40% and oil at 20%). The remainder consists of 35% carbohydrate and about 5% ash.

Q2. Where did the new form of pneumonia “SARS” start ?

(a) Canada (b) Singapore
(c) China (d) Thailand
Ans: (c) Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious form of pneumonia. It is caused by a virus that was first identified in 2003. Infection with the SARS virus causes acute respiratory distress (severe breathing difficulty) and sometimes death. SARS was first seen in China. World Health Organization (WHO) physician Dr. Carlo Urbani identified SARS as a new disease in 2003. He diagnosed it in a 48-year-old businessman who had traveled from the Guangdong province of China, through Hong Kong, to Hanoi, Vietnam. The businessman and the doctor who first diagnosed SARS both died from the illness. There are normally thirty-three (33) vertebrae in humans, including the five that are fused to form the sacrum (the others are separated by intervertebral discs) and the four coccygeal bones that form the tailbone. The upper three regions comprise the remaining 24, and are grouped under the names cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae) and lumbar (5 vertebrae), according to the regions they occupy.

Q3. The total number of vertebrae in a human being is

(a) 26 (b) 30
(c) 29 (d) 33
Ans: (d) The vertebral column, also known as backbone or spine, is a bony structure found in Vertebrates. It is formed from the vertebrae.

Q4. On the average, what percentage of human body has the element of oxygen ?

(a) 65 (b) 25
(c) 10 (d) 5
Ans: (a) This element is obviously the most important element in the human body. Oxygen atoms are present in water, which is the compound most common in the body, and other compounds that make up tissues. It is also found in the blood and lungs due to respiration. In the human body, the oxygen is absorbed by the blood stream in the lungs, being then transported to the cells where an elaborated change process takes place. Oxygen plays a vital role in the breathing processes and in the metabolism of the living organisms. Probably, the only living cells that do not need oxygen are some anaerobic bacteria that obtain energy from other metabolic processes.

Q5. BCG vaccination is to be given to a new-born child

(a) immediately after birth
(b) within 48 hours
(c) within seven days
(d) within six months
Ans: (b) Newborns are vaccinated within 48 hours of birth with 0.05 ml and 0.1 ml of freeze dried BCG vaccine procured from Guindy Madras manufactured using Copenhagen 1331 strain containing 0.69 million culturable particles/0.1 ml. BCG vaccine is a live bacterial vaccine given for protection against tuberclosis, mainly severe forms pfchilhoodtuberclosis. It is given along with the zero dose of oral polio vaccine. It is given to all children as part of EPI schedule as recommended by government of India.

Q6. The hybrid between horse and donkey is called

(a) Pony (b) Colt
(c) Mule (d) Zebra
Ans: (c) The Mule is a cross between a donkey stallion (called a jack) and a horse mare. Mules ears are usually somewhat smaller than a donkeys, longer but the same shape as the horse parents. The mule’s conformation will be a combination of traits from both parents. The head, hip and legs usually take after the jack. Mules do not have pronounced arches to the neck, even from breeds such as Arabians or Warm bloods. A slight arch or straight neck is preferable to a ewe, or upward curved neck.

Q7. Glaucoma is a disease of the

(a) Skin (b) Lungs
(c) Liver (d) Eyes
Ans: (d) Glaucoma is an eye disease in which the optic nerve is damaged in a characteristic pattern. This can permanently damage vision in the affected eye(s) and lead to blindness if left untreated. It is normally associated with increased fluid pressure in the eye (aqueous humour). The term “ocular hypertension” is used for people with consistently raised intraocular pressure (IOP) without any associated optic nerve damage. Conversely, the term ‘normal tension’ or ‘low tension’ glaucoma is used for those with optic nerve damage and associated visual field loss, but normal or low IOP.

Q8. The chemical used for destroying Fungi in water tanks is

(a) Copper sulphate
(b) Magnesium sulphate
(c) Zinc sulphate
(d) Nitric acid
Ans: (a) Copper sulfate is a chemical compound which is produced commercially by reacting various copper (II) compounds with sulfuric acid. This compound is used in a wide range of industries, from pyrotechnics to viticulture. It is also known as bluestone or blue vitriol. It is also used in agriculture as a treatment for crops and water systems, as it is a fungicide, herbicide, and pesticide. This compound is commonly sprayed on grapes in the form of a water solution to reduce the risk of fungal infestations. Copper sulfate is also used to treat leather, to make germicides, and in electroplating processes.

Q9. Human kidney disorder is caused by the pollution of–

(a) Cadmium (b) Iron
(c) Cobalt (d) Carbon
Ans: (a) Cadmium (Cd), a by-product of zinc production, is one of the most toxic elements to which man can be exposed at work or in the environment. Once absorbed, Cd is efficiently retained in the human body, in which it accumulates throughout life. Cd is primarily toxic to the kidney, especially to the proximal tubular cells, the main site of accumulation. Cadmium accumulates in the kidneys and may sometimes cause kidney failure when it is in excess.

Q10. Dehydration in human body is caused due to the deficiency of–

(a) Vitamin (b) Salt
(c) Hormone (d) Water
Ans: (d) dehydration is the condition where there is acute shortage of water in our body. This occurs when the amount of water leaving our body is greater than the amount consumed. There are three types of dehydration: hypotonic or hyponatremic (primarily a loss of electrolytes, sodium in particular), hypertonic or hypernatremic (primarily a loss of water), and isotonic or isonatremic (equal loss of water and electrolytes). In humans, the most commonly seen type of dehydration by far is isotonic (isonatraemic) dehydration which effectively equates with hypovolemia, but the distinction of isotonic from hypotonic or hypertonic dehydration may be important when treating people who become dehydrated.

Q11. Who among the following analysed DNA for the first time ?

(a) Arthur Cornberg
(b) Hargobind Khurana
(c) M. W. Nirenberg
(d) Watson and Krick
Ans: (d) James D Watson and Fracis Crick, the two scientists who discovered the structure of DNA in 1953. Watson and Crick took a crucial conceptual step, suggesting the molecule was made of two chains of nucleotides, each in a helix as Franklin had found, but one going up and the other going down. Crick had just learned of Chargaff’s findings about base pairs in the summer of 1952. He added that to the model, so that matching base pairs interlocked in the middle of the double helix to keep the distance between the chains constant. Watson and Crick showed that each strand of the DNA molecule was a template for the other. During cell division the two strands separate and on each strand a new “other half” is built, just like the one before. This way DNA can reproduce itself without changing its structure except for occasional errors, or mutations.

Q12. Which among the following bears smallest living cell ?

(a) Bacterium
(b) Mollusc plasma
(c) Virus
(d) Yeast
Ans: (*) The world’s smallest cells are Mycoplasmas, which cause a type of pneumonia in humans and the disease of coconut trees. The largest bacteria are Cyanobacteria (plankton, nitrogen-fixers, components of lichens, makers of stromatolites.

Q13. Yawning occurs–

(a) due to excess concentration of CO2 in blood
(b) due to excess concentration of CO2 in lungs
(c) due to excess concentration of O2 in lungs
(d) None of these
Ans: (a) yawning occurs when one’s blood contains increased amounts of carbon dioxide and therefore becomes in need of the influx of oxygen (or expulsion of carbon dioxide) that a yawn can provide. A yawn is a reflex of simultaneous inhalation of air and stretching of the eardrums, followed by exhalation of breath. Pandiculation is the act of yawning and stretching simultaneously.

Q14. Which among the following living being has respiratory organ but does not have brain ?

(a) crab
(b) starfish
(c) blood succor
(d) silverfish
Ans: (b) Starfish do not have many well-defined sensory inputs, they are sensitive to touch, light, temperature, orientation, and the status of water around them. The tube feet, spines, and pedicellariae found on starfish are sensitive to touch, while eyespots on the ends of the rays are light-sensitive. The tube feet, especially those at the tips of the rays, are also sensitive to chemicals and this sensitivity is used in locating odour sources such as food.

Q15. Which vitamin helps in blood coagulation?

(a) Vitamin-A (b) Vitamin-C
(c) Vitamin-K (d) Vitamin-E
Ans: (c) Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fatsoluble vitamins that are needed for the post translational modification of certain proteins required for blood coagulation and in metabolic pathways in bone and other tissue. They are 2-methyl-1,4- naphthoquinone (3-)derivatives. This group of vitamins includes two natural vitamers: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Vitamin K1, also known as phylloquinone, phytomenadione, or phytonadione, is synthesized by plants, and is found in highest amounts in green leafy vegetables because it is directly involved in photosynthesis. It may be thought of as the “plant form” of vitamin K. It is active in animals since animals can easily convert it to vitamin K2.

Q16. A substance that stimulates the production of antibodies when introduced into a living organism is known as—

(a) carcinogen (b) androgen
(c) antigen (d) oestrogen
Ans: (c) Antigens are the substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibody. Antigens include toxins, bacteria, foreign blood cells, and the cells of transplanted organs. Antigens can also react with formed antibodies. Antigen-antibody reactions serve as host defenses against microorganisms and other foreign bodies, or are used in laboratory tests for detecting the presence of either antigen or antibody. The antigenicity of a protein is determined by its sequence of amino acids as well as by its conformation. Antigens may be introduced into an animal by ingestion, inhalation, sometimes by contact with skin, or more regularly by injection into the bloodstream, skin, peritoneum, or other body part.

Q17. ‘Darwin finches’ refer to a group of :

(a) Fishes (b) Lizards
(c) Birds (d) Amphibians
Ans: (c) Darwin’s finches are a group of about 15 species of passerine birds. They often are classified as the subfamily Geospizinae or tribe Geospizini. They were first collected by Charles Darwin on the Galápagos Islands during the second voyage of the Beagle. All are found only on the Galápagos Islands. The birds vary in size from 10 to 20 cm and weigh between 8 and 38 grams. The smallest are the warbler-finches and the largest is the Vegetarian Finch. The most important differences between species are in the size and shape of their beaks, and the beaks are highly adapted to different food sources. The birds are all dull-coloured.

Q18. The tissue in man where no cell division occurs after birth is

(a) skeletal (b) nerves
(c) connective(d) germinal
Ans: (b) A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (the long, slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs. A nerve conveys information in the form of electrochemical impulses (known as nerve impulses or action potentials) carried by the individual neurons that make up the nerve. These impulses are extremely fast, with some myelinated neurons conducting at speeds up to 120 m/s.

Q19. The source of oxygen generated during photosynthesis is :

(a) water
(b) carbon dioxide
(c) chlorophyll
(d) mesophyll cells
Ans: (a) The source of oxygen produced during photosynthesis is the splitting of water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and water, releasing oxygen as a waste product. Although photosynthesis can happen in different ways in different species, some features are always the same. For example, the process always begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called photosynthetic reaction centers that contain chlorophylls. In plants, these proteins are held inside organelles called chloroplasts, while in bacteria they are embedded in the plasma membrane. Some of the light energy gathered by chlorophylls is stored in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The rest of the energy is used to remove electrons from a substance such as water. These electrons are then used in the reactions that turn carbon dioxide into organic compounds.

Q20. Which one of the following elements is associated with teeth disorder ?

(a) Chlorine (b) Fluorine
(c) Bromine (d) Iodine
Ans: (b) Fluorine is the element that is associated with teeth disorder because the presence of sodium fluoride in drinking water at the level of 2 ppm may cause mottled enamel in teeth, skeletal fluorosis, and may be associated with cancer and other diseases. However, topically applied fluoride (toothpaste, dental rinses) has been shown to help reduce dental caries.

Q21. Which one of the following is an abnormal constituent of urine ?

(a) Creatinine (b) Urea
(c) Uric acid (d)Ketone bodies
Ans: (d) Ketone bodies are three water-soluble compounds that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy in the liver. Two of the three are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain while the third is a waste product excreted from the body. When the rate of synthesis of ketone bodies exceeds the rate of utilization, their concentration in blood increases, this is known as ketonemia. This is followed by ketonuria- excretion of ketone bodies in urine.

Q22. Which one of the following cells produces antibodies ?

(a) Eosinophil (b) Monocyte
(c) Basophil (d) Lymphocytes
Ans: (d) Antibodies are secreted by a type of Lymphocytes (White Blood cell). Antibodies can occur in two physical forms, a soluble form that is secreted from the cell, and a membrane-bound form that is attached to the surface of a B cell and is referred to as the B cell receptor (BCR). An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large Y-shaped protein produced by lymphocytes that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique part of the foreign target, called an antigen.

Q23. The Vitamin which helps in clotting of blood is :

(a) A (b) D
(c) B (d) K
Ans: (d) Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fatsoluble vitamins that are needed for the post translational modification of certain proteins required for blood coagulation and in metabolic pathways in bone and other tissue. They are 2-methyl-1,4- naphthoquinone (c) derivatives. This group of vitamins includes two natural vitamers: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Vitamin K1, also known as phylloquinone, phytomenadione, or phytonadione, is synthesized by plants, and is found in highest amounts in green leafy vegetables because it is directly involved in photosynthesis. It may be thought of as the “plant form” of vitamin K. It is active in animals since animals can easily convert it to vitamin K2.

Q24. At very high altitude, the Red Blood Corpuscles in the human body will :

(a) increase in size
(b) decrease in size
(c) increase in number
(d) decrease in number
Ans: (a) Red Blood cells contain haemoglobin which is what the oxygen binds with to form oxyhaemoglobin which is then transported to the different cells around the body. Oxygen bonds with the haemoglobin when it is at high partial pressure and then is released when there is a lower partial pressure of oxygen. At high altitudes there is lower atmospheric pressure of oxygen. This means that the current number of red blood cells in the body cannot meet the cells demands for oxygen. Due to the lower partial pressure of oxygen a process called polycythemia occurs, which is an increase in the bodies red blood cell count. The body increases its red blood cell count because this means there is more haemoglobin available to bond with oxygen molecules meaning more oxygen can be transported to the cells in the body, therefore helping to meet the oxygen demands of the body even with less oxygen in the air.

Q25. A test tube baby means :

(a) a baby grown in a test tube.
(b) embryo fertilised in uterus and developed in test tube.
(c) embryo fertilised and developed in uterus.
(d) fertilisation in vitro and then transplantation in the uterus.
Ans: (d) In vitro fertilisation is a process by which an egg is fertilised by sperm outside the body: in vitro. IVF is a major treatment for infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. The process involves monitoring a woman’s ovulatory process, removing ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman’s ovaries and letting sperm fertilize them in a fluid medium in a laboratory. When a woman’s natural cycle is monitored to collect a naturally selected ovum (egg) for fertilisation, it is known as natural cycle IVF. The fertilised egg (zygote) is then transferred to the patient’s uterus with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy. The first successful birth of a “test tube baby”, Louise Brown, occurred in 1978.

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