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Part 075 – Biology Previous Year Questions

Q1. Which of the following is known as Vitamin B1?
(a) Retinol (b) Thiamin
(c) Riboflavin (d) Ascorbic Acid
Ans: (b) Thiamine also called vitamin B1, named as the “thio-vitamine” (“sulfur-containing vitamin”) is a watersoluble vitamin of the B complex. First named aneurin for the detrimental neurological effects if not present in the diet, it was eventually assigned the generic descriptor name vitamin B1. Its phosphate derivatives are involved in many cellular processes. The bestcharacterized form is thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), a coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids. Thiamine is used in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylchol ine and gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA).

Q2. Which of the following is true ?

(a) DNA is the genetic material in most of the organism
(b) RNA is the genetic material in most viruses and bacteria
(c) DNA is the genetic material in all the viruses
(d) RNA is the genetic material in all the viruses
Ans: (a) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules are informational molecules encoding the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA is one of the three major macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life. Genetic information is encoded as a sequence of nucleotides (guanine, adenine, thymine, and cytosine) recorded using the letters G, A, T, and C. DNA is well-suited for biological information storage, since the DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage and the doublestranded structure provides the molecule with a builtin duplicate of the encoded information.

Q3. Pathogenic bacteria secrete

(a) Antigens (b) Antibodies
(c) Hormones (d) Interferons
Ans: (a) Pathogenic bacteria secrete various virulence factors, including toxins, lipases and proteases that allow them to infect, breakdown and colonize host tissue. Among various modes of action that the pathogenic bacteria use to damage the host, pore formation (by pore forming toxins (PFTs)) and lipid hydrolysis (by phospholipases) modes are common in damaging the eukaryotic cell membrane. PFTs in their monomeric form are extracellular diffusible and able to form hydrophilic pores in cell membrane while phospholipases cleaves and hydrolyzes the ester bonds of most phospholipids in cell membrane. Both modes of action cause uncontrolled permeation of ions and molecules across cell membrane, leading to cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. The attenuated pathogenic bacteria are engineered to secrete the antigen into the periplasmic space of the bacteria or into the environment surrounding the bacteria.

Q4. Where is the Botanical Survey of India headquartered ?

(a) Lucknow (b) Darjeeling
(c) Kolkata (d) Oottaccamund
Ans: (c) The Botanical Survey of India (BSI) is the apex research organization under the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Govt. of India for carrying out taxonomic and floristic studies on wild plant resources of the country. It was established on 13th February, 1890 with the basic objective to explore the plant resources of the country and to identify the plants species with economic virtues. The Botanical Survey of India has the nine regional circles situated at different regions of the country.

Q5. Who amongst the following was awarded Nobel Prize for path breaking contributions to develop treatment against Parkinson’s disease ?

(a) Arvid Carlsson
(b) Walter Kohn
(c) Robert B. Laughlin
(d) Ferid Murad
Ans: (a) In the 1950s, Arvid Carlsson demonstrated that dopamine was a neurotransmitter in the brain and not just a precursor fornorepinephrine, as had been previously believed. He developed a method for measuring the amount of dopamine in brain tissues and found that dopamine levels in the basal ganglia, a brain area important for movement, were particularly high. He then showed that giving animals the drug reserpine caused a decrease in dopamine levels and a loss of movement control. These effects were similar to the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Arvid Carlsson subsequently won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2000.

Q6. Which of the following food items is rich in iron ?

(a) Rice (b) Apple
(c) Pulses (d) Orange
Ans: (b) Apples are a great, healthy food, but even with the skin they do not contain a large amount of iron. Apples contain 11 milligrams of iron per 100 grams. A gram is a measure of weight. Fruit as a food group is not a great iron source but it does play an important role in our ability to absorb iron. Fruit is often loaded with vitamin C, a vitamin that will actually help to utilize the iron in vegetarian foods; apples are a modest source of vitamin C.

Q7. Who discovered Cholera germs?

(a) Robert Koch
(b) Rene Laennec
(c) Dreser
(d) Hansen
Ans: (a) In 1883, Koch worked with a French research team in Alexandria, Egypt, studying cholera. Koch identified the vibrio bacterium that caused cholera.

Q8. Sweetex used by the diabetic patients has energy content of :

(a) Five calories
(b) Ten calories
(c) Hundred calories
(d) Zero calories
Ans: (d) Low-calorie sweeteners are sugar substitutes that have zero calories and do not raise blood glucose levels through eating them, which makes them a preferable choice for diabetic people over sugar.

Q9. The element which is the most abundant in the human body is:

(a) Oxygen (b) Carbon
(c) Iron (d) Nitrogen
Ans: (a) The generation and maintenance of all our life processes are supported by four basic components: carbohydrates, water, proteins and energy. Most scientists agree that oxygen is actually the over-riding key ingredient in all four of these life components. 80% of all our metabolic energy production is created by oxygen The human body is largely composed of oxygen. All metabolic processes in the body are regulated by oxygen.

Q10. Oxygen liberated during photosynthesis is coming from :

(a) Carbon dioxide
(b) Water
(c) Bresk down of chlorophy II
(d) Atmosphere
Ans: (b) Oxygen liberated during photosynthesis is coming m6to create a stable, unstirred layer to support surface neutralization of acid and act as a protective physical barrier against luminal pepsin.

Q11. Which of the following is NOT included in the Technology Mission?

(a) Oil seeds (b) Pulses
(c) Maize (d) Vegetables
Ans: (d) The Technology Mission on Oilseeds was launched by the Central Government in 1986 to increase the production of oilseeds to reduce import and achieve self-sufficiency in edible oils. Subsequently, pulses, oil palm and maize were also brought within the purview of the Mission in 1990-91, 1992 and 1995- 96 respectively. In addition, the National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development (NOVOD) Board also supplement the efforts of TMOP by opening of newer areas for non-traditional oilseeds. IT is promoting Tree Borne Oilseeds (TBO)s.

Q12. Who discovered sex hormones?

(a) Dreser
(b) Eugen Steinach
(c) Edward Calvin
(d) Samuel Cohen
Ans: (b) Eugen Steinach discovered the sex hormones in 1921. He conducted experiments in the transplantation of a male guinea pig’s testes into a female and the castration of the male. The testes secretion, now known as testosterone, resulted in the female guinea pig developing male sexual behavior such as mounting the partner. This led Steinach to theorize that the gland’s secretions were responsible for sexuality.

Q13. Fermentation is a process of decomposition of an organic compound by :

(a) catalysts (b) enzymes
(c) carbanions (d) free radicals
Ans: (b) Fermentation in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination there of, under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation in simple terms is the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol. Both alcoholic fermentation and glycolysis are anaerobic fermentation processes that begin with the sugar glucose. Glycolysis requires 11 enzymes which degrade glucose to lactic acid. Alcoholic fermentation follows the same enzymatic pathway for the first 10 steps. The last enzyme of glycolysis, lactate dehydrogenase, is replaced by two enzymes in alcoholic fermentation. These two enzymes, pyruvate decarboxylase and alcoholic dehydrogenase, convert pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and ethanol in alcoholic fermentation.

Q14. What are the basic units from which human spare parts can be created?

(a) Nerve cells (b) Stem cells
(c) Heart cells (d) Kidney cells
Ans: (b) Stem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide (through mitosis) and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self-renew to produce more stem cells. Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves through cell culture.

Q15. Adherent mucoid alkaline substance covering the inner lining of stomach is to :

(a) digest starch
(b) act against bacteria
(c) prevent the action of pepsin of mucosa
(d) prevent viral infection
Ans: (c) The continuous adherent mucus layer is also a barrier to luminal pepsin, thereby protecting the underlying mucosa from proteolytic digestion. The primary function of the adherent mucus gel layer is a structural one to create a stable, unstirred layer to support surface neutralization of acid and act as a protective physical barrier against luminal pepsin.

Q16. The area of the human tongue sensitive to bitterness is restricted to :

(a) tip (b) edges
(c) middle part (d)posterior part
Ans: (d) The bitterness can be tasted at the posterior part of the tongue. Bitter taste is one of four taste receptors of the tongue. It used to be thought that they were located toward the back of the tongue.

Q17. Amniocentesis is a method for :

(a) determination of foetal health conditions
(b) determination of the amino acids sequence
(c) inducing abortion
(d) artificial insemination
Ans: (a) Amniocentesis (also referred to as amniotic fluid test or AFT) is a medical procedure used in prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid, which contains fetal tissues, is sampled from the amnion or amniotic sac surrounding a developing fetus, and the fetal DNA is examined for genetic abnormalities.

Q18. During photosynthesis the liberated gas is :

(a) Carbon dioxide
(b) Oxygen
(c) Nitrogen (d) Hydrogen
Ans: (b) Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert the light energy captured from the sun into chemical energy that can be used to fuel the organism’s activities. photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide and water, releasing oxygen as a waste product. Photosynthesis is vital for all aerobic life on Earth.

Q19. Which of the following blood cells is compulsory for blood coagulation ?

(a) Platelets
(b) Red Blood Corpuscles
(c) White Blood Corpuscles
(d) Lymphocites
Ans: (a) Coagulation is the process by which blood forms clots. It is an important part of homeostasis, the cessation of blood loss from a damaged vessel, wherein a damaged blood vessel wall is covered by a platelet and fibrin-containing clot to stop bleeding and begin repair of the damaged vessel. Platelets immediately form a plug at the site of injury, this is called primary homeostasis.

Q20. Which was the first antibiotic ?

(a) Terramycin (b) Neomycin
(c) Penicilin (d) Streptomycin
Ans: (c) Penicillin is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. They include penicillin G, procaine penicillin, benzathine penicillin, and penicillin V. Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases, such assyphilis, and infections caused by staphylococci and streptococci. Penicillins are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria are now resistant. All penicillins are â-lactam antibiotics and are used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms.

Q21. Virus contains

(a) Protein and lipid
(b) Nucleic acid and protein
(c) Lipid and carbohydrate
(d) Carbohydrate and nucleic acid
Ans: (a) Virus particles (known as virions) consist of two or three parts: the genetic material made from either DNA or RNA, long molecules that carry genetic information, a protein coat that protects these genes, and in some cases an envelope of lipids that surrounds the protein coat when they are outside a cell. The shapes of viruses range from simple helical and icosahedral forms to more complex structures.

Q22. By which the sex of a child is determined before birth ?

(a) Sperms of father
(b) Foetus of mother
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Nutrition of mother
Ans: (b) The gender of the baby can be ascertained accurately after more or less than seven weeks of pregnancy. During this period of pregnancy, the fetal DNA is sufficiently found in the mother’s blood. Thus, identifying the fetus gender through prenatal gender testing is easier.

Q23. What may be the cause of malfunctioning of thyriod gland ?

(a) Iodine deficiency
(b) Iron deficiency
(c) Calcium deficiency
(d) Vitamin C
Ans: (a) The main reason for thyroid malfunctioning is the deficiency of Iodine. Since iodine is a trace mineral found in food that combines with Tyrosine to make both T3 and T4, both of the hormones produced in the thyroid, a lack of it can lead to under production of thyroid hormones.

Q24. The element which is the most abundant in the human body is—

(a) oxygen (b) carbon
(c) iron (d) nitrogen
Ans: (a) The generation and maintenance of all our life processes are supported by four basic components: carbohydrates, water, proteins and energy. Most scientists agree that oxygen is actually the over-riding key ingredient in all four of these life components. 80% of all our metabolic energy production is created by oxygen The human body is largely composed of oxygen. All metabolic processes in the body are regulated by oxygen.

Q25. Night blindness results from the deficiency of —

(a) Glucose (b) Vitamin-E
(c) Vitamin-B2 (d) Vitamin-A
Ans: (d) Cause of night blindness is a deficiency of retinol, or vitamin A, found in fish oils, liver and dairy products. Nyctalopia also called “Night Blindness” is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in relatively low light. It is a symptom of several eye diseases.

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