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Part 073 – Biology Previous Year Questions

Q1. Pencillin is extracted from —
(a) yeast (b) algae
(c) fungus (d) lichen
Ans: (c) Penicillin is produced from the genus of fungi “penicillia”. All penicillin are â-lactam antibiotics and are used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms

Q2. Which is the effect of antigen in an ill person ?

(a) It increases the production of W.B.C.
(b) It increases the production of antibiotics
(c) It increases the production of anti-serum against bacteria
(d) It prevents the growth of bacteria
Ans: (b) Vaccines containing antigens are introduced into the body, stimulating the immune system response by instructing B cells, with assistance from T cells, to produce antibodies. Antibodies are produced to fight the weakened or dead viruses in the vaccine. The immune system prepares to destroy real and stronger viruses in the future. When new antigens enter the body, white blood cells called macrophages engulf them; process the information contained in the antigens, and send it to the T cells so that an immune system response can be mobilized.

Q3. Which among the following helps in circulation of blood ?

(a) Arithrocytus
(b) Blood platelets
(c) Monocytes
(d) Lymphocytes
Ans: (d) Lymphocytes helps in the circulation of blood. A lymphocyte is a type of white blood cell in the vertebrate immune system. The lymphatic system is an open system providing an accessory route for excess interstitial fluid to get returned to the blood. Lymph is essentially recycled blood plasma after it has been filtered from the blood cells and returned to the lymphatic system.

Q4. Which among the following elements increases the absorption of water and calcium in plants ?

(a) Manganese
(b) Boron
(c) Copper
(d) Molybdenum
Ans: (b) Boron increases the absorption of water and calcium in the plants. It helps in the metabolic activities in plants. Boron is necessary in order for sugar to move through protoplasmic membranes.

Q5. Which wood will become useless soon after exposing in the open air ?

(a) Soft wood
(b) Fibrous wood
(c) Wet wood
(d) Hard wood
Ans: (c) Wood is a porous material and will absorb moisture from the air. Moisture is attracted to the walls of the tubes that make up the wood. Wood will only decay if it is in contact with the ground or wetted by an external source of moisture, such as rain seepage, plumbing leaks, or condensation. Dry wood will never decay. Also, the drier the wood, the less likely it is to be attacked by most types of wood-inhabiting insects. Wood-inhabiting fungi are small plants that lack chlorophyll and use wood as their food source. All fungi require moisture, oxygen, warmth, and food. The keys to preventing or controlling growth of fungi in wood in buildings are to either keep the wood dry (below moisture content of 20 percent) or to use preservative-treated or naturally resistant heartwood or selected species.

Q6. Which among the following is a large spectrum Antibiotic ?

(a) Paracetamol
(b) Pencillin
(c) Ampicillin
(d) Chlormphenicol
Ans: (c) Ampicillin is the large spectrum anti-biotic most commonly used. Ampicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic that is part of the amino-penicillin family and is roughly equivalent to its successor, amoxicillin in terms of spectrum and level of activity. It can sometimes result in reactions that range in severity from a rash (in the case of patients that may unwittingly have mononucleosis) to potentially lethal allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis. However, as with other penicillin drugs, it is relatively non-toxic and adverse effects of a serious nature are encountered only rarely.

Q7. Our bones and teeth are generally made of —

(a) Tricalcium phosphate
(b) Fluoropetite
(c) Chloropetite
(d) Hydrolith
Ans: (a) Our bones and teeth are generally made up of Tricalcium Phosphate. Tricalcium phosphate is a calcium salt of phosphoric acid with the chemical formula Ca3(PO4)2. It is also known as tribasic calcium phosphate and bone phosphate of lime, BPL. Calcium phosphate is one of the main combustion products of bone. The skeletons and teeth of vertebrate animals are composed of calcium phosphate.

Q8. Angora wool is extracted from —

(a) rabbit (b) sheep
(c) fox (d) goat
Ans: (a) Angora wool refers to the downy coat produced by the Angora rabbit. Angora is known for its softness, thin fibres, and what knitters refer to as a halo (fluffiness). It is also known for its silky texture. It is much warmer and lighter than wool due to the hollow core, Angora rabbits produce coats in a variety of colours, from white through tan, gray, and brown to black

Q9. Which of the following diseases affects women easily than that of men ?

(a) Heart attack
(b) Hepatitis
(c) Joint arthritis
(d) Arthritis
Ans: (a) For women, heart disease symptoms may be subtle – but when a heart attack strikes, women are more likely to die than men. Women are also at twice the risk of death following open heart surgery, compared to men. Researchers say when men have heart disease it affects the larger blood vessels, but in women, the small blood vessels become diseased

Q10. Pituitary gland is located in—

(a) brain (b) kidney
(c) liver (d) intestine
Ans: (a) In vertebrate anatomy the pituitary gland is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain, and rests in a small, bony cavity covered by a dural fold. The pituitary gland secretes nine hormones that regulate homeostasis.

Q11. What is the limit of MG/DL of blood sugar in the normal person at the time of fast ?

(a) 40-60 (b) 120-150
(c) 70-100 (d) 160-200
Ans: (c) The mean normal blood glucose level in humans is about 4 mM (4 mmol/L or 72 mg/dL, i.e. milligrams/deciliter); however, this level fluctuates throughout the day. Glucose levels are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day (termed “the fasting level”), and rise after meals for an hour or two by a few millimolar. Normal Human Glucose Blood Test results should be 70 – 100 (mg/ dL) before meals, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals

Q12. The cross-section of a stem of tree has fifty rings, what is the age of the tree ?

(a) 50 months (b) 5 years
(c) 25 years (d) 50 years
Ans: (d) Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the scientific method of dating based on the analysis of patterns of tree rings, also known as growth rings. Dendrochronology can date the time at which tree rings were formed, in many types of wood, to the exact calendar year. Growth rings are the result of new growth in the vascular cambium, a layer of cells near the bark that is classified as a lateral meristem. This growth in diameter is known as secondary growth. Visible rings result from the change in growth speed through the seasons of the year, thus one ring usually marks the passage of one year in the life of the tree.

Q13. Onion is a modified form of

(a) leaf (b) stem
(c) root
(d) None of these
Ans: (b) An onion has a modified form of stem called a bulb, or more specifically a tunicate bulb. In this type of modified stems, the stem is enclosed by a covering of leaves and it is underground. The bulb contains a few outside layers that are dry and membranous that encircles the bulb, which is where tunicate comes from. Nutrients for the plant are stored within the bulb.

Q14. The pollination of maize takes place by

(a) self-pollination
(b) pollination by insects
(c) pollination by air
(d) pollination by rain
Ans: (c) Maize (called corn in some parts of the world) is pollinated by air. The male anthers let go of their pollen and it blows over to a nearby female flower on another corn plant. Most of the flowers are either male or female on a corn , rather than both sexes in one flower. Maize flowers have evolved to use air for pollination. They do not need pretty petals. The pollen is light so it can blow around, and the ends of the female parts are fluffy to catch all the tiny pollen grains.

Q15. Why radiologists do not take direct X-ray photographs of intestine ?

(a) Intestines are affected by direct exposure to X-rays
(b) X-rays can not cross intestine
(c) X-rays are not able to capture clear picture
(d) Even short exposure of X-rays causes cancer in intestine
Ans: (c) As the intestine is a soft tissue structure, it is not usually seen on a plain X-ray. By using barium to coat the inner lining of this area the Radiologist can see the bowel clearly on the X-ray screen, and can watch the way it functions during this study. A small lubricated plastic tube will be inserted through your nostril or mouth and down into your stomach by the Doctor or Nurse. This can be a little uncomfortable, but a combination of anaesthetic jelly and spray minimizes the discomfort.

Q16. Exobiology deals with the study of :

(a) external characters of living organisms
(b) life on the surface of the earth
(c) life in the outer layers of atmosphere
(d) life in other planets and space
Ans: (d) Exobiology is the branch of science that deals with the possibility and likely nature of life on other planets or in space. The primary goal of exobiological research is to reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life on Earth or elsewhere in the universe. Exobiological activities include comparison of the overall pattern of chemical evolution of potential precursors of life, in the interstellar medium, and on the planets and small bodies of our solar system, tracing the history of life on Earth back to its roots, deciphering the environments of the planets in our solar system and of their satellites

Q17. Animals do not have enzyme systems which enable them to make use of the energy from :

(a) fat (b) water
(c) protein
(d) carbohydrate
Ans: (a) Although fat is a common way of storing energy, in vertebrates such as humans the fatty acids in these stores cannot be converted to glucose through gluconeogenesis as these organisms cannot convert acetyl-CoA into pyruvate; plants do, but animals do not, have the necessary enzymatic machinery. As a result, after long-term starvation, vertebrates need to produce ketone bodies from fatty acids to replace glucose in tissues such as the brain that cannot metabolize fatty acids. In other organisms such as plants and bacteria, this metabolic problem is solved using the glyoxylate cycle, which bypasses the decarboxylation step in the citric acid cycle and allows the transformation of acetyl-CoA to oxaloacetate, where it can be used for the production of glucose.

Q18. A clone is a colony of :

(a) cells having different shapes
(b) cells having similar shape
(c) cells having similar genetic constitution
(d) cells having different genetic constitutions
Ans: (c) A clone is a colony of cells having similar genetic constitutions. A clone is a group of identical cells that share a common ancestry, meaning they are derived from the same mother cell A somewhat similar concept is that of clonal colony (also called a genet), wherein the cells (usually unicellular) also share a common ancestry, but which also requires the products of clonal expansion to reside at “one place”, or in close proximity. A clonal colony would be well exemplified by a bacterial culture colony, or the bacterial films that are more likely to be found in vivo (e.g., in infected multicellular hosts).

Q19. The pollen grains of flowers pollinated by insects are :

(a) smooth and dry
(b) rough and sticky
(c) rough and dry
(d) large and showy
Ans: (b) Pollen grains are large sticky and heavy, usually with rough surfaces so that they can readily cling onto the insects bodies. They are sticky so that pollen grains settling on them are not easily displaced.

Q20. Which one of the following substances is used for preservation of food grains?

(a) Sodium benzoate
(b) Vinegar
(c) Sodium chloride
(d) Potassium permanganate
Ans: (a) Sodium benzoate is used for the preservation of food. It has the chemical formula NaC6H5CO2. It is the sodium salt of benzoic acid and exists in this form when dissolved in water. It can be produced by reacting sodium hydroxide with benzoic acid. It is bacteriostatic and fungistatic under acidic conditions. It is most widely used in acidic foods such as salad dressings (vinegar), carbonated drinks (carbonic acid), jams and fruit juices (citric acid), pickles (vinegar), and condiments

Q21. The disease caused by Asbestos is :

(a) Emphysema (b) Paralysis
(c) Diarrhoea (d) Dysentery
Ans: (a) Emphysema is the common lung disease caused by asbestos. Emphysema is a lung condition in which tiny air sacs in the lungs – alveoli – fill up with air. As the air continues to build up in these sacs, they expand, and may break or become damaged and form scar tissue. The patient becomes progressively short of breath. Emphysema is a type of COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

Q22. In the eye, colour vision is effected by the presence of :

(a) Choroid coat
(b) Sclerotic coat
(c) Rods (d) Cones
Ans: (d) Cone cells, or cones, are photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye that are responsible for color vision, they function best in relatively bright light, as opposed to rod cells that work better in dim light. Cone cells are densely packed in the fovea, but quickly reduce in number towards the periphery of the retina. It allow the perception of colour

Q23. Which of the following is NOT one of the important steps in processing tea leaves?

(a) Rolling (b) Drying
(c) Fermenting
(d) Withering
Ans: (c) Generally, there are four different tea categories that differ in processing methods. By withering, new picked leaves are thinly spread to dry during this process. Heated air is forced over the leaves if the climate is not suitable. The main goal of this process is to reduce the water content. By the end of withering, the leaves should be pliable enough to be rolled. From the withering racks, the leaves are now twisted and rolled so that the leaf cells are broken up. Oxidation is a bio-chemical process where oxygen is absorbed. It begins once the leaf membranes are broken during the rolling process. Oxidation causes the leaves to turn bright copper in color. During the stage of drying or firing, the leaves are dried evenly and thoroughly without being burnt. Firing the leaves stops the oxidation process.

Q24. Dehydration in human body is caused due to the loss of :

(a) vitamins (b) salts
(c) hormones (d) water
Ans: (d) dehydration is the condition where there is acute shortage of water in our body. This occurs when the amount of water leaving our body is greater than the amount consumed. There are three types of dehydration: hypotonic or hyponatremic (primarily a loss of electrolytes, sodium in particular), hypertonic or hypernatremic (primarily a loss of water), and isotonic or isonatremic (equal loss of water and electrolytes). In humans, the most commonly seen type of dehydration by far is isotonic (isonatraemic) dehydration which effectively equates with hypovolemia, but the distinction of isotonic from hypotonic or hypertonic dehydration may be important when treating people who become dehydrated.

Q25. Which of the following is the largest living bird ?

(a) Eagle (b) Peacock
(c) Ostrich (d) Kiwi
Ans: (c) Ostriches are the largest living species of bird. Ostriches usually weigh 200 to 285 pounds, although some male ostriches have been recorded with weights of up to 340 pounds

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