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CTET Solved Previous Year Paper Paper 1 (Class I-V) 2017

CTET Solved Previous Year Paper Paper 1 (Class I-V) 2017

Part I: Child Development and Pedagogy

Directions (Q. 1–30): Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option.
Q1. As a teacher, who firmly believes in the social constructivist theory of Lev Vygotsky, which of the following methods would you prefer for assessing your students?
(a) Collaborative projects
(b) Standardised tests
(c) Fact-based recall questions
(d) Objective multiple-choice type questions
Ans: (a)
Q2. To cater to individual differences in his classroom, a teacher should:
(a) have uniform and standard ways of teaching andassessment
(b) segregate and label children based on their marks
(c) engage in a dialogue with students and value theirperspectives
(d) impose strict rules upon his students
Ans: (c)
Q3. Assessment is purposeful if:
(a) it induces fear and stress among students.
(b) it serves as a feedback for students as well asteachers.
(c) it is done only once at the end of the year.
(d) comparative evaluations are made to differentiate between the students’ achievements.
Ans: (b)
Q4. According to NCF, 2005, the role of a teacher has to be:
(a) Authoritative2) Dictatorial
(c) Permissive
(d) Facilitative
Ans: (d)
Q5. Research suggests that in a diverse classroom, a teacher’s expectations from her students ________ their learning.
(a) have a significant impact on
(b) are the sole determinant of
(c) should not be correlated with
(d) do not have any effect on
Ans: (a)
Q6. Inclusion of children with special needs:
(a) is an unrealistic goal
(b) is detrimental to children without disabilities
(c) will increase the burden on school
(d) requires a change in attitude, content approach to teaching
Ans: (d)
Q7. “Having a diverse classroom with children from varied social, economic and cultural backgrounds enriches the learning experiences of all students.” This statement is:
(a) incorrect, because it can confuse the children andthey may feel lost.
(b) correct, because children learn many skills fromtheir peers
(c) correct, because it makes the classroom morehierarchical
(d) incorrect, because it leads to unnecessary competition
Ans: (b)
Q8. A child with hearing impairment:
(a) should be sent only to a school for the hearingimpaired and not to a regular school.
(b) will not benefit from academic education only andshould be given vocational training instead.
(c) can do very well in a regular school if suitablefacilitation and resources are provided.
(d) will never be able to perform on a par with classmates in a regular school
Ans: (c)
Q9. Which of the following is a characteristic of a gifted learner?
(a) He gets aggressive and frustrated.
(b) He can feel under-stimulated and bored if the classactivities are not challenging enough.
(c) He is highly temperamental.
(d) He engages in ritualistic behaviour like hand flapping, rocking, etc.
Ans: (b)
Q10. A teacher can enhance effective learning in her elementary classroom by:
(a) Offering rewards for small steps in learning
(b) Drill and practice
(c) Encouraging competition among her students
(d) Connecting the content to the lives of the students
Ans: (d)
Q11. Which of the following statements about children are correct?
A. Children are passive recipients of knowledge.
B. Children are problems solvers.
C. Children are scientific investigators.
D. Children are active explores of the environment.
(a) A, B and D
(b) B, C and D
(c) A, B, C and D
(d) A, B and C
Ans: (b)
Q12. Which of the following is the most effective method to encourage conceptual development in students?
(a) New concepts need to be understood on their ownwithout any reference to the old ones.
(b) Replace the students’ incorrect ideas with correctones by asking them to memorise.
(c) Give students multiple examples and encouragethem to use reasoning.
(d) Use punishment till students have made the required conceptual changes.
Ans: (c)
Q13. Primary school children will learn most effectively in an atmosphere:
(a) where their emotional needs are met and they feelthat they are valued
(b) where the teacher is authoritative and clearlydictates what should be done
(c) where the focus and stress are only on masteringprimarily cognitive skills of reading, writing andmathematics
(d) where the teacher leads all the learning and expects students to play a passive role
Ans: (a)
Q14. A child sees a crow flying past the window and says “A bird.” What does this suggest about the child’s thinking?
A. The child has previously stored memories.
B. The child has developed the concept of a ‘bird.’
C. The child has developed some tools of language to communicate her experience.
(a) A and B
(b) B and C
(c) A, B and C
(d) Only B
Ans: (b)
Q15. What should a teacher tell her students to encourage them to do tasks with intrinsic motivation?
(a) “Come on, finish it before she does.”
(b) “Why can’t you be like him? See he has done itperfectly.”
(c) “Complete the task fast and get a toffee.”
(d) “Try to do it, you will learn.”
Ans: (d)
Q16. How can a teacher encourage her students to be intrinsically motivated towards learning for the sake of learning?
(a) By inducing anxiety and fear
(b) By giving competitive tests
(c) By supporting them in setting individual goals andtheir mastery
(d) By offering tangible rewards such as toffees
Ans: (c)
Q17. In an elementary classroom, an effective teacher should aim at the students to be motivated:
(a) to learn so that they become curious and lovelearning for its own sake.
(b) to rote memorise so that they become good atrecall.
(c) by using punitive measures so that they respect theteacher.
(d) to perform so that they get good marks in the end of the year examination.
Ans: (a)
Q18. Which of the following is an example of effective school practice?
(a) Constant comparative evaluation
(b) Corporal punishment
(c) Individualised learning
(d) Competitive classroom
Ans: (c)
Q19. The cephalocaudal principal of development explains how development proceeds from:
(a) general to specific functions
(b) differentiated to integrated functions
(c) head to toe
(d) rural to urban areas
Ans: Cephalocaudal refers to head to toe. The cephalocaudal principle states the development pattern of a child in the earliest years of postnatal development specifically ranging from infancy into toddlerhood.
Q20. Which of the following is a sensitive period pertaining to language development?
(a) Prenatal period
(b) Middle childhood period
(c) Adulthood
(d) Early childhood period
Ans: (d)
Q21. A 6-year old girl shows exceptional sporting ability.
Both of her parents are sportspersons, send her for coaching everyday and train her on weekends. Her capabilities are most likely to be the result of an interaction between:
(a) heredity and environment
(b) growth and development
(c) health and training
(d) discipline and nutrition
Ans: (a)
Q22. Which of the following are secondary agents of socialisation?
(a) Family and neighbourhood
(b) School and neighbourhood
(c) School and immediate family members
(d) Family and relatives
Ans: (b)
Q23. According to Lev Vygotsky, the primary cause of cognitive development is:
(a) equilibration
(b) social interaction
(c) adjustment of mental schemas
(d) stimulus-response pairing
Ans: (b)
Q24. In the context of Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning, under which stage would the given typical response of a child fall?
“Your parents will be proud of you if you are honest.
So you should be honest.”
(a) Punishment –obedience orientation
(b) Social contract orientation
(c) Good girl-good boy orientation
(d) Law and order orientation
Ans: (c)
Q25. According to Jean Piaget, which of the following is necessary for learning?
(a) Active exploration of the environment by the learner
(b) Observing the behaviour of adults
(c) Belief in immanent justice
(d) Reinforcement by teachers and parents
Ans: (a)
Q26. According to Jean Piaget, schema building occurs as a result of modifying new information to fit existing schemes and by modifying old schemes as per new information. These two processes are known as:
(a) accommodation and adaptation
(b) assimilation and adaptation
(c) equilibration and modification
(d) assimilation and accommodation
Ans: (d)
Q27. In a progressive classroom setup, the teacher facilitates learning by providing an environment that:
(a) promotes discovery
(b) is restrictive
(c) discourages inclusion
(d) encourages repetition
Ans: (a)
Q28. Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligence (MI)
suggests that:
(a) every child should be taught every subject in eightdifferent ways in order to develop all of theintelligences
(b) intelligence is solely determined by IQ tests
(c) teachers should use MI as a framework for devisingalternative ways to teach the subject matter
(d) ability is destiny and does not change over a period of time
Ans: (c)
Q29. A five-year old girl talks to herself while trying to fold a t-shirt. Which of the following statements is correct in the context of the behaviour displayed by the girl?
(a) Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky would explain this asegocentric nature of the child’s thoughts.
(b) Jean Piaget would explain this as egocentricspeech, while Lev Vygotsky would explain this as thechild’s attempt to regulate her actions throughprivate speech.
(c) Jean Piaget would explain this as social interaction,while Lev Vygotsky would explain this as anexploration.
(d) Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky would explain this as the child’s attempt to imitate her mother.
Ans: (b)
Q30. ‘Gender’ is a/an:
(a) biological entity
(b) physiological construct
(c) innate quality
(d) social construct
Ans: (d)

Part II: Mathematics

Directions (Q 31–60): Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option.
Q31. The price of some fruits per kg are:
Watermelon : ` 18.50
Cherry : ` 72
Grape : ` 120.60
Apple : ` 78.40
Reshma bought 9/2 kg watermelon, 6/5 kg cherries, 250 gm grapes, and 7/4 kg apples. She gave a ` 500 note to the shopkeeper. How much did she get back?
(a) ` 163
(b) ` 172
(c) ` 173
(d) ` 162
Ans: (a)
Q32. The size of a soap cake is 7 cm × 5 cm × 2.5 cm. The maximum number of soap cakes which can be packed into two boxes each having internal measurements of 56 cm × 0.4 m × 0.25 m is:
(a) 960
(b) 1280
(c) 2560
(d) 640
Ans: (b)
Q33. The length of a rectangle is three times its breadth.
The breath is half the side of a square whose perimeter is 72 cm. Which of the following statements is correct?
(a) The area of the rectangle is more than the area ofthe square.
(b) The perimeters of both the rectangle and thesquare are equal.
(c) The perimeter of the rectangle is less than theperimeter of the square.
(d) The areas of the square and rectangle are equal.
Ans: (b)
Q34. Which one of the following is not correct?
(a) 55 litres 55 millilitres = 55.55 litres
(b) 2005 grams = 2.005 kg
(c) The volume of a cuboid of length 45 cm, breadth 15cm and height 40 cm is equal to the volume of acube whose side is 0.3 m.
(d) One hundredth of 10 is equal to 0.1
Ans: (a)
Q35. Which of the following is an essential prerequisite to understand multiplication of a two-digit number by a one-digit or a two-digit number?
(a) Multiplication as inverse of division
(b) Commutative property of addition
(c) Commutative property of multiplication
(d) Multiplication as distribution over addition
Ans: (d)
Q36. Which of the following cannot be considered as a reason for the fear of failure in mathematics?
(a) Gender differences
(b) Classroom experience
(c) Symbolic notation
(d) Structure of mathematics
Ans: (a)
Q37. Which of the following teaching and learning resources would be the most appropriate to teach the concept of addition of two decimal numbers?
(a) Abacus
(b) Geoboard
(c) Beads and string 4) Graph paper
Ans: (c)
Q38. The majority of class IV learners think that multiplication of two numbers always results in a number which is bigger than both the numbers. How will you show that it is always not the case?
(a) By showing the multiplication of two decimalnumbers on a grid paper
(b) By showing the multiplication algorithm of a wholenumber and a fraction on a number line
(c) By showing it through repeated addition of numbers
(d) By showing the multiplication algorithm of two decimal numbers
Ans: (d)
Q39. Which of the following statements is true in the context of teaching ‘measurements’ to primary class students?
(a) Non-standard measures should not be used.
(b) Standard measures should be followed by nonstandardmeasures.
(c) Non-standard measures should be followed bystandard measures.
(d) Only non-standard measures should be used.
Ans: (c)
Q40. Which of the following assessment strategies can be used to connect mathematics with real life and promote interdisciplinarity?
(a) Field trip, survey, project
(b) Field trip, oral test, drill worksheet
(c) Survey, project, checklist
(d) Field trip, oral test, checklist
Ans: (a)
Q41. Which of the following can be used as learning resources for the visually challenged in a mathematics classroom?
(a) Computer, number chart, geoboard
(b) Taylor’s abacus, fraction kit, number chart
(c) Number chart, computer, geoboard
(d) Taylor’s abacus, computer, geoboard
Ans: (d)
Q42. In the context of ‘numbers’, primary class children, i.e., the children in age group 8-9 years, are able to accomplish which one of the following sets?
(a) Seriation, classification, reversibility
(b) Classification, reversibility, proportional reasoning
(c) Seriation, reversibility, proportional reasoning
(d) Seriation, classification, proportional reasoning
Ans: (a)
Q43. A teacher of Class I asks a student to count the total number of objects in a collection of pens, erasers and sharpeners. The student puts all the objects in a line and starts counting. He says that there are 2 pens, 5 erasers and 3 sharpeners instead of saying that there are 10 objects. In which principle/principles of counting do you think that the student is facing difficulty?
(a) Abstraction principle
(b) Abstraction and order-irrelevance principles
(c) Stable-order and abstraction principles
(d) One-to-one correspondence principle
Ans: (b)
Q44. A teacher of class II asks her students to write 4 ones and 3 tens. Some students write 43 instead of 34. As a teacher, how will you help students in understanding the concept?
(a) Tell them it is wrong and ask them to write thecorrect answer 5 times.
(b) Always teach by column method of tens and ones toavoid confusion.
(c) Give a lot of questions to practise in columnmethod.
(d) Ask the students to represent the numbers on abacus and then write.
Ans: (d)
Q45. Which of the following statements is not true about ‘mapping’ in mathematics?
(a) Mapping can be integrated in many topics ofmathematics.
(b) Mapping strengthens spatial thinking.
(c) Mapping promotes proportional reasoning.
(d) Mapping is not a part of mathematics curriculum.
Ans: (d)
Q46. Which of the following aspects of ‘shapes’ is not dealt with at primary level?
(a) Tessellation
(b) Pattern
(c) Angle
(d) Symmetry
Ans: (a)
Q47. The mathematical games and puzzles help in:
A. developing a positive attitude towards mathematics.
B. making connection between mathematics and everyday life.
C. making mathematics enjoyable.
D. promoting problem-solving skills.
(a) A and D
(b) A, B and C
(c) A, B, C and D
(d) A and B
Ans: (c)
Q48. A given rectangle and a parallelogram have the same area. However, many class IV students respond that the parallelogram has a larger area. How can a teacher help the students to understand that their areas are the same?
(a) Using a graph paper
(b) Using paper folding
(c) Using scale
(d) Using a geoboard
Ans: (d)
Q49. Which of the following is not an objective of teaching mathematics at primary level according to NCF, 2005?
(a) Promoting logical thinking
(b) Preparing for learning higher and abstractmathematics
(c) Making mathematics a part of child’s lifeexperiences
(d) Promoting problem-solving and problem-posing skills
Ans: (b)
Q50. The difference between the place value of 5 in 29503 and the face value of 7 in 32071 is:
(a) 43
(b) 430
(c) 493
(d) 2
Ans: (c)
Q51. If 30028 = 28 ones + 28 thousands + ________ tens, then the number in the blank space is:
(a) 128
(b) 200
(c) 280
(d) 28
Ans: (b)
Q52. When the remainder obtained on dividing 80808 by 108 is divided by the remainder obtained on dividing 90909 by 109, then the quotient is:
(a) 6
(b) 8
(c) 12
(d) 3
Ans: (b)
Q53. If 603 × 28 = 63 × 4 × ______, then the number in the blank space is:
(a) 28
(b) 63
(c) 67
(d) 21
Ans: (c)
Q54. (The smallest common multiple of 30, 45 and 60 between 200 and 400) ÷ (The largest common factor of 15, 24 and 45) is equal to:
(a) 90
(b) 120
(c) 180
(d) 60
Ans: (b)
Q55. A number is smaller than half of one hundred and lies between 4 tens and 5 tens. Ones digit is one less than tens digit. If the sum of digits is 7, then the product of the digits in the number is:
(a) 16
(b) 20
(c) 24
(d) 12
Ans: (d)
Q56. In a school, there are 360 students out of which twothirds are girls and the rest are boys. Three-fourth of the boys are players. The number of boys who are not players is:
(a) 30
(b) 60
(c) 75
(d) 25
Ans: (a)
Q57. Harish bought a scooter for `49,553. He paid ` 8,076 in cash and agreed to pay the remaining amount in 37 equal instalments. What is the amount of each instalment?
(a) ` 1,121
(b) ` 1,201
(c) ` 1,339
(d) ` 1,021
Ans: (a)
Q58. A train left Hyderabad at 13:15 on Friday and reached Bengaluru at 07:30 on Saturday. The duration of the journey was:
(a) 12 hours 45 minutes
(b) 18 hours 15 minutes
(c) 19 hours 45 minutes
(d) 5 hours 35 minutes
Ans: (b)
Q59. The number of minutes in 15 days is equal to the number of seconds in:
(a) 5 hours
(b) 6 hours
(c) 8 hours
(d) 4 hours
Ans: (b)
Q60. 15 litres 286 millilitres of orange juice is mixed with 19 litres 714 millilitres of carrot juice. 12 litres 750 millilitres of the mixture is used and the rest is filled in bottles each containing 250 millilitres. The number of bottles required is:
(a) 85
(b) 81
(c) 77
(d) 89
Ans: (d)

Part III: Environmental Studies

Directions (Q. 61–90): Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option.
Q61. Which of the following groups of animals has excellent sight and four times more powerful vision than humans?
(a) Bees, Mosquitoes, Butterflies
(b) Tiger, Leopards, Bulls
(c) Snakes, Silkworms, Lizards
(d) Kites, Eagles, Vultures
Ans: (d)
Q62. Read the given description and identify the type of farming it is referring to:
“After cutting one crop, the land is left as it is for some years. Nothing is grown there. The bamboos or weeds which grow on that land are not pulled out. They are cut and burned. The ash makes the land fertile. When the land is ready for farming, it is lightly dug up and not ploughed. The seeds are then dropped on it.”
(a) Irrigation farming
(b) Cooperative farming
(c) Jhoom farming
(d) Step farming
Ans: (c)
Q63. When a snake charmer plays on his musical instrument, Been, the snake swings its head to and fro to its sound. How do you think the snake responds to the musical instrument?
(a) By seeing the movement of the instrument
(b) By responding to the vibrations produced by theinstrument
(c) By smelling the instrument
(d) By hearing the sound produced by the instrument
Ans: (b)
Q64. “A family is a unit consisting of mother, father and their two children.” This statement is:
(a) correct, because this is what all Indian families arelike
(b) Incorrect, because the statement should specifythat the children are biological
(c) Incorrect, because there are many kinds of familiesand one cannot classify family as being of only onekind.
(d) correct, since this is an ideal family size
Ans: (c)
Q65. The gastric juice in the stomach of human beings is ___________ and aids in the digestion of food.
(a) alkaline
(b) amphoteric
(c) neutral
(d) acidic
Ans: (d)
Q66. A teacher of Class III had asked children to classify the leaves of the following trees/plants into different group- lemons, mango, basil, mint, neem, banana,
etc. Some students classified leaves as (a) leaves with medicinal values and without medical values, (b)
big leaves and small leaves. The teacher marked group (a) as right and group (b) as wrong.
Which of the following statements reflects the teacher’s view of learning and assessment?
(a) Classification task is very specific and structuredand there is one right answer.
(b) The activity is focussed to seek information fromleaves which can be interpreted differently.
(c) Children bring multiple perspectives in classroomwhich is to be appreciated.
(d) Children can use multiple ways of classification depending upon their experiences.
Ans: (a)
Q67. Which among the following considerations would you keep in mind while designing a group activity in your EVS class?
A. Engage the interests of children.
B. Appeal equally to boys and girls.
C. Use expensive material
D. Appeal to children of all religious and cultural backgrounds
(a) B and D
(b) B and C
(c) A, B and D
(d) A, C and D
Ans: (c)
Q68. All of the following statements provide arguments in favour of teachers and students to collectively engage in group activities in EVS, except one. Which is that statement?
(a) Adult support can help children constructknowledge beyond their ability.
(b) Children learn to collaborate and cooperate.
(c) Children learn more by talking and discussing withother children.
(d) Children show marked improvement in scores because of group activities.
Ans: (d)
Q69. Which of the following tools will be appropriate for assessing social-personal qualities of children engaged in learning EVS through group work?
(a) Rating scales
(b) Assignments
(c) Paper-pencil tests
(d) Oral questions
Ans: (b)
Q70. Following are some intuitive ideas of children about plants. Which of them is scientifically correct?
(a) Grass is not a plant.
(b) Some vegetables are fruits.
(c) Seeds are not parts of a plant.
(d) Carrot and Cabbage are not plants.
Ans: (b)
Q71. A teacher of class IV told her students,“Ask some old people if there were plants they had seen when they were young but are not seen these days.” Which of the following skills is not likely to be assessed by asking this question?
(a) Experimentation
(b) Discussion
(c) Questioning
(d) Expression
Ans: (a)
Q72. A teacher asks every child to use some waste material from his/her home and make something useful out of it. The pedagogical intention of the teacher is not to:
(a) make children understand the concept of recycle,reuse and reduce
(b) organize an exhibition of best articles made out ofwaste
(c) judge the best student of the class
(d) develop creativity among children
Ans: (c)
Q73. Read the following questions:
A. How well did I plan for the activity?
B. How well did I follow the plan?
C. What were my strengths?
D. What exactly did I find difficult?
Answer to the above four types of questions will comprise:
(a) Teacher’s self-assessment
(b) Self-assessment of children and teachers both
(c) Summative assessment by the teacher
(d) Children’s self-assessment
Ans: (a)
Q74. The language used in an EVS textbook:
(a) should be terse and difficult for children tocomprehend
(b) should be formalized with emphasis on definitions
(c) should be technical and formal
(d) should be related to everyday language of the child
Ans: (d)
Q75. A teacher gives pictures of different animals to his students and asks them to colour the animals that do not live in their houses. The objective of this activity is to develop:
A. creativity
B. observation
C. classification skill
D. data collection Which of the above are correct?
(a) A, B and D
(b) B, C and D
(c) A, C and D
(d) A, B and C
Ans: (d)
Q76. In the EVS syllabus, structured around six themes, ‘plants’ and ‘animals’ have consciously been included in the theme: ‘Family and Friends’. All of the following could be cited as reasons for this inclusion, expect
one. Which one is that?
(a) To highlight how lives and livelihoods of somecommunities are closely connected with specificanimals or plants
(b) To enable students to understand plants andanimals from a science perspective
(c) To help students to locate plants and animals in asocial and cultural context
(d) To highlight how humans share a close relationship with each other
Ans: (d)
Q77. The purpose of ‘survey’ in teaching-learning of EVS is:
A. to provide an opportunity to interact with community
B. to make children sensitive to different people
C. to provide an opportunity to collect first-hand information
D. to use it as an opportunity for assessment Which of the above is/are correct?
(a) A, B and D
(b) A, C and D
(c) A, B, C and D
(d) A, B and C
Ans: (d)
Directions: Q. 78–80 are based on the following paragraph.
Given are responses of 7-8 years old children after they have observed an experiment done by the teacher, in which water in a bowl is heated and it has evaporated:
“Water has disappeared.” “The bowl has absorbed the water.” “The fire drank the water.” “God drank the water.”
Q78. What do these responses tell us about children and their thinking?
(a) Children cannot make a good observation.
(b) Children have alternate ideas about evaporation.
(c) Children’s responses are illogical.
(d) Children’s thinking is incorrect.
Ans: (b)
Q79. How should the teacher deal with these responses?
(a) Initiate a discussion to revisit their ideas.
(b) Tell the children that they are wrong.
(c) Show the standard water cycle chart.
(d) Give the definition of evaporation and ask the children to memorize it.
Ans: (a)
Q80. Which of the following is an example of a question assessing divergent thinking of children on the topic, ‘evaporation’?
(a) Draw and label water cycle.
(b) Write five advantages of water cycle.
(c) What will happen if there is no water cycle?
(d) List the steps in sequences of water cycle.
Ans: (c)
Q81. Which of the following are the neighbouring states of Jammu & Kashmir?
(a) Uttarakhand, Rajasthan
(b) Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand
(c) Himachal Pradesh, Punjab
(d) Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh
Ans: (c)
Q82. Match each of the locations with correct description of common houses built in that area:
Location Houses
(a) Manali (i) Elevated houses made on bamboo pillars
(b) Rajasthan (ii) Houses made of stone/wood with slanting roofs
(c) Assam (iii) Houseboats
(d) Ladakh (iv) Mud houses having roofs made of thorny bushes
(v) Houses made of stones and wooden floor and wooden Ceiling
(a) a b c diii iv I v
(b) a b c div i ii iii
(c) a b c dii v I iv
(d) a b c d ii iv I v
Ans: (d)
Q83. The different patterns on the skin of animals are:
(a) due to the hair on their skin
(b) due to the weather condition they live in
(c) an indication of their physical strength
(d) due to the reflected light
Ans: (a)
Q84. “People who have been living in the forest for at least 25 years have a right to the forestland and what is grown on it.” This is mandated by:
(a) The Land Acquisition Act, 1894
(b) The Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Orders(Amendment) Bill, 2012
(c) The Indian Forest Act, 1927
(d) The Right to Forest Act, 2007
Ans: (d)
Q85. Which of the following is a set of diseases spread by mosquitoes?
(a) Dengue, Malaria, Chikungunya
(b) Typhoid, Cholera, Chikungunya
(c) Malaria, HIV-AIDS, Dengue
(d) HIV-AIDS, Cholera, Dengue
Ans: (a)
Q86. Pitcher plant (Nepenthes):
(a) emits sounds of high pitch to attract insects
(b) has mouth covered with tiny hooks
(c) is not found in India
(d) cleverly traps and eats frogs, insect and mice
Ans: (d)
Q87. Which of the following sets of eatables is rich in iron?
(a) Cabbage, Okra, Jaggery
(b) Amla, Spinach, Jaggery
(c) Amla, Spinach, Potato
(d) Amla, Potato, Tomato
Ans: (b)
Q88. Almost in every part of our country, chillies are added while cooking food. Chillies were brought to our country by the traders who came from:
(a) Australia
(b) Uzbekistan
(c) South America
(d) Afghanistan
Ans: (c)
Q89. Which of the following birds makes its nest among the thorns of cactus plants?
(a) Dove
(b) Sunbird
(c) Weaverbird
(d) Robin bird
Ans: (a)
Q90. Read the following description and identify the animal:
“It looks like a bear but it is not. It spends almost 17 hours a day sleeping while hanging upside down on a tree branch. It eats the leaves of the same tree on which it lives. It lives for about 40 years.”
(a) Sloth
(b) Langur
(c) Chimpanzee
(d) Panda
Ans: (a)

Part IV: Language I English

Direction (Q. 91–99): Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow by selecting the correct/most appropriate options.
The Mahatma’s remarkable wife, Kasturbabai, did not object when he failed to set aside any part of his wealth for the use of herself and their children. Married in early youth, Gandhi and his wife took the vow of celibacy after the birth of several sons. A tranquil heroine in the intense drama that has been their life together, Kasturbabai followed her husband to prison, shared his three-week fasts, and fully borne her share of his endless responsibilities. She paid Gandhi the following tribute:
I thank you for having had the privilege of being your lifelong companion and helpmate. I thank you for the most perfect marriage in the world, based on Brahmacharya (self-control)
and not on sex. I thank you for having considered me your equal in your lifework for India. I thank you for not being one of those husbands who spend their time in gambling, racing, women, wine and song tiring of their wives and children as the little boy quickly tires of his childhood toys. How thankful I am that you were not one of those husbands who devote their time to growing rich on the exploitation of the labour of others.
How thankful I am that you put God and country before bribes, that you had the courage of your convictions and a complete and implicit faith in God. How thankful I am for a husband that put God and his country before me. I am grateful to you for your tolerance of me and my shortcoming of youth, when I grumbled and rebelled against the change you made in our mode of living, from so much to so little.
As a young child, I lived in your parents’ home; your mother was a great and good woman; she trained me, taught me how to be a brave, courageous wife and how to keep the love and respect of her son my future husband. As the years passed and you became India’s most beloved leader, I had none of the fears that beset wife who may be cast aside when her husband has climbed the ladder of success, as so often happens in other countries. I knew that death would still find us husband and wife.
Q91. How did Kasturbabai react to Gandhiji’s will?
(a) She accepted his decision without arguing.
(b) She decided to discuss the matter with her parents.
(c) She felt quite unhappy.
(d) She was astonished.
Ans: (a)
Q92. Kasturbabai impressed the author most because she:
(a) was at his beck and call
(b) stood by him through trying times
(c) was an embodiment of humility
(d) never questioned her husband’s decisions
Ans: (d)
Q93. Husbands given to vices made Kasturbabai feel:
(a) unhappy
(b) sad
(c) disgusted
(d) furious
Ans: (d)
Q94. Kasturbabai’s relationship with her mother-in-law can be described as:
(a) conventional
(b) informal
(c) respectful
(d) formal
Ans: (c)
Q95. The author’s attitude to Kasturbabai is:
(a) neutral
(b) ambivalent
(c) sympathetic
(d) commendatory
Ans: (d)
Q96. The word ‘tranquil’ as used in the passage means:
(a) gentle
(b) calm
(c) loyal
(d) sober
Ans: (b)
Q97. The word opposite in meaning to ‘lifelong’ is:
(a) temporary
(b) brief
(c) weak
(d) ardent
Ans: (a)
Q98. Which part of speech is the underlined word in the following sentence?
“…… any part of his wealth.”
(a) Adverb
(b) Noun
(c) Conjunction
(d) Adjective
Ans: (b)
Q99. The sentence, “Some husbands spend their time in gambling” when changed into passive voice becomes:
(a) Time is spent in gambling by some husbands.
(b) Some husbands whose time is spent in gambling.
(c) Some husbands whose time was spent in gambling.
(d) Some husband spent their tie in gambling.
Ans: (b)
Direction (Q. 100–114): Answer the following questions selecting the correct/most appropriate options.
Q100. Home language is _____ in a natural way.
(a) Learnt
(b) Taught
(c) Promoted
(d) Acquired
Ans: (a)
Q101. Which of the following is not true while teaching learners in their mother tongue at primary level?
(a) It makes learning easy.
(b) It is helpful in the intellectual development of thechild.
(c) It helps children in learning in a naturalenvironment.
(d) It develops self-confidence in the child.
Ans: (c)
Q102. Communicative language teaching lays emphasis on:
(a) form
(b) writing
(c) grammatical competency
(d) language use
Ans: (a)
Q103. Ria, a teacher of Class II, is presenting language items in her instructions and the learners are doing exactly as she is telling them to do. What is she practising?
(a) Audio-lingual method
(b) Communicative language method
(c) Total physical response
(d) Direct method
Ans: (c)
Q104. While teaching language to a learner, a teacher should teach:
(a) in isolation
(b) in an integrated manner
(c) by giving instructions
(d) through imitation
Ans: (b)
Q105. An intonation may not be a ___________ tone.
(a) Falling
(b) Loud
(c) Sliding
(d) Rising
Ans: (c)
Q106. Functional grammar stands for using/teaching grammar in/ through:
(a) isolation
(b) parsing
(c) explanation of literary content
(d) context
Ans: (d)
Q107. A teacher asks the learners to think of ideas quickly about the topic: ‘Save Water’ and also asks them to note down their ideas before writing the article on ‘Save Water’. She is focussing on:
(a) checklist
(b) drill
(c) brainstorming
(d) assessment
Ans: (c)
Q108. Which of the following is not a form of literature?
(a) Memoir
(b) Travelogue
(c) One-Act Play
(d) Dictionary
Ans: (b)
Q109. Assessment is:
(a) process-oriented
(b) both process and product oriented
(c) judgemental
(d) product-oriented
Ans: (b)
Q110. Which of the following is not formative assessment?
(a) Portfolios
(b) Oral testing
(c) Term-end assessment
(d) Anecdotal records
Ans: (c)
Q111. A teacher asks the students to assess their classmates during a debate competition in the class.
This method of assessment is:
(a) self-assessment
(b) group assessment
(c) individual assessment
(d) peer assessment
Ans: (d)
Q112. Match the following Types of assessment Meaning
(a) Assessment of learning
(i) It is used during the process of learning and teaching.
(b) Assessment for learning
(ii) It is used when students reflect on and monitor.
(c) Assessment for learning
(iii) It is used toward and at the end of the instruction period.
(a) A b Ci iii ii
(b) a b ciii ii i
(c) a b ciii i ii
(d) a b c ii i iii
Ans: (c)
Q113. Which of the following is not appropriate about language games?
(a) Language games provide a competitiveenvironment to the learners to win the game by anymeans.
(b) Language games create a real world context in theclassroom and enhance the usage of English.
(c) Language games create a stress free and naturalenvironment where learners can learn English, theway they learn L1.
(d) Language games create an environment even for shy learners to participate.
Ans: (a)
Q114. Remedial teaching is for:
(a) the learner to learn better and the teacher toimprove his/her teaching.
(b) the teacher to teach better
(c) improving the image of the school
(d) the learner to learn better
Ans: (a)
Directions (Q. 115–120): Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow by selecting the correct/most appropriate options.
I cannot rest from travel: I will drink Life to the lees: All times I have enjoy’d Greatly, have suffer’d greatly both with those Thro’ scudding drifts the rainy Hyades Vext the dim sea: I am become a name; For always roaming with a hungry heart Much have I seen and known; cities of men And manners, climates, councils, governments, Myself not least but honour’d of them all;
Q115. The speaker can be described as:
(a) a seeker after the truth
(b) an adventure
(c) a frolicsome person
(d) a vagabond
Ans: (c)
Q116. The expression, ‘drink life to the lees’ means:
(a) To face challenges bravely
(b) To live a life of adventure
(c) To live life to the fullest
(d) To live a life of pleasure
Ans: (c)
Q117. Which of the following statements is true?
(a) His adventures have not changed his outlook.
(b) He has suffered and enjoyed greatly.
(c) He has lost interest in life.
(d) The speaker is an aimless wanderer.
Ans: (b)
Q118. The line “Myself not least, but honour’d of them all” reveals that the speaker is:
(a) a garrulous person
(b) conscious of his merits
(c) arrogant
(d) prone to bragging
Ans: (b)
Q119. The figure of speech used in ‘drink life to the lees’ is:
(a) metaphor
(b) personification
(c) assonance
(d) simile
Ans: (a)
Q120. Which literary device has been used in ‘hungry heart’?
(a) Simile
(b) Alliteration
(c) Irony
(d) Assonance
Ans: (b)

भाग V: भाषा II

हिन्दी निर्देश: नीचे दिए गए गद्यांश को पढ़कर पूछे गए प्रश्नों (प्र. सं. 121 से 128) के सही सबसे उपयुक्त उत्तर वाले विकल्प चुनिए। हमें स्वतंत्र हुए 15 वर्ष ही हुए थे कि पड़ोसी चीन ने हमारी पीठ में छुरा भोंक दिया। उत्तरी सीमा की सफेद बर्फीली चोटियाँ शहीदों के खून से सनकर लाल हो गईं। हज़ारों माँओं की गोदें सूनी हुई, हज़ारों की माँग का सिंदूर पुँछ गया और लाखों अभागे बच्चे पिता के प्यार से वंचित हो गए। गणतंत्र दिवस निकट आ रहा था। देश का हौसला पस्त था। कोई उंमग नहीं रह गई थी पर्व मनाने की। तब यह सोचा गया कि जानी-मानी फिल्मी हस्तियाँ आयोजन में शामिल हों तो भीड़ उमड़गी। वहाँ कोई ऐसा गीत प्रस्तुत हो जो लोगों के दिलों को छूकर उन्हें झकझोर सके। चुनौती फिल्म जगत तक पहुँची। एक नौजवान गीतकार प्रदीप ने चुनौती स्वीकारने का मन बनाया और गीत लिखना शुरू किया। लेकिन सुर और स्वर के बिना गीत का क्या; प्रदीप संगीत निर्देशक सी. रामचंद्र के पास पहुँचे। उन्हें गीत पंसद आया आरै रक्षा मत्रां लय को सूचना दे दी गइर्। 26 जनवरी का शुभ दिन आया। लाखों की भीड़ बड़ी उत्सुकता से प्रतीक्षा कर रही थी। तब तक जो धुन बज रही थी वह हटी और थोड़ी देर शांति रही। तभी उस शांति को चीरता हुआ लता मंगेशकर का वेदना और चुनौती भरा स्वर सुनाई पड़ा -‘‘ऐ मेरे वतन के लोगों, जरा आँख में भर लो पानी।’’ समय जैसे थम गया। सभी के मन एक ही भाव, एक ही रस में डूब गए। गीत समाप्त हुआ तो लगभग दो लाख लोग सिसक रहे थे। आँसू थे कि थमते ही न थे।
Q121. ‘‘ऐ मेरे वतन के लोगों………’’ गीत के बारे में क्या सच नहीं है?
(a) मन्ना डे ने सुर दिया
(b) सी. रामचंद्र ने संगीत दिया
(c) लता मंगेशकर ने स्वर दिया
(d) प्रदीप ने लिखा
Ans: (a)
Q122. भारत में 26 जनवरी का पर्व मनाने की उंमग न रहने का कारण था:
(a) सैनिको के द्वारा मार्च-पास्ट से इनकार
(b) रक्षा मंत्रालय की अनिच्छा
(c) चीन का दबाव
(d) हज़ारों युवकों का शहीद होना
Ans: (d)
Q123. रक्षा मंत्रालय को सूचना दी गई होगी?
(a) फिल्मी हस्तियाँ भाग लेंगी
(b) गीत प्रस्तुत करने की चुनौती स्वीकार है
(c) प्रदीप और सी. रामचंद्र भी दिल्ली आएँगे
(d) 26 जनवरी का पर्व मनाया जाए
Ans: (b)
Q124. ‘पीठ में छुरा भोंकना‘ का अर्थ है:
(a) आक्रमण करना
(b) विश्वासघात करना
(c) पराजित करना
(d) युद्ध में घायल करना
Ans: (b)
Q125. जानी-मानी फिल्मी हस्तियों को बुलाने का निर्णय क्यों लिया गया?
(a) भीड़ जुटाने के लिए
(b) लता मंगेशकर का गीत सुनने के लिए
(c) शहीदों को श्रद्धांजलि देने के लिए
(d) गणतंत्र दिवस मनाने के लिए
Ans: (a)
Q126. ‘माँग का सिंदूर पुँछ जाना’ मुहावरे का अर्थ है:
(a) विधवा हो जाना
(b) वियोगिनी होना
(c) अभागिन होना
(d) अनाथ हो जाना
Ans: (a)
Q127. देश का हौसला पस्त था, क्योंकि:
(a) तैयारियाँ नहीं की गईं थी
(b) कोई उंमग शेष नहीं थी
(c) फिल्मी हस्तियाँ साथ नहीं दे रही थी
(d) चीन से मात खाई थी
Ans: (b)
Q128. ‘उमड़ना’ क्रिया का कौन-सा प्रयोग ठीक नहीं है?
(a) नदी उमड़ आई
(b) दूध उमड़ने लगा
(c) आँसू उमड़ चले
(d) भीड़ उमड़ पड़ी
Ans: (b)
Q129. भाषा-शिक्षण के संदर्भ में बाल-साहित्य का उद्देश्य है:
(a) बच्चों को जीवन-कौशल सिखाना
(b) बच्चों को भाषा के नियमों की जानकारी देना
(c) बच्चों को उत्साही पाठक बनने के लिए प्रोत्साहित करना
(d) बच्चों को साहित्यिक विधाओं से परिचित करवाना
Ans: (c)
Q130. ‘संदर्भ में व्याकरण’ का शैक्षिण निहितार्थ है:
(a) व्याकरण का संदर्भ पाठ्य-पुस्तक से ही होता है
(b) व्याकरण पाठ के संदर्भ में सिखाया जाता है
(c) पाठ के संदर्भ में व्याकरण जानना ज़रूरी नहीं है
(d) व्याकरण और संदर्भ दोनों अलग हैं
Ans: (b)
Q131. बच्चों को कहानी सुनाने की उपयोगिता सिद्ध होती है :
(a) कहानी कहने के तरीके द्वारा
(b) कहानी में गुँथे हुए नैतिक मूल्यों के आधार पर
(c) कहानी से मिलने वाली ज्ञान-विज्ञान की जानकारी देना
(d) कहानी से मिलने वाली सीख द्वारा
Ans: (c)
Q132. अवलोकन को आकलन का भाषा तभी कहा जा सकता है जब अवलोकन:
(a) प्रतिदिन प्रत्येक बच्चे का किया जा रहा हो
(b) लड़के-लड़कियों का अलग-अलग किया जा रहा हो
(c) अनिवार्यत: औपचारिक रूप से किया जा रहा हो
(d) नियमित रूप से किया जा रहा हो
Ans: (d)
Q133. सुरभि किसी भी ऐसे शब्द विशेष को बोलने में कठिनाई अनुभव करती है जिसमें दो से अधिक बार ‘त’ की आवृत्ति हुई हो। आप उससे उसे:
(a) ऐसे शब्दों का विकल्प ढूँढकर देंगी
(b) ऐसे शब्दों को बार-बार सुनने के लिए कहेंगी
(c) बोलते समय इस ओर ध्यान न देने के लिए कहेंगी
(d) ‘त’ वाले शब्दों को बार-बार उच्चारण करवाएँगी
Ans: (c)
Q134. प्रारभिक स्तर पर भाषा का आकलन करने में सर्वाधिक सहायक है:
(a) पोर्टफोलियो
(b) नाटक का मंचन
(c) वीडियोग्राफी
(d) लिखित परीक्षा
Ans: (b)
Q135. ‘‘यदि तुम्हें डलिया भरकर आम दे दिए जाएँ तो तुम क्या करोगी ?’’ इस प्रश्न का उद्देश्य है:
(a) बच्चों के अनुभव और चिंतन को स्थान देना
(b) बच्चों की मौखिक परीक्षा लेना
(c) बच्चों की गणित की ओर प्रवृत्त करना
(d) बच्चों को नए शब्दों से परिचित कराना
Ans: (a)
Q136. अकादमिक सत्र शुरू होने के दो माह बाद तक भी कक्षा चार के विद्यार्थियों को भाषा की पाठ्य-पुस्तके उपलब्ध नहीं करवाई जा सकती हैं। ऐसी स्थिति में शिक्षक :
(a) पाठ्य-पुस्तक के उपलब्ध होने तक पठन-लेखन की प्रक्रियाआरम्भ न करवाएँ
(b) भाषाई क्षमताओं के विकास के अन्य विषयों कीपाठ्य-पुस्तकों का प्रयोग करें
(c) श्रवण एवं वाचल काश्ैा ल का अभ्यास करवाते रहें
(d) विद्यार्थियों को पाठ्य-पुस्तक अपने-आप खरीदने के लिए प्रोत्साहित करें
Ans: (b)
Q137. ‘‘भाषा शून्य में विकसित नही होती।’’ इसका शैक्षिक निहितार्थ है कि भाषा सीखने के लिए ………. अनिवार्य है।
(a) परिवार संवाद
(b) सामाजिक अंत: क्रिया
(c) विद्यालयी पढ़ाई-लिखाई
(d) भाषा प्रयोगशाला
Ans: (b)
Q138. प्राथमिक स्तर पर भाषा-शिक्षण का उद्देश्य है बच्चों को:
(a) व्याकरणिक नियमों को कठंस्थ करवाना
(b) अक्षरों की बनावट के प्रति सचेत करना
(c) सहज अभिव्यक्ति का अवसर देना
(d) मातृभाषा की लिपि की पहचान करवाना
Ans: (c)
Q139. भाषाई कौशलों के संबंध में कौन-सा कथन सही है?
(a) सभी भाषाइर् काश्ैा ल अंत: संबंधित हैं।
(b) सभी भाषाइर् काश्ैा ल स्वयं ही विकसित होते हैं।
(c) सभी भाषाइर् काश्ैा ल पाठ्य-पुस्तक से ही विकसित होते हैं।
(d) कोइर् भी भाषाई काश्ैा ल अंत: संबंधित नहीं ह।ै
Ans: (a)
Q140. ‘पढ़ककर समझना’ कुशलता का विकास करने में सबसे कम महत्वपूर्ण है:
(a) कहानी का अंत बदलवा देना
(b) कहानी पर आधारित व्याकरण समझाना
(c) कहानी को अपनी भाषा में कहलवाना
(d) कहानी पर आधारित प्रश्न बनवाना
Ans: (b)
Q141. निम्नलिखित में से कौन-सा कथन प्राथमिक स्तर पर भाषा सीखने के एक महत्त्वपूर्ण उद्देश्य की ओर संकेत करता है ?
(a) गणित के पाठ्यक्रम के अनुरूप हिन्दी में संख्याएँ जानना
(b) संज्ञा, सर्वनाम और विशेषण और वचन की शुद्ध पहचानकरना
(c) भाषण, वाद-विवाद और कविता -पाठ में भाग लेना
(d) भाषा को अपने परिवेश एवं अनुभव को समझने का माध्यम मानना
Ans: (d)
Q142. भाषा सीखने में शब्दकोश का बहुत महत्व है। निम्नलिखित में से शब्दकोश का सबसे कम महत्त्वपूर्ण उपयोग कौन-सा होगा?
(a) अक्षरोंवर्णों का क्रम जानना
(b) किसी शब्द का अर्थ जानना
(c) किसी शब्द का समानार्थी जानना
(d) किसी शब्द की वर्तनी जानना
Ans: (d)
Q143. जब बच्चे भाषा के भिन्न कोई विषय पढ़ते हैं, तो वे :
(a) साथ-साथ भाषा भी सीखते हैं
(b) साथ-साथ परीक्षा की तैयारी भी करते हैं
(c) केवल अवधारणा ही बना पाते हैं
(d) केवल विषय ही पढ़ते हैं
Ans: (a)
निर्देश: नीचे दिए गए गद्यांश को पढ़कर पूछे गए प्रश्नों (प्र. सं. 144 से 150) के सही सबसे उपयुक्त उत्तर वाले विकल्प चुनिए। बारिश के लिहाज़ से वह साल ठन-ठन गोपाल था। खेतों में जैसे-तैसे धान रोप दिया गया था लेकिन तेज धूप ने उसे झुलसा डाला था। सावन सिर पर था और बादल लापता। कि तभी एक उमसती हुई रात में बिजली कड़कने से नींद खुली। थोड़ी देर में झीसियाँ पड़ने लगीं। चारपाइयाँ आँगन से उठाकर भीतर कर ली गई। लेकिन हवा गुम थी और गर्मी ज्यों-की-त्यों लिहाज़ा वह रात रतजगे में ही गई सुबह हुई तो लोग धान बच जाने को लेकर ऊपर वाले का शुक्रिया अदा करते दिखे। बरसात रात वाली रफ्तार से ही जारी थी। न उससे धीमी, न तेज। आसमान समतल और तकरीबन सफेद था। बादल बीच-बीच में ज़रा सा गुर्राकर खामोश हो जा रहे थे। स्कूल का टाइम हुआ तो हम जैसे ढीलों ने इकतरफा तौर पर ‘रेनी डे’ मनाने का फैसला किया, जबकि पढ़ाकुओं ने बस्ता लादा और सुपरिचित रास्ते पर बढ़ चले। थके-हारे पढवैये शाम को लौटे तो उनकी हालत कटे खेत में पानी भरने पर भागे चूहो जैसी थी। बारिश से बुरी तरह ऊबकर हम सोए, इस उम़्मीद में कि कल नीला आकाश देखने को मिलेगा।
Q144. ‘‘बारिश के लिहाज़ से वह साल ठन-ठन गोपाल था।’’ वाक्य का भाव है:
(a) बहुत बारिश हुई थी
(b) अकाल के कारण पैसा नहीं था
(c) पढ़ाई नहीं कर पाए थे
(d) बारिश नहीं हुई थी
Ans: (d)
Q145. ‘‘सावन सिर पर था।’’ इस कथन का आशय है कि सावन :
(a) दूर था
(b) आने वाला था
(c) आ चुका था
(d) सूखा था
Ans: (b)
Q146. गद्याश के आधार पर कहा जा सकता है कि अगले दिन:
(a) लोग तेज़ बारिश के न होने से खश्ुा थे
(b) तेज़ बारिश में ‘रेनी डे’ मनाया जाता है
(c) लोग बारिश हाने से खश्ुा थे
(d) लोग बारिश के न होने से परेशान थे
Ans: (c)
Q147. ‘झींसियाँ’ शब्द का भाव है:
(a) तेज़ फुहारें
(b) तेज़ बूँदा-बाँदी
(c) बहुत हल्की बूँदा-बाँदी
(d) मूसलाधार बारिश
Ans: (c)
Q148. ‘‘हम जैसे ढीलों ने इकतरफा तौर पर ‘रेनी डे’ मनाने का फैसला किया।’’ वाक्य में लेखक ने अपनी किस विशेषता को बताया है ?
(a) पढ़ाई में पिछड़े
(b) हर्षोल्लास से त्योहार मनाने वाले
(c) दिमाग से कमजोर
(d) बारिश का मज़ा लेने वाले
Ans: (a)
Q149. किन लोगों ने ‘रेनी डे’ नहीं मनाया ?
(a) जो पढ़ाकू थे
(b) जो डरपोक थे
(c) जो भीगना नहीं चाहते थे
(d) जो बारिश से बचते थे
Ans: (a)
Q150. ‘‘सावन सिर पर था और बादल लापता।’’ वाक्य है:
(a) सरल
(b) मिश्र
(c) संयुक्त
(d) संकेतवाचक
Ans: (d)

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