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CTET Solved Previous Year Paper Paper 1 (Class I-V) 2011-1

CTET Solved Previous Year Paper Paper 1 (Class I-V) 2011

Part I: Child Development and Pedagogy

Directions (Q. 1–30): Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option.
Q1. “Development is a never ending process.” This idea is associated with the
(a) principle of Integration
(b) principle of Interaction
(c) principle of Interrelation
(d) principle of Continuity
Ans: (d)
Q2. Four distinct stages of children’s intellectual development are identified by
(a) Skinner
(b) Piaget
(c) Kohlberg
(d) Erikson
Ans: (b)
Q3. Parents should play a ________ role in the learning process of young children.
(a) sympathetic
(b) neutral
(c) negative
(d) proactive
Ans: (d)
Q4. The ‘Insight Theory of Learning’ was promoted by
(a) Jean Piaget
(b) Vygotsky
(c) ‘Gestalt’ theorists
(d) Pavlov
Ans: (c)
Q5. Motivation, in the process of learning,
(a) makes learners think unidirectional
(b) creates interest for learning among young learners
(c) sharpens the memory of learners
(d) differentiates new learning from old learning.
Ans: (b)
Q6. Which of the following is not a sign of an intelligent young child?
(a) One who carries on thinking in an abstract manner
(b) One who can adjust oneself in a new environment
(c) One who has an ability to cram long essays veryquickly
(d) One who has ability to communicate fluently and appropriately
Ans: (c)
Q7. Which is the place where the child’s ‘cognitive’ development is defined in the best way?
(a) Auditorium
(b) Home
(c) Playground
(d) School and classroom environment
Ans: (d)
Q8. The stage in which a child begins to think logically about objects and events is known as the
(a) pre-operational stage
(b) concrete operational stage
(c) sensory-motor stage
(d) formal operational stage
Ans: (b)
Q9. Which of the following is not related to the sociopsychological needs of a child?
(a) Regular elimination of waste products from thebody
(b) Need for company
(c) Need for appreciation or social approval
(d) Need for emotional security
Ans: (a)
Q10. Which of the following will foster creativity among learners?
(a) Emphasising achievement goals from the beginningof school life
(b) Coaching students for good marks in examination
(c) Teaching students the practical value of goodeducation
(d) Providing opportunities to question and to nurture the innate talents of every learner
Ans: (d)
Q11. ‘Mind mapping’ refers to
(a) drawing the picture of a mind
(b) researching the functioning of the mind
(c) a technique to enhance comprehension
(d) a plan of action for an adventure the
Ans: (c)
Q12. “A young child responds to a new situation on the basis of the response made by him/her in a similar situation as in the past.” This is related to
(a) Law of Attitude of learning process
(b) Law of Readiness of learning
(c) Law of Analogy of learning
(d) Law of Effect of learning
Ans: (d)
Q13. The best way, especially at the primary level, to address the learning difficulties of students is to use
(a) easy and interesting textbooks
(b) story-telling method
(c) a variety of teaching methods suited to the disability
(d) expensive and glossy support material
Ans: (c)
Q14. Education of children with special needs should be provided
(a) in special schools
(b) by special teachers in special schools
(c) along with other normal children
(d) by the methods developed for special children in special schools
Ans: (c)
Q15. ‘Dyslexia’ is associated with
(a) reading disorder
(b) behavioural disorder
(c) mental disorder
(d) mathematical disorder
Ans: (a)
Q16. ________ is not considered as a sign of ‘being gifted’.
(a) Novelty in expression
(b) Curiosity
(c) Creative ideas
(d) Fighting with others
Ans: (d)
Q17. A student of V-grade with ‘visual deficiency’ should be
(a) treated normally in the classroom and providedsupport through audio CDs
(b) given special treatment in the classroom
(c) excused to do a lower level of work
(d) helped with his/her routine work by parents and friends
Ans: (a)
Q18. Which of the following statements cannot be considered as a feature of the process of learning?
(a) Learning is goal-oriented
(b) Unlearning is also a learning process
(c) Educational institutions are the only place wherelearning takes place
(d) Learning is a comprehensive process
Ans: (c)
Q19. Learning can be enriched if
(a) teachers use different types of lectures andexplanation
(b) due attention is paid to periodic tests in the class
(c) situations from the real world are brought into theclass in which students interact with each other andthe teacher facilitates
(d) more and more teaching aids are used in the class
Ans: (c)
Q20. To make assessment a ‘useful and interesting’ process, one should be careful about
(a) using a variety of ways to collect information aboutthe students’ learning across scholastic and coscholasticboundaries
(b) using technical language to give feedback
(c) making comparisons between different students
(d) labelling students as intelligent or average learners
Ans: (a)
Q21. A teacher, because of his/her democratic nature, allows students to sit all over the class. Some sit together and discuss or do group reading. Some sit quietly and read themselves. A parent does not like it.
Which of the following may be the best ways to handle the situation?
(a) Parents should show trust in the teacher anddiscuss the problem with the teachers.
(b) Parents should take away the child from the school.
(c) Parents should complain against the teacher to theprincipal.
(d) Parents should request the principle to change the section of their ward.
Ans: (a)
Q22. Which of the following should be considered the most important quality of a teacher at the primary level?
(a) Competence in the method of teaching andknowledge of subjects
(b) Competence to teach in a highly standardisedlanguage
(c) Eagerness to teach
(d) Patience and perseverance
Ans: (d)
Q23. ________ is considered a sign of motivated teaching.
(a) Questioning by students
(b) Pin drop silence in the class
(c) Maximum attendance in the class
(d) Remedial work given by the teacher
Ans: (a)
Q24. At lower classes, the play way method of teaching is based on
(a) psychological principles of development and growth
(b) psychological principles of teaching
(c) theory of physical education programmes
(d) principle of methods of teaching
Ans: (a)
Q25. The term ‘curriculum’ in the field of education refers to
(a) evaluation process
(b) text-material to be used in the class
(c) methods of teaching and the content to be taught
(d) overall programme of the school which students experience on a day-to day basis
Ans: (d)
Q26. According to Piaget, at which of the following stages does a child begin to think logically about abstract propositions?
(a) Sensory-motor stage (Birth-02 years)
(b) Pre-operational stage (02-07 years)
(c) Concrete operational stage (07-11 years)
(d) Formal operational stage (11 years and up)
Ans: (d)
Q27. A teacher should make an attempt to understand the potentialities of her/his students. Which of the following fields is related to this objective?
(a) Media psychology
(b) Educational psychology
(c) Educational sociology
(d) Social philosophy
Ans: (b)
Q28. Kritika, who does not talk much at home, talks a lot at the school. It shows that
(a) she does not like her home at all
(b) her thoughts get acknowledged at school
(c) the school provides opportunities to children to talka lot
(d) teachers demand that children should talk a lot a school
Ans: (b)
Q29. “Children actively construct their understanding of the world” is a statement attributed to
(a) Kohlberg
(b) Skinner
(c) Piaget
(d) Pavlov
Ans: (c)
Q30. In which of the following stages do children become active members of their peer group?
(a) Early childhood
(b) Childhood
(c) Adolescence
(d) Adulthood
Ans: (c)

Part II: Mathematics

Directions (Q. 31–60): Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option.
Q31. Which is true for a hexagonal pyramid?
(a) It has six faces and each face is a hexagon.
(b) It has a hexagonal base with six triangular facesmeeting at a point.
(c) It has two hexagonal faces and six rectangularfaces.
(d) It has six hexagonal faces joined by six rectangular faces.
Ans: (b)
Q32. The length of a rectangle is ‘l’ and its width is half of its length. What will be the perimeter of the rectangle if the length is doubled keeping the width same?
(a) 4l
(b) 5l
(c) 6l
(d) 3l
Ans: (b)
Q33. In the following which is the greatest number?
(a) (d)2
(b) (2 × 2 × 2)2
(c) [(2 + 2)2]2
(d) (2 + 2 + 2)2
Ans: (c)
Q34. A teacher asked in a class to represent 1/8 Which among the following is an incorrect representation?

Ans: (c)
Q35. 4,07,928 is read as
(a) four lakh seventy nine thousand twenty eight.
(b) forty seven thousand nine hundred twenty eight.
(c) forty thousand nine hundred twenty eight.
(d) four lakh seven thousand nine hundred twenty eight.
Ans: (d)
Q36. If an operator ⊕is defined as 4 ⊕3 = 4 + 5 + 6 5 ⊕4 = 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 6 ⊕4 = 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 What will n ⊕8 be equal to ?
(a) n + 28
(b) 8n + 28
(c) 8n + 36
(d) n + 36
Ans: (b)
Q37. “These days prices have started rising.” Which amongst the following graphs represents this situation?

Ans: (c)
Q38. The weight of some mangoes is 2 kg 600 g and that of some apples is 1 kg 450 g. The weight of the mangoes is greater than that of the apples by
(a) 4 kg 50 g
(b) 1kg 150 g
(c) 1 kg 200 g
(d) 150 g
Ans: (b)
Q39. Examine the following matchstick patterns:
1st stage 2nd stage 3rd stage

If the pattern continues how many matchsticks are needed in the 15th stage?
(a) 105
(b) 65
(c) 61
(d) 62
Ans: (d)
Q40. Look at the following table:
Station Bus 1 Bus 2 Bus 3 New Delhi Departure 19:15 12:30 16:45 Faridabad Arrival 20:22 13:25 19:10 Departure 20:37 13:35 19:22 Mathura Arrival 00:40 18:10 21:55 Which bus takes the least time to reach Mathura from New Delhi?
(a) Bus 1
(b) Bus 2
(c) Bus 3
(d) Both Bus 2 and Bus 3 take equal time
Ans: (c)
Q41. In a dice, the numbers on the opposite faces add up to 7. Which amongst the following will fold into a dice?

Ans: (a)
Q42. The number 49532 rounded off to the nearest thousand is
(a) 49000
(b) 49500
(c) 41000
(d) 50000
Ans: (d)
Q43. How many 4-digit numbers are there in the Hindu’ Arabic Numeration System?
(a) 99
(b) 8999
(c) 9999
(d) 9000
Ans: (d)

is ¾ of a ‘unit’. What will be 1½?

Ans: (c)
Q45. A rhombus has diagonals of length 8 cm and 6 cm.
Find its perimeter.
(a) 18 cm
(b) 20 cm
(c) 24 cm
(d) 28 cm
Ans: (b)
Q46. When faced with word problems, Rajan usually asks “Should I add or subtract?” “Should I multiply or divide?” Such questions suggest
(a) Rajan seeks opportunities to disturb the class.
(b) Rajan has problems in comprehending language.
(c) Rajan lacks understanding of number operations.
(d) Rajan cannot add and multiply.
Ans: (b)
Q47. When teaching ‘shapes’, a teacher can plan a trip of historical places as
(a) she has completed most of the syllabus well in timeand needs to provide leisure.
(b) it would be a good break from the routinemathematics class and an opportunity to improvecommunication skills.
(c) field trips have been recommended by CBSE; sothey are a must.
(d) shapes are an integral part of any architecture and such trips encourage connections across disciplines.
Ans: (d)
Q48. The NCF (2005) considers that Mathematics involves ‘a certain way of thinking and reasoning. From the statements given below, pick out one which does not reflect the above principle.
(a) The way the material presented in textbooks iswritten
(b) The activities and exercises chosen for the class
(c) The method by which it is taught
(d) Giving students set formulae to solve numerical questions
Ans: (d)
Q49. Sequence the following tasks as they are taken up while developing the concept of measurement
a. learners use standard units to measure length
b. learners use non-standard units to measure length
c. learners verify objects using simple observation
d. learners understand the relationship between metric units
(a) a, b, d, c
(b) b, a, c, d
(c) c, b, a, d
(d) d. a, c, b
Ans: (c)
Q50. Sequence the following tasks as would be taken up while developing the understanding of shapes and space across primary classes
a. matches the properties of 2-D shapes by observing their sides and corners
b. describes intuitively the properties of 2-D shapes
c. sorts 2-D shapes
d. describes the various 2-D shapes by counting their sides, corners and diagonals
(a) d, b, a, c
(b) c, b, d, a
(c) a, d, b, c
(d) c, a, d, b
Ans: (b)
Q51. “Problem solving” as a strategy of doing mathematics involves
(a) extensive practice.
(b) using clues to arrive at a solution.
(c) activity based approach.
(d) estimation.
Ans: (c)
Q52. The purpose of a diagnostic test in mathematics is
(a) to know the gaps in children’s understanding.
(b) to give feedback to the parents.
(c) to fill the progress report.
(d) to plan the question paper for the end-term examination.
Ans: (a)
Q53. Vikas teaches mathematics to a class of 56 students.
He believes that conducting a test is effective if the feedback is given immediately. He conducted a short class test of 10 marks. What is the best possible way of giving the feedback effectively?
(a) He can let the students check each other’sanswers.
(b) He can explain the solution of each problem on theboard and ask the students to check their answeron their own.
(c) He can have a whole class discussion on ways inwhich they have got their solutions and which is theeffective strategy to arrive at the correct answer.
(d) Pick out any copy at random and discuss the method followed in the copy on the board.
Ans: (c)
Q54. To introduce the concept of area, a teacher can start with
(a) comparing area of any figure with the help ofdifferent objects like palm, leaf, pencil, notebook,etc.
(b) calculating area of a rectangle by finding the lengthand breadth of a rectangle and using the formulafor area of rectangle.
(c) calculating area of figures with the help of countingunit squares.
(d) explaining the formulae for finding area of figures of different shapes.
Ans: (c)
Q55. To introduce the concept of fractions, a teacher can begin with
(a) identifying numerators and denominators ofdifferent fractions
(b) finding fractions on a number line a
(c) writing fractions in the form a/bof where b ≠ 0
(d) identifying fractional parts of things around them
Ans: (d)
Q56. While teaching comparison of fractions in which the numerators are the same, e.g. 3/5 and 3/7 Rohit’s reasoning was “since the numerators are same and since 7 is larger than 5, 3/7 is bigger than 3/5 This suggests that
(a) rohit does not understand the magnitude offractions
(b) rohit does not know the concept of numerator anddenominator
(c) rohit does not know the concept of equivalentfractions
(d) rohit has not practised well
Ans: (a)
Q57. When teaching addition of fractions, a teacher came across the following error: 1 1 2 + = 2 3 5 What remedial action can the teacher take in such a situation?
(a) Ask the child to practise as much as she can.
(b) No intervention is needed because she willunderstand as she grows.
(c) Help the child to understand the magnitude of eachfraction.
(d) Help the child to understand the concept of LCM.
Ans: (c)
Q58. The chapters in the NCERT text (21) of mathematics of Class-IV have titles like “The Junk Seller”, “Trip to Bhopal”, “The Way the World Looks”.
This shift has been done to
(a) challenge the students to guess the mathematicalcontent in the chapters
(b) make them understand differently
(c) make it interesting by relating it to everyday life
(d) know about selling junk and travelling
Ans: (c)
Q59. To be a “good” mathematician one must be able to
(a) memorise most of the formulae
(b) solve the problem in no time
(c) understand, apply and make connections acrossthe concepts
(d) master the techniques of answering questions
Ans: (c)
Q60. “Start a discussion in the class on things in the child’s environment which roll and slide, Help children to look at their shapes and see how some things roll and others slide.” Suggestions like this have been given in the NCERT textbook of Class II to help a teacher understand that
(a) discussion is the best strategy for the mathematicsclassroom
(b) it is imperative for the teacher to draw thechildren’s attention to the things around them
(c) discussions supplemented with demonstration helpstudents understand concepts better
(d) discussions bring multiple perspectives into theclassroom
Ans: (c)

Part III: Environmental Studies

Directions (Q. 61–90): Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option.
Q61. It has been observed that the process of digestion is faster inside the stomach than outside because
(a) the digestive juices inside the stomach are acidic,while outside they are alkaline
(b) the amount of digestive juices produced in thestomach in the presence of food is much more
(c) the digestive juices when kept outside the stomachbecome inactive
(d) the food is churned in the stomach thereby increasing the surface area for quicker enzyme action
Ans: (a)
Q62. Cooked rice can be preserved for a longer time in a refrigerator because
(a) microbes become inactive at low temperature
(b) microbes are destroyed and killed at lowtemperature
(c) moisture content in the food is reduced at lowtemperature
(d) refrigerators contain certain chemicals which kill the microbes
Ans: (a)
Q63. A lemon sinks in normal water but floats in salty water because
(a) the density of salt water is more than normal water
(b) the density of normal water is more than salt water
(c) the density of lemon increases in salt water
(d) the density of lemon decreases in salt water
Ans: (a)
Q64. Malaria can be detected by testing the blood for the presence of
(a) ruptured liver cells in blood
(b) larvae of mosquito in blood
(c) eggs of mosquito in red blood cells
(d) plasmodium in red blood cells
Ans: (d)
Q65. A shooting star is a
(a) shining object that moves with a constant speed inthe atmosphere
(b) star with a tail at the end
(c) meteoroid that catches fire as it enters the Earth’satmosphere
(d) star that moves with a constant speed
Ans: (c)
Q66. Durga lives in a village and cooks food on a chulha
(earthen stove) using wood or cow dung cakes as fuel. She has been suffering from severe cough for the last three months. This may be due to the
(a) carbon monoxide produced by the burning fuel,which may have been deposited in her respiratorytract
(b) soot produced by the burning fuel, which may havebeen deposited in her respiratory tract
(c) smoke produced by the burning fuel, which mayhave caused her allergy
(d) old age and pollution inside and outside her hut
Ans: (b)
Q67. A man with blood group ‘O’ marries a woman with blood group ‘A’. The chance of their first child having blood group ‘O’ is
(a) 50%
(b) 100%
(c) 25%
(d) 75%
Ans: (a)
Q68. The difference between boiling and evaporation is that
(a) boiling causes a change of state of water, whileevaporation does not
(b) evaporation can take place at any temperature,while boiling cannot
(c) boiling causes reduction in the volume of liquid,while evaporation does not
(d) changing of the boiling liquid into vapour can be seen but evaporation cannot be seen
Ans: (b)
Q69. A farmer wanted to separate the grains from the chaff. This can be achieved by the process called
(a) threshing
(b) winnowing
(c) harvesting
(d) handpicking
Ans: (b)
Q70. In rural areas, cow dung is used to coat the floor and walls of huts to
(a) make them smooth and clean
(b) make them rough to increase friction
(c) give a natural colour to the floor
(d) keep the insects away
Ans: (a)
Q71. Mira and Divya are young girls. Mira likes to eat samosas, cutlets and bread. Divya, on the other hand, takes an iron deficient diet. Which of the following disorders are Mira and Divya likely to suffer from, respectively?
(a) Anaemia and night blindness
(b) Obesity and anaemia
(c) Obesity and scurvy
(d) Scurvy and anaemia
Ans: 71 (b)
Q72. Vitamins are substances
(a) required as medicines to make us healthy
(b) that build muscles to keep us strong
(c) required in small quantities to prevent deficiencydiseases
(d) that increase our metabolic rate leading to loss of weight
Ans: (c)
Q73. The Chipko Movement was strengthened under the leadership of
(a) Amrita Devi Bishnoi
(b) Medha Patkar
(c) A.K. Banerjee
(d) Sunder Lal Bahuguna
Ans: (a)
Q74. Rina separated the garbage from her house into two piles as shown below:

Rina has separated the garbage waste into two piles depending on the criteria give below:
(a) Can be decomposed/cannot be decomposed
(b) Can be recycled/cannot be recycled
(c) Are household/industrial waste
(d) Have odour/are odourless
Ans: (a)
Q75. An egret bird is often seen on a buffalo’s back. This is because the egret
(a) loves to sing while sitting on the buffalo’s back
(b) rests after flying for a while
(c) feeds on parasites on the buffalo’s back
(d) feeds on insects present in the grass
Ans: (c)
Q76. Which of the following statements is not an objective of teaching EVS at the primary level?
(a) To arouse curiosity about the natural and socialenvironment
(b) To engage in exploratory and hands-on activitiesthat lead to the development of cognitive andpsychomotor skills
(c) To load learners with terms and definitions forassessment
(d) To internalise the values of concern for life and the environment
Ans: (c)
Q77. The idea of showing a sample of a railway ticket in the EVS textbook is to
(a) give students an idea of the rail fare
(b) provide them the knowledge of variousabbreviations used in the ticket
(c) enhance the skills of students to arrive atconclusions
(d) give them an opportunity to interact with real information and develop the skill of observation
Ans: (d)
Q78. The concept of ‘seed germination’ can be taught best by
(a) showing germinated seeds to the class andexplaining the process of germination
(b) presenting the germination stages through drawingson the board
(c) asking students to perform an activity to sow seeds,observe different stages and draw them
(d) showing photographs of seed germination
Ans: (c)
Q79. Which one of the following is not an objective of including riddles and puzzles in the EVS textbook?
(a) To develop critical thinking ability in students
(b) To develop reasoning ability in students
(c) To confuse the mind of students and let them enjoythe confusion
(d) To develop curiosity and ability to think creatively
Ans: (c)
Q80. As an EVS teacher, you plan to take the students to the zoo. Which of the following activities would you not allow the students to undertake?
(a) Collect photographs of the animals they expect tosee at the zoo.
(b) Take their drawing books along with them to drawwhat they see at the zoo.
(c) Take along lots of eatables for the animals at thezoo.
(d) Try to find out the food taken up by different animals at the zoo.
Ans: (c)
Q81. At the primary stage, assessments should consist of
(a) continuous and unstructured teacher observationsto be shared with learners and parents
(b) formal tests and games done every week andrecorded in the report card
(c) half-yearly and annual examinations at the end ofthe year
(d) home assignments and class assignments every week to rate young learners under the categories of pass or fail
Ans: (a)
Q82. Simple experiments and demonstrations can be performed in an EVS class to
(a) enable students to learn on their own and sharpentheir observation skills
(b) follow what is being done in the senior classes
(c) discuss ideas and record and analyse observationson the basis of questions raised by students
(d) control students to maintain discipline in the class
Ans: (a)
Q83. Which of the following statements about assignments is correct?
(a) Assignments need to be given as classworkfollowed by homework every day to provide varietyand practice.
(b) Assignments should be the only method ofassessment.
(c) Assignments provide learners an opportunity tosearch for information, construct their own ideasand articulate them.
(d) Assignments can be done by parents, brothers or sisters depending on the talent they possess.
Ans: (c)
Q84. The skills required to read a map include
(a) excellent drawing and painting skills
(b) ability to use calculations and sketch positions on aglobe
(c) excellent communication skills to draw out theexpressive ability
(d) ability to understand relative position of places, distances and directions
Ans: (d)
Q85. The use of poems and storytelling to explain concepts in an EVS class helps to
(a) make the lesson enjoyable and interesting
(b) promote students’ ability to imagine and explore thenature of the world at the local and global levels
(c) take care of the language and cultural diversityamong learners
(d) channelise the energies of students in the right direction
Ans: (b)
Q86. To make children aware of different kinds of fuel, a teacher can
(a) show pictures of fuels on a chart
(b) ask children to list different fuels
(c) show some samples of fuels in the class
(d) discuss with children about possible kinds of fuel that can be used for cooking, along with a short film
Ans: (d)
Q87. Giving importance to individual experiences of children in an EVS class will benefit the teacher
(a) to know the unique experiences of children
(b) to help and improve the language andcommunication skills of children
(c) to connect the subject to children’s experientialworld and promote reflection and learning
(d) to save her energy as children enjoy talking
Ans: (c)
Q88. Which of the following represents one of the objectives of teaching EVS at primary school?
(a) To make learners aware of technical terms anddefinitions
(b) To assess technical terms related to EVS
(c) To inform the learners about the books they shouldread to expand their knowledge
(d) To connect the experiences of the learners in school with the outside world
Ans: (d)
Q89. A school planned an educational trip for class V students to Rajasthan. What would be your expectation from the children during the visit?
(a) They should enjoy themselves.
(b) They should observe keenly, make notes and sharetheir observations with other students and theteacher.
(c) They should note down their questions, if any, andask their parents after reaching home.
(d) They should observe every thing without asking questions about it.
Ans: (b)
Q90. After the lunch break, while teaching EVS, you find that students are not taking interest in the lesson.
What would you do?
(a) Use audio-visual aids based on multipleintelligences to make the lesson interesting.
(b) Change the topic immediately.
(c) Take the children out to play in the ground.
(d) Ask them to put their heads down on the desk andrelax.
Ans: (a)

Part IV: Language I English

Directions: Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow (Q. 91–99) by selecting the most appropriate option.
1. Max Weber laid the foundation for my belief that decent and hard-working people with high aspirations make great nations, no matter what the odds are. This was the first piece of the development puzzle for me.
Mahatma Gandhi opened my eyes to the importance of good leadership in raising the aspirations of people, making them accept sacrifices to achieve a grand vision, and most importantly, in converting that vision into reality. He unleashed the most powerful instrument for gaining trust leadership by example. He ate, dressed, travelled and lived like the poor. Walking the talk was extremely important to the Mahatma who understood the pulse of our people like no other Indian leader. The biggest lesson for me from Gandhi’s book and life is the importance of leading by example.
I realized fairly early that this Was the second piece of the development puzzle.
2. Frantz Fanon’s book on the coloniser mindset, of elites in a post-colonial society opened my eyes to the role of the bureaucracy and the elite in decelerating the progress of the poor and the disenfranchised. The colonial mindset of the ‘dark elite in white masks’ in a post-colonial society — the mindset that the ruled and the rulers have different sets of rights and responsibilities with a huge asymmetry in favour of the rulers — was indeed the third piece of the development puzzle. I see this attitude of the Indian elite every day in how they send their children to English medium schools while forcing the children of the poor into vernacular schools, extol the virtue of poverty while living in luxury, and glorify the rural life while they sit comfortably in cities.
Q91. The main purpose of the author in the above passage is to
(a) discuss the different writers he has read
(b) argue why India should not be considered adeveloped country
(c) delineate the lessons he has learnt for thedevelopment of a nation
(d) prioritise goals for only economic development of India
Ans: (c)
Q92. The first piece of the development puzzle, according to the author, is
(a) creating a team of industrious people for a nationalcause
(b) the importance of decent, inspired and industriouspeople for a nation’s development
(c) imbuing the citizens of the country with decencyand aspirations
(d) the need for making people understand the importance of leading an idealistic and simple life
Ans: (b)
Q93. Mahatma Gandhi proved that only leadership by example can
(a) mobilise the people of a country against colonialrule
(b) fully and properly understand the pulse of thepeople of a country
(c) gain the trust of the people so that they are willingto make sacrifices for a larger cause
(d) inspire people to eat, dress, travel and live like the poor
Ans: (c)
Q94. The expression ‘walking the talk’ means
(a) addressing public gatherings in an electioncampaign
(b) talking to the common people by mingling withthem
(c) being diplomatic in one’s behaviour and words
(d) practising what one preaches
Ans: (d)
Q95. The colonial mindset of ‘dark elite in white masks’ with reference to the passage is
(a) discriminating people on the basis of the colour oftheir skin
(b) an assumption that the administrators andpoliticians have more rights and privileges than thecommon people
(c) looking down upon the poor and thedisenfranchised
(d) the bureaucratic practice of according topmost priority to confidentiality in official dealings
Ans: (b)
Q96. Extolling ‘the virtues of poverty while living in luxury’ is an instance of
(a) the hypocrisy of the people of our country
(b) practising what you preach
(c) the ideal of a good government
(d) the need to make people adopt a simple life
Ans: (a)
Q97. ‘I realised fairly early that this was the second piece of the development puzzle.’ The underlined part of this sentence is a/an
(a) Adjective clause
(b) Adverbial phrase
(c) Noun clause
(d) Verb clause
Ans: (c)
Q98. Pick out a word or phrase from the second paragraph of the passage that means the same as ‘to make
(something) go slower’.
(a) disenfranchised
(b) dark elite
(c) decelerating
(d) vernacular
Ans: (c)
Q99. ‘Development’ is a noun with ‘ment’ as a suffix.
Which of the following will become a noun if we add the suffix ‘ment’ to it?
(a) Extort
(b) Enter
(c) Enchant
(d) Endure
Ans: (c)
Directions: Read the poem given below and answer the questions that follow (Q. 100–105) by selecting the most appropriate option.
On A Tired Housewife Here lies a poor woman who was always tired, She lived in a house where help wasn’t hired:
Her last words on earth were: ‘Dear friends, I am going To where there’s no cooking, or washing, or sewing, For everything there is exact to my wishes, For where they don’t eat there’s no washing of dishes.
I’ll be where loud anthems will always be ringing.
But having no voice I’ll be quit of the singing.
Don’t mourn for me now, don’t mourn for me never.
I am going to do nothing for ever and ever.’ Anonymous
Q100. The woman described in the poem
(a) was very busy doing chores
(b) was no more
(c) lived in her own house
(d) worked in the house of a rich man
Ans: (b)
Q101. The woman was always tired because
(a) she was physically very weak
(b) she was suffering from a serious ailment
(c) she did all the household work without any help
(d) she had hardly anything to eat
Ans: (c)
Q102. The woman wanted to go to a place where
(a) people didn’t sing or dance
(b) people didn’t cook, wash or sew
(c) people would take good care of her
(d) people would sincerely mourn for her
Ans: (b)
Q103. The woman’s account in the poem shows
(a) how overworked a housewife is
(b) that there is no work in heaven
(c) how a woman can escape from work
(d) how we should help each other
Ans: (a)
Q104. ‘For everything there is exact to my wishes,’ In this line, the word ‘exact’ can be interpreted to mean
(a) Contrary
(b) Contributing
(c) According
(d) Loading
Ans: (c)
Q105. The rhyme pattern in the poem is
(a) ab, ab, ab, ab, ab
(b) aa, ab, cd, cd, ee
(c) aa, bb, cc, dd, ee
(d) aa, ab, be, cd, de
Ans: (c)
Directions: Answer the following questions (Q. 106–120)
by selecting the most appropriate option.
Q106. Ria is unable to pronounce the words ‘smile’ and ‘school’ clearly. As her teacher, what will you do?
(a) Make Ria repeat the words many times.
(b) Make Ria understand the meaning and soundpattern and get the class as a whole to listen tothese words through an audio-visual medium.
(c) Humiliate Ria by isolating her and asking her torepeat the words.
(d) Asking the entire class to repeat the words and appreciating Ria when she repeats them correctly.
Ans: (b)
Q107. Lalita, a teacher of young learners, provides them with opportunities to play with clay, water and sand so as to
(a) build fine motor skills, especially of the fingers and thumb
(b) encourage play with no other objective
(c) please them and make them happy
(d) dirty their hands so that they may learn to wash them
Ans: (a)
Q108. The spoken skills in a language teaching classroom can be developed through
(a) engaging in small talk as confident aggressive learners
(b) emotionally connecting with learners
(c) enabling activities with a focus on conversationskills leading to communicative competence
(d) group activities where learners can talk in whichever language they would like to
Ans: (c)
Q109. Ritu often makes errors in subject-verb concord. The teacher can help her by
(a) taking up many examples for the entire class andpaying special attention to Ritu
(b) explaining to her the rules of grammar
(c) asking Ritu to learn the rules and scolding her
(d) asking Ritu to write the rules ten times in her notebook
Ans: (a)
Q110. How will a teacher best teach writing skills to a class?
(a) By brainstorming ideas and asking students to writein their own words.
(b) By asking students to write neatly.
(c) Through dictation.
(d) By asking students to learn articles and rewrite them.
Ans: (a)
Q111. In a diverse classroom, learners find it difficult to speak and write good English and often lapse into their mother-tongue because
(a) they are not motivated to learn
(b) they lack enough competence and the structures ofthe two languages are different
(c) they do not have the ability to learn English
(d) they are slow learners
Ans: (b)
Q112. Read the two sentences given below:
The lizard ate the fly.
The fly ate the lizard.
A teacher can use this example to explain that
(a) there is no difference in the two sentences becauseboth have the same words
(b) when subject and object change positions, themeaning of the sentence changes
(c) they are examples of reported speech
(d) they are a collection of words
Ans: (b)
Q113. Mary, a young teacher, believes in personalised learning because she thinks that
(a) every person must be exposed to learning
(b) every learner is unique and needs to be given achance to develop to the best of their ability
(c) all learners must learn on their own
(d) children must enjoy their learning
Ans: (b)
Q114. Grammar should be taught by
(a) asking students to learn rules
(b) making learners do written assignments
(c) giving clear explanations
(d) enabling practice in context
Ans: (b)
Q115. A child studying in Class-III says: “I dranked the water.” It indicates that the child
(a) has not learnt grammar rules properly
(b) should memorise the correct sentence
(c) has over-generalised the rule for making past tenseverbs, showing that learning is taking place
(d) is careless and needs to be told that she should be conscious of such errors
Ans: (c)
Q116. Children who are differently-abled join a new school.
Teachers give different reactions. Which one reflects the concept of inclusive education?
(a) “Oh; How can I teach children who cannot evenread?”
(b) “I’m worried that my class may not accept thesechildren and some of the mischievous children mayeven harm the poor kids.”
(c) “Good, it will provide a good opportunity for thechildren to learn to help each other and besupportive.”
(d) “Such children should go to special schools where they will learn better.”
Ans: (c)
Q117. Leena uses big reading books in her language classes to
(a) allow students to read at home
(b) ensure books carry a lot of information
(c) use these illustrated colourful books for readingtogether
(d) use them for big students of different ages
Ans: (c)
Q118. A teacher can cater to the learning styles of all the children by
(a) teaching every lesson thoroughly and revising thelessons
(b) testing the children frequently
(c) advising the children to join drawing/dance/musicclasses
(d) employing a variety of teaching methods and modes of assessment which cater to diversity among learners
Ans: (d)
Q119. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 stipulates that learning should be
(a) restricted to co-scholastic subjects
(b) carefully monitored by frequent testing
(c) through activities in a child-friendly manner
(d) supported by extra coaching
Ans: (c)
Q120. As part of a class project, a teacher planned a salad fruit celebration day in which all learners needed to participate. The boys protested as they felt that boys do not cook. The teacher should
(a) ignore such protests and tell the boys what shethinks of their bias
(b) complain to the head of the school seeking actionagainst the boys
(c) make an attempt to counsel the boys, impressingupon them that gender stereotyping is not healthy
(d) respect the sentiments of the boys and allow themnot to participate in the class projectCTET Exam Goalpost Solved Papers and Mock Tests
Ans: (c)

भाग V: भाषा II हिन्दी

निर्देश: गद्यांश को पढ़कर निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों (प्र. सं. 121&126) में सबसे उचित विकल्प चुनिए। लोक कथाएँ आम जीवन में सदियों से रची-बसी हैं। इन में हम भूमिका निभाते हैं। अगर हम अपनी पढ़ी हुई लोक कथाओं को याद करें तो सहजता से हमें इनके कई उदाहरण मिल जाते हैं। जब हम कहानी सुना रहे होते हैं तो बच्चों से हमारी यह अपेक्षा रहती है कि वे पहली घटी घटनाओं को जरूर दोहराएँ। बच्चे भी घटना को याद रखते हुए साथ-साथ मजे से दोहराते हैं। इस तरह कथा सुनाने की इस प्रक्रिया में बच्चे इन घटनाओं को एक क्रम में रख कर देखते हैं। इन क्रमिक घटनाओं में एक तर्क होता है जो बच्चों के मनोभावों से मिलता-जुलता है।
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Q121. लोक कथाओं में शामिल है
(a) लोक जीवन के रंग
(b) लोक की उड़ान
(c) घटनाएँ
(d) लोक कल्पना
Ans: (a)
Q122. लोक कथाओं में किस परिवेश की महक की बात की गई है?
(a) शहरी परिवेश की
(b) विद्यालयी परिवेश की
(c) ग्रामीण परिवेश की
(d) बच्चों के आस-पास मौजूद परिवेश की
Ans: (d)
Q123. बच्चों से हमारी क्या अपेक्षा रहती है?
(a) कहानी सुनना
(b) घटनाओं की भाषा को समझना
(c) वे कहानी में मजे लें
(d) वे कहानी की घटनाओं को याद रखें ताकि आगे की कहानी से जोड़ा जा सकेAns: (d)
Q124. अनुच्छेद के आधार पर कहा जा सकता है कि इसका मुख्य बिन्दु है
(a) लोक कथाओं के माध्यम से कल्पना, तर्क और भाषा काविकास किया जा सकता है
(b) कहानी में याद रखना जरूरी है
(c) लोक कथाएँ हमारे जीवन का हिस्सा हैं
(d) लोक कथाओं में लोक तत्त्व होता है
Ans: (a)
Q125. ‘परिवेश की महक’ पद का अर्थ है
(a) परिवेश की विशिष्टताएँ, सीमाएँ
(b) परिवेश की कहानियाँ
(c) परिवेश की खुशबू
(d) परिवेश की गंध
Ans: (a)
Q126. ‘कहानी की क्रमिक घटनाओं में एक तर्क होता है जो बच्चों के मनोभावों से मिलता-जुलता है।’ वाक्य किस ओर संकेत करता है?
(a) कहानियों में एक क्रम होता ह।ै
(b) बच्चे भी कहानी के क्रम में ही सोचते हैं।
(c) कहानियाँ बच्चों की मानसिक दशा को दशार्ती ह।ै
(d) बच्चे भी कहानी के बारे में लगभग उसी तरह सोचते हैं जिस तरह कहानी में घटनाएँ घटती हैं।
Ans: (d)
निर्देश: गद्यांश को पढ़कर निम्नलिखित प्रश्नों (प्र. सं. 127&135) में सबसे उचित विकल्प चुनिए। गाँधीजी मानते थे कि सामाजिक या सामूहिक जीवन की ओर बढ़ने से पहले कौटुम्बिक जीवन का अनुभव प्राप्त करना आवश्यक है। इसलिए वे आश्रम-जीवन बिताते थे। वहाँ सभी एक भोजनालय में भोजन करते थे। इससे समय और धन तो बचता ही था, साथ ही सामूहिक जीवन का अभ्यास भी होता था। लेकिन यह सब होना चाहिए, समय-पालन, सुव्यवस्था और शुचिता के साथ। इस ओर लोगों को प्रोत्साहित करने के लिए गाँधीजी स्वयं भी सामूहिक रसोईघर में भोजन करते थे। भोजन के समय दो बार घण्टी बजती थी। जो दूसरी घण्टी बजने तक भोजनालय में नहीं पहुँच पाता था, उसे दूसरी पंक्ति के लिए बरामदे में इन्तजार करना पड़ता था। दूसरी घण्टी बजते ही रसोईघर का द्वार बन्द कर दिया जाता था, जिससे बाद में आने वाले व्यक्ति अन्दर न आने पाएँ। एक दिन गाँधीजी पिछड़ गए। संयोग से उस दिन आश्रमवासी श्री हरिभाऊ उपाध्याय भी पिछड़ गए। जब वे वहाँ पहुँचे तो देखा कि बापू बरामदे में खड़े हैं। बैठने के लिए न बैंच हैं, न कुर्सी। हरिभाऊ ने विनोद करते हुए कहा, “बापूजी आज तो आप भी गुनहगारों के कठघरे में आ गए हैं।” गाँधीजी खिलखिलाकर हँस पड़ें। बोले, “कानून के सामने तो सब बराबर होते हैं न?” हरिभाऊ जी ने कहा, “बैठने के लिए कुर्सी लाऊँ, बापू?” गाँधीजी बोले, “नहीं, उसकी जरूरत नहीं है। सजा पूरी भुगतनी चाहिए। उसी में सच्चा आनन्द है।”
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Q127. गाँधीजी ने किस बात की पूरी सजा भुगतने की बात की?
(a) गलत नियम बनाने की
(b) देर से रसोईघर में पहुँचने की
(c) सामूहिक जीवन की
(d) आश्रम-जीवन बिताने की
Ans: (b)
Q128. सामूहिक जीवन बिताने के लिए सबसे महत्त्वपूर्ण है
(a) समूह के सदस्यों की आपसी प्रतिस्पर्द्धा
(b) समूह के लिए बनाए गए नियमों का पालन
(c) सब समान स्तर के हों
(d) समान विचारधारा होना
Ans: (b)
Q129. “कानून के सामने तो सब बराबर होते है न?” गाँधीजी का यह कथन इस ओर संकेत करता है कि
(a) कानून के हाथ लम्बे होते हैं
(b) गाँधीजी झेंप गए थे
(c) कानून किसी तरह का भेदभाव नहीं करता
(d) गाँधीजी पूरी ईमानदारी से नियमों का पालन करने में विश्वास रखते थे
Ans: (d)
Q130. दूसरी घण्टी के बाद रसोईघर का दरवाजा बन्द कर दिया जाता होगा?
(a) ऐसा गाँधीजी का निर्देश था
(b) ताकि लोग समय से भोजन करें और नियमों का पालन भी
(c) ताकि लोग अन्दर न आ सकें
(d) ताकि लोग एकाध दिन उपवास कर सकेंAns: (b)
Q131. सभी भोजनालय में एक साथ भोजन करते थे। इससे
(a) केवल धन की बचत होती थी।
(b) सुव्यवस्था रहती थी।
(c) गाँधीजी और हरिभाऊ जी को बहुत असुविधा होती थी।
(d) सामूहिक जीवन का महत्व पता चलता था।
Ans: (d)
Q132. ‘शुचिता’ शब्द का अर्थ है?
(a) निर्मलता
(b) सरलता
(c) निष्पक्षता
(d) पवित्रता
Ans: (d)
Q133. इनमें कौन-सा ‘इक’ प्रत्यय का उदाहरण है?
(a) अत्यधिक
(b) कौटुम्बिक
(c) अधिक्य
(d) माणिक्य
Ans: (b)
Q134. ‘भोजनलय’ का सन्धि-विच्छेद है
(a) भोजन + अलय
(b) भोजन + आलय
(c) भोजन + लय
(d) भोज + नालय
Ans: (b)
Q135. ‘रसोईघर’ शब्द है
(a) यौगिक
(b) तत्सम
(c) रूढ़
(d) योगरूढ़
Ans: (b)
निर्देश: नीचे दिए गए प्रश्नों (प्र.सं. 136&150) के लिए सबसे उचित विकल्प का चयन कीजिए।
Q136. भाषा की कक्षा का माहौल कैसा होना चाहिए।
(a) जहाँ बच्चों की उनकी बात कहने और सुनने केअधिकाधिक अवसर मिलें
(b) जहाँ शिक्षक बोले और बच्चे ध्यान से सुने
(c) जहाँ भाषागत शुद्धता पर अत्याधिक बल हो
(d) दीवारों पर सुक्तियाँ लिखी हों
Ans: (a)
Q137. पहली कक्षा में पढ़ने वाली अंकिता अक्सर ‘ड़’ वाले शब्दों को गलत तरीके से बोलती है। आप क्या करेंगे?
(a) उसे ‘ड़’ वाले शब्दों की सी डी सुनने के लिए देंगे
(b) अंकिता को ‘ड़’ वाले शब्दों की सूची देंगे
(c) अंकिता को ‘ड़’ वाले शब्दों को अपने पीछे-पीछे दोहरानेके लिए कहेंगे
(d) स्वयं ‘ड़’ वाले शब्दों को सहज भाव से उसके समक्ष प्रस्तुत कर उससे धैर्यपूर्वक बोलने का अभ्यास कराएँगे
Ans: (d)
Q138. पाठ पढ़ने-पढ़ाने के बाद किस तरह के सवाल बच्चों की समझ का मूल्यांकन करने में सहायक नहीं होते?
(a) ‘यदि-तो’ वाले प्रश्न
(b) पढ़े गए पाठ से जोड़ते हुए अपने निजी अनुभवों को व्यक्तकरने वाले प्रश्न
(c) ‘क्यों’, ‘कैसे’ वाले प्रश्न
(d) ‘क्या शिक्षा मिलती ह?ै ’ वाला पश्र न
Ans: (b)
Q139. लगभग दो साल के बच्चे तार वाली भाषा (टेलीग्राफिक स्पीच) का प्रयोग करते हैं। तार वाली भाषा का अर्थ है
(a) तार में प्रयुक्त होने वाले शब्दों का प्रयोग
(b) अंगे्रजी शब्दों का उपयोग
(c) संक्षिप्त वाक्यों का प्रयोग करना
(d) मुख्य अर्थ को व्यक्त करने वाले संज्ञा, क्रिया, विशेषण आदि दो शब्दों वाली अभिव्यक्ति
Ans: (d)
Q140. प्राथमिक स्तर पर आप किस तरह का बाल-साहित्य उचित समझते है?
(a) केवल कहानियाँ
(b) ऐसा साहित्य जिसमें शब्द साहित्यकार द्वारा लिखे गए
(c) ऐसा साहित्य जिसमें शब्दों और घटनाओं का दोहराव हो
(d) केवल कविताएँ
Ans: (c)
Q141. एक समावेशी कक्षा में ‘भाषा-शिक्षण’ की समस्या है
(a) उपरोक्त भाषा-परिवेश का निर्माण न हो पाना
(b) उपरोक्त पाठ्य-सामग्री का अभाव
(c) विद्या£थयों की योग्यताओं में भिन्नता होना
(d) विद्या£थयों में आसमान रुचि का होना
Ans: (a)
Q142. कक्षा में कुछ बच्चे गलत वर्तनी का प्रयोग करते हुए लिखते है। आप क्या करेंग?े
(a) इसे एक सहज और स्वाभाविक प्रक्रिया मानते हुए कक्षा में‘¯प्रट’-समृद्ध माहौल का निर्माण करेंगे
(b) शब्दों को दस-दस बार सही तरीके से लिखने के लिएकहेंगे
(c) बच्चों को उनकी त्रुटियों का अहसास कराएँगे
(d) गलत वर्तनी वाले शब्दों पर लाल स्याही से घेरा या क्रॉस लगाएँगे।
Ans: (a)
Q143. बच्चों के भाषा-विकास की क्रमिक प्रगति का रिकॉर्ड रखने में कौन-सा सर्वाधिक सहायक है?
(a) शिक्षक-डायरी
(b) पोर्टफोलियो
(c) लिखित परीक्षा की उत्तर पुस्तिकाएँ
(d) नोट-बुक
Ans: (b)
Q144. प्राथमिक स्तर पर बच्चे किस प्रकार की कविताएँ पसंद करते हैं?
(a) जो तुकान्त न हों
(b) जो कोई सीख देती हों
(c) जिनमें लयात्मकता हो
(d) जो अनिवार्य रूप से राजा-रानी से जुड़ी हों
Ans: (c)
Q145. प्राथमिक स्तर पर बहु-सांस्कृतिक पृष्ठभूमि वाली कक्षा में बच्चे लक्ष्य भाषा के परिवेश से भाषा अ£जत करते हुए
(a) लक्ष्य भाषा की अपनी भाषा से तुलना करते हैं
(b) धीमें-धीमें भाषा के रचनात्मक प्रयोग का अभ्यास करनेलगते हैं
(c) उसे शुद्ध-अशुद्ध रूप में पहचानते हैं
(d) व्याकरणिक नियमों की शुद्धता को परखते हैं
Ans: (b)
Q146. ग्राह्यात्मक कौशलों में शामिल हैं
(a) सुनना, बोलना
(b) बोलना, लिखना
(c) सुनना, पढ़ना
(d) पढ़ना, लिखना
Ans: (c)
Q147. राहुल को जब भी कक्षा में उत्तर देने के लिए कहा जाता है वह हकलाने लगता है। इसका क्या कारण हो सकता ह?ै
(a) राहुल जानबूझकर ऐसा करता है ताकि उसे जवाब न देनापड़े।
(b) राहुल को सही उत्तर नहीं पता होगा।
(c) यह राहुल की आदत ह।ै
(d) राहुल बड़े समूह के सामने अपनी बात कहने में मनोवज्ञैा निक दबाव महसूस करता ह।ै
Ans: (d)
Q148. राधिका अकसर ‘लड़का’ को ‘लका’, ‘कमाई होने लगी’ को ‘कमाई होगी’ लिखना जैसी गलतियाँ कर बैठती है। यह इस ओर संकेत करता है कि
(a) राधिका ध्यान से नहीं लिखती
(b) उसके लेखन के स्तर में सुधार की आवश्यकता है
(c) राधिका को मात्राओं का ज्ञान नहीं है
(d) राधिका के विचारों की तेज गति के साथ उसकी लेखनी नहीं चल पाती
Ans: (d)
Q149. प्राथमिक स्तर पर ‘सुनना-बोलना’ कौशल के विकास में कौन-सी विधियाँ अधिक सहायक ह?ैं
(a) कहानी-कथन और श्रुतलेख
(b) कविता-पाठ और भाषा-प्रयोगशाला
(c) भूमिका-निर्वाह (रोल-प्ले) और समाचार-वाचन
(d) भूमिका-निर्वाह और बातचीत करना
Ans: (d)
Q150. इनमें से प्राथमिक स्तर पर भाषा-शिक्षण का कौन-सा उद्देश्य अनिवार्यत: नहीं है?
(a) विभिन्न सन्दर्भों में प्रयुक्त शब्दों के सही अर्थ ग्रहण करना
(b) विभिन्न सन्दर्भों और स्थितियों में अपनी बात व्यक्त करनेकी कुशलता का विकास
(c) भाषा के अलंकारिक प्रयोग की क्षमता का विकास
(d) मानवीय मूल्यों का विकास179
Ans: (c)

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