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अध्याय 9. इतिहास – कब, कहाँ और कैसे (Social ...

अध्याय 9. इतिहास - कब, कहाँ और कैसेहम जिस समाज में रहते हैं उसके परिवेश की हमें आदत पड़ जाती है। हम यह मान लेते हैं कि दुनिया हमेशा ऐसी ... Read More

अध्याय 9 अधिगम का मूल्यांकन (Child Development �...

अध्याय 9 अधिगम का मूल्यांकनमूल्यांकन► आंकलन एक संक्षिप्त तथा मूल्यांकन एक व्यापक प्रक्रिया है। मूल्यांकन प्रक्रिया के अंतर्गत शिक्षण विधि, शैक्षिक उददे्श्य तथा शिक्षण अधिगम प्रक्रिया को जानकर छात्र को ... Read More

अध्याय 8. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम – मूल्यांक...

अध्याय 8. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम - मूल्यांकनमूल्यांकन की अवधारणा► मूल्यांकन यह जानने की पद्धति है कक्षा में दी जाने वाली शिक्षा कहाँ तक प्रभावशाली रही है और शिक्षा के ... Read More

अध्याय 8 भाषा तथा चिन्तन (Child Development &...

अध्याय 8 भाषा तथा चिन्तनभाषा► एक शिक्षार्थी या व्यक्ति अपने विचारों एवं चिंतन को व्यक्त करने के लिए भाषा का उपयोग करता है। किसी व्यक्ति के सम्पूर्ण कार्य व्यवहार को ... Read More

अध्याय 7. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम – परियोजना...

अध्याय 7. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम - परियोजना कार्यपरियोजना कार्य की अवधारणा► किसी विशेष लक्ष्य की प्राप्ति हेतु जो विशेष कार्य योजना बनाई और क्रियान्वित की जाती है, उसे परियोजना(Project) ... Read More

अध्याय 7 बुद्धि निर्माण तथा बहुआयामी बुद्धि (Child...

अध्याय 7 बुद्धि निर्माण तथा बहुआयामी बुद्धिबुद्धि का अर्थ तथा परिभाषाएँ► बुद्धि अमूर्त ढंग से सीखने या चिंतन करने की योग्यता है। एक शिक्षार्थी अपनी बुद्धि द्वारा सामाजिक-शैक्षिक परिवेश के ... Read More

अध्याय 6. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम – स्रोत प्...

अध्याय 6. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम - स्रोत प्राथमिक एवं द्वितीयकस्रोत का अर्थ► कोई वस्तु, स्थान, पुस्तक या व्यक्ति जो ज्ञान को वास्तविक आधार प्रदान करते हैं उस आधार को ... Read More

अध्याय 6 बाल-केन्द्रित शिक्षा तथा प्रगतिशील शिक्षा...

अध्याय 6 बाल-केन्द्रित शिक्षा तथा प्रगतिशील शिक्षा की अवधारणाबाल-केन्द्रित शिक्षा► राष्ट्रीय पाठ्यचर्चा रूपरेखा 2005 के अनुसार, एक बच्चे को समावेशी शिक्षा देने के लिए बाल-केन्द्रित शिक्षा नीति अपनायी गई है। ... Read More

अध्याय 50. राजनीतिक विज्ञान – संविधान (Socia...

अध्याय 50. राजनीतिक विज्ञान - संविधानभारतीय संविधान निर्माण के आरम्भिक प्रयासलगभग 200 वर्षों के औपनिवेशिक शासन, जन आधारित स्वतंत्रता संघर्ष, राष्ट्रीय आंदोलन, देश के विभाजन व राष्ट्रव्यापी सांप्रदायिक हिंसा की ... Read More

अध्याय 5. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम – सामाजिक ...

अध्याय 5. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम - सामाजिक अध्ययन/सामाजिक विज्ञान शिक्षण की समस्याएँसामाजिक विज्ञान शिक्षण की सीमाएंवास्तव में सामाजिक विज्ञान का क्षेत्र बड़ा व्यापक है और विश्व में मनुष्य कार्बन ... Read More

अध्याय 5 पियाजे, कोह्लबर्ग तथा वाइगोत्सकी के सिद्ध...

अध्याय 5 पियाजे, कोह्लबर्ग तथा वाइगोत्सकी के सिद्धान्तपियाजे का विकास अवस्था का सिद्धान्त► एक शिक्षार्थी या शिशु के मानसिक विकास एवं शारीरिक वृद्धि के अनेकों पहलू होते हैं। वह विचार, ... Read More

अध्याय 49. राजनीतिक विज्ञान – लिंग-भेद समाप्...

अध्याय 49. राजनीतिक विज्ञान - लिंग-भेद समाप्तिलिंग बोध या जेंडरहमारे अपने परिवार या समाज से लिंग बोध/जेंडर की समझ बनती है। समाज या परिवार में पहले से ही पुरुषों और ... Read More

अध्याय 48. राजनीतिक विज्ञान – मीडिया की समझ ...

अध्याय 48. राजनीतिक विज्ञान - मीडिया की समझसंचार‘संचार’ मानव जीवन का एक महत्वपूर्ण अंग है। अपने जीवन में प्रत्येक व्यक्ति जागृतावस्था में लगभग 70 प्रतिशत से अधिक का समय संचार ... Read More

अध्याय 47. राजनीतिक विज्ञान – राष्ट्रीय मानव...

अध्याय 47. राजनीतिक विज्ञान - राष्ट्रीय मानवाधिकार आयोग और राज्य सरकारराष्ट्रीय मानवाधिकार आयोग► राष्ट्रीय मानवाधिकार आयोग एक स्वतंत्र आयोग है जो 1993 में कानून द्वारा बनाया गया। यह सरकार से ... Read More

अध्याय 46. राजनीतिक विज्ञान – लोकतंत्र (Soci...

अध्याय 46. राजनीतिक विज्ञान - लोकतंत्रलोकतंत्र क्या है?लोकतंत्र को अंग्रेजी में डेमोक्रेसी (Democracy) कहते हैं जो यूनानी शब्दों से मिलकर बना है। ‘डिमॉ’ (Demo) यानी ‘जनता’ तथा ‘क्रेटिया’ (Kratia) यानी ... Read More

अध्याय 45. राजनीतिक विज्ञान – स्थानीय सरकार ...

अध्याय 45. राजनीतिक विज्ञान - स्थानीय सरकारपरिचयजन प्रशासन का वह रूप जो किसी राज्य या राष्ट्र की सबसे निचली श्रेणी की प्रशासनिक इकाई होती है, उसे स्थानीय सरकार कहा जाता ... Read More

अध्याय 44. राजनीतिक विज्ञान – सरकार (Social ...

अध्याय 44. राजनीतिक विज्ञान - सरकारपरिचयलोगों का एक समूह जो राष्ट्र तथा राज्यों में निश्चित समय के लिए व्यवस्थित रूप से शासन करता है, उसे सरकार कहते हैं। सरकार का ... Read More

अध्याय 43. राजनीतिक विज्ञान – भारत में विविध...

अध्याय 43. राजनीतिक विज्ञान - भारत में विविधतापरिचयभारत विभिन्नताओं का देश है। सामान्य रूप से विभिन्नता से हमारा तात्पर्य अंतर से है। ये अंतर सामूहिक होते हैं जो व्यक्ति विशेष ... Read More

अध्याय 42. भूगोल – कृषि (Social Science for ...

अध्याय 42. भूगोल - कृषिभारत की दो-तिहाई जनसंख्या कृषि कार्यों में संलग्न है। कृषि हमारे देश की प्राचीन आर्थिक क्रिया है। पिछले हजारों वर्षों के दौरान भौतिक पर्यावरण, प्रौद्योगिकी और ... Read More

अध्याय 41. भूगोल – प्राकृतिक एवं मानव संसाधन...

अध्याय 41. भूगोल - प्राकृतिक एवं मानव संसाधनप्राकृतिक संसाधन की अवधारणाहमारे पर्यावरण में उपलब्ध प्रत्येक वह वस्तु ‘संसाधन’ है जो हमारी आवश्यकताओं को पूरा करने में प्रयुक्त की जा सकती ... Read More

अध्याय 40. भूगोल – आवास, परिवहन एवं संचार (S...

अध्याय 40. भूगोल - आवास, परिवहन एवं संचारआवास की अवधारणाबस्तियाबस्तियाँ वे स्थान हैं जहाँ लोग अपने लिए घर बनाते हैं। प्रारंभ में मनुष्य वृक्षों एवं गुफाओं में निवास करते थे। ... Read More

अध्याय 4. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम – परिपृच्छ...

अध्याय 4. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम - परिपृच्छा, अन्वेषण एवं अनुभवजन्य साक्ष्यपरिपृच्छा एवं अन्वेषणपरिपृच्छा का शाब्दिक अर्थ होता है - पूछताछ। इस प्रक्रिया में ज्ञान बढ़ाना या किसी संदेह अथवा ... Read More

अध्याय 4 समाजीकरण की प्रक्रिया (Child Development ...

अध्याय 4 समाजीकरण की प्रक्रियासमाजीकरण की अवधारणाएँ► प्रत्येक व्यक्ति या बच्चा सामाजिक प्राणी के रूप में समाज में रहता है और समाज में स्वीकृति अथवा मान्यता प्राप्त करना चाहता है। ... Read More

अध्याय 39. भूगोल – जल (Social Science for CT...

अध्याय 39. भूगोल - जलजल की उपलब्धता एवं तथ्यपृथ्वी के 3/4 भाग लगभग 71 प्रतिशत हिस्से पर जलमंडल का विस्तार है। पृथ्वी पर जल की अधिकांश मात्रा महासागरों के रूप ... Read More

अध्याय 38. भूगोल – वायु (Social Science for ...

अध्याय 38. भूगोल - वायुवायुमंडल एवं भूमण्डलीय तापनपृथ्वी के चारों ओर वायु का एक आवरण फैला हुआ है, जिसे ‘वायुमंडल’ कहते हैं। वायुमंडल की ऊपरी परत के अध्ययन को वायुविज्ञान ... Read More

अध्याय 37. भूगोल – पर्यावरण: प्राकृतिक एवं म...

अध्याय 37. भूगोल - पर्यावरण: प्राकृतिक एवं मानव पर्यावरणपर्यावरणपर्यावरण का निर्माण दो शब्दों ‘परि’ और ‘आवरण’ से मिलकर हुआ है, जिसमें परि का अर्थ है हमारे आसपास अर्थात् जो हमारे ... Read More

अध्याय 36. भूगोल – ग्लोब (Social Science for...

अध्याय 36. भूगोल - ग्लोबग्लोब की परिभाषा एवं अवधारणाग्लोब पृथ्वी का एक छोटा-सा वास्तविक प्रतिरूप होता है। उपयोगिता के हिसाब से विभिन्न आकार एवं प्रकार के ग्लोब बनाये जाते हैं, ... Read More

अध्याय 35. भूगोल – ग्रह: सौरमंडल में पृथ्वी ...

अध्याय 35. भूगोल - ग्रह: सौरमंडल में पृथ्वीखगोलशास्त्रखगोलशास्त्र अध्ययन का ऐसा क्षेत्र है जिसके अंतर्गत पृथ्वी और उसके वायुमंडल के बाहर होने वाली घटनाओं का अवलोकन, विश्लेषण तथा व्याख्या की ... Read More

अध्याय 34. भूगोल – सामाजिक अध्ययन एवं विज्ञा...

अध्याय 34. भूगोल - सामाजिक अध्ययन एवं विज्ञान के रूप में भूगोल की अवधारणाभूगोल की अवधारणाभूगोल शब्द ‘भू + गोल’ की संधि से बना है। ‘भू’ का अर्थ होता है, ... Read More

अध्याय 33. इतिहास – स्वतंत्रता के पश्चात् भा...

अध्याय 33. इतिहास - स्वतंत्रता के पश्चात् भारतअगस्त 1947 में जब भारत आजाद हुआ तो उसके सामने कई बड़ी चुनौतियाँ थीं। बँटवारे की वजह से 80 लाख शरणार्थी पाकिस्तान से ... Read More

अध्याय 32. इतिहास – भारत का संवैधानिक विकास ...

अध्याय 32. इतिहास - भारत का संवैधानिक विकासभारत के संवैधानिक विकास के अंतर्गत कई प्रकार के एक्ट और अधिनियम आदि समय-समय पर पारित किये गये हैं।कम्पनी शासन के अधीन लाये ... Read More

अध्याय 31. इतिहास – राष्ट्रवादी आंदोलन (Soci...

अध्याय 31. इतिहास - राष्ट्रवादी आंदोलनभारत के लोगों के हित के प्रश्नों को उठाने के लिए जन आंदोलन के रूप में कई राष्ट्रवादी आंदोलन की शुरुआत हुई। इन आंदोलनों की ... Read More

अध्याय 30. इतिहास – महिलाएँ और सुधार (Social...

अध्याय 30. इतिहास - महिलाएँ और सुधारउन्नीसवीं सदी के शुरुआत से ही हमें सामाजिक रीति-रिवाजों और मूल्य-मान्यताओं में बदलाव दिखाई देता है। किन्तु मात्र दो सौ साल पहले महिलाओं के ... Read More

अध्याय 3. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम – तार्किक ...

अध्याय 3. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम - तार्किक चिन्तन का विकासतार्किक चिन्तन की अवधारणा► संक्रियात्मक दृष्टि से चिन्तन तार्किक संक्रियाओं की एक प्रवृत्ति है जिनमें से प्रत्येक संक्रिया, संज्ञान की ... Read More

अध्याय 3 आनुवंशिकता तथा वातावरण का प्रभाव (Child D...

अध्याय 3 आनुवंशिकता तथा वातावरण का प्रभावआनुवंशिकता की परिभाषा तथा स्वरूपव्यक्तित्व को प्रभावित करने वाले प्रमुख घटकों में से आनुवंशिकता एक प्रमुख घटक है। अंग्रेजी भाषा में इसे हेरेडिटी (Heredity) ... Read More

अध्याय 29. इतिहास – 1857–58 का विद्रोह (Soci...

अध्याय 29. इतिहास - 1857–58 का विद्रोह10 मई 1857 को भारतीय सैनिकों ने मेरठ में बगावत कर दी। अंग्रेजों ने इसे सिपाही विद्रोह का नाम दिया। इस विद्रोह में भारतीय ... Read More

अध्याय 28. इतिहास – उपनिवेशवाद और जनजातीय सम...

अध्याय 28. इतिहास - उपनिवेशवाद और जनजातीय समाजभारत के उपनिवेश बनते ही ब्रिटिश सरकार ने केवल सम्पन्न वर्गों से नाता जोड़ा और निम्न वर्ग को उसका हर्जाना भोगना पड़ा। इस ... Read More

अध्याय 27. इतिहास – ग्रामीण जीवन और समाज (So...

अध्याय 27. इतिहास - ग्रामीण जीवन और समाजब्रिटिश शासन की स्थापना के उपरांत कई उद्योग-धंधों का विनाश हुआ जिसके फलस्वरूप कृषि पर निर्भरता बढ़ी। कृषि में भू-राजस्व नीति के चलते ... Read More

अध्याय 26. इतिहास – कम्पनी शासन की स्थापना (...

अध्याय 26. इतिहास - कम्पनी शासन की स्थापनामुगल बादशाहों में औरंगज़ेब आखिरी शक्तिशाली बादशाह था। उसने वर्तमान भारत के एक बहुत बड़े हिस्से पर नियंत्रण स्थापित कर लिया था। 1707 ... Read More

अध्याय 25. इतिहास – क्षेत्रीय संस्कृतियाँ (S...

अध्याय 25. इतिहास - क्षेत्रीय संस्कृतियाँक्षेत्रीय संस्कृतियों का विकासतरह-तरह के क्षेत्रों के बीच बंटी हुई सीमाओं के बनने में समय की भूमिका रही है। जिन्हें हम आज क्षेत्रीय संस्कृतियाँ समझते ... Read More

अध्याय 24. इतिहास – सामाजिक परिवर्तन (Social...

अध्याय 24. इतिहास - सामाजिक परिवर्तनमध्यकाल में सामाजिक परिवर्तनमुगल काल में भारत में सामाजिक परिवर्तन के रूप में एक महत्त्वपूर्ण परिवर्तन हुआ जिसके कई कारण थे। इस समय मुसलमानों का ... Read More

अध्याय 23. इतिहास – साम्राज्य का सृजन (Socia...

अध्याय 23. इतिहास - साम्राज्य का सृजनमुगल साम्राज्यमध्यकाल में किसी भी राजा के लिए भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप जैसे बड़े क्षेत्र पर शासन कर पाना अत्यन्त ही कठिन कार्य होता था क्योंकि ... Read More

अध्याय 22. इतिहास – वास्तुकला (Social Scienc...

अध्याय 22. इतिहास - वास्तुकलाभारतीय वास्तुकला एवं मूर्तिकला का इतिहास बहुत पुराना है। यह भारतीय संस्कृति की विविधता को समझाने के लिए एक कुंजी है। भारतीय वास्तुकला विभिन्न कालों में ... Read More

अध्याय 21. इतिहास – दिल्ली के सुल्तान (Socia...

अध्याय 21. इतिहास - दिल्ली के सुल्तानपरिचय12वीं शताब्दी में तोमर राजपूतों ने दिल्ली को अपने साम्राज्य की राजधानी बनाया। जिसके बाद इस शहर की एक महत्वपूर्ण शहर के रूप में ... Read More

अध्याय 21 राष्ट्रीय पाठ्यचर्या की रूपरेखा (Child ...

अध्याय 21 राष्ट्रीय पाठ्यचर्या की रूपरेखाबच्चों को कैसे तथा किस प्रकार पढ़ाया जाए► क्रिस्टोफर डे (1999) के अनुसार, बच्चों को पढ़ाने के लिए शिक्षकों के व्यावसायिक विकास को एक जीवन-पर्यंत ... Read More

अध्याय 20. इतिहास – नये सम्राट और साम्राज्य ...

अध्याय 20. इतिहास - नये सम्राट और साम्राज्यसमुद्रगुप्तचंद्रगुप्त प्रथम के बाद मगध सिंहासन पर समुद्रगुप्त का अधिकार हुआ। समुद्रगुप्त ने 335 ई. से लेकर 376 ई. तक राज्य चलाया। समुद्रगुप्त ... Read More

अध्याय 20 अधिगम को प्रभावित करने वाले कारक (Child...

अध्याय 20 अधिगम को प्रभावित करने वाले कारकअधिगम को प्रभावित करने वालेप्रत्येक व्यक्ति प्रतिदिन नए-नए अनुभव एकत्रित करता है, इन नए अनुभवों से उसके व्यवहार में परिवर्तन आता है, व्यवहार ... Read More

अध्याय 2. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम – कक्षा प्...

अध्याय 2. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम - कक्षा प्रक्रियाएँ, गतिविधियाँ एवं प्रबंधकक्षा-कक्ष संचालनकक्षा-कक्ष संचालन विद्यार्थियों के अधिगम पर महत्त्वपूर्ण प्रभाव डालता है। कक्षा संचालन अधिगम-अध्यापन कार्य (प्रक्रिया) का एक महत्त्वपूर्ण ... Read More

अध्याय 2 बाल विकास के सिद्धान्त (Child Development...

अध्याय 2 बाल विकास के सिद्धान्तबाल विकास के सिद्धान्तबाल विकास, किसी बालक के व्यवहार में आने वाले गुणात्मक तथा परिमाणात्मक बदलाव का अध्ययन है। इसके अंतर्गत किसी बालक के जीवनकाल ... Read More

अध्याय 19. इतिहास – संस्कृति और विज्ञान (Soc...

अध्याय 19. इतिहास - संस्कृति और विज्ञानपरिचयसंस्कृति शब्द का अर्थ उत्तम या सुधरी हुई स्थिति होता है। संस्कृति शब्द संस्कृत भाषा की धातु ‘कृ’ से बना है जिसका शाब्दिक अर्थ ... Read More

अध्याय 19 अभिप्रेरणा तथा अधिगम (Child Development ...

अध्याय 19 अभिप्रेरणा तथा अधिगमअभिप्रेरणा का अर्थ तथा परिभाषा► एक व्यक्ति या शिक्षार्थी के जीवन में प्रतिदिन प्रत्यक्ष या अप्रत्यक्ष रूप से अभिप्रेरणा पायी जाती है। विद्यालय जाना पढ़ाई करना, ... Read More

अध्याय 18. इतिहास – राजनैतिक गतिविधियाँ (Soc...

अध्याय 18. इतिहास - राजनैतिक गतिविधियाँपरिचयनागरिक स्तर पर या व्यक्तिगत स्तर पर किसी विशेष समूह द्वारा व्यवहार या सिद्धांत का निर्णय करना राजनीति कहलाती है। राजनीति में विचारों को आगे ... Read More

अध्याय 18 संज्ञान तथा संवेग (Child Development �...

अध्याय 18 संज्ञान तथा संवेगसंज्ञान का अर्थ► संवेदी सूचनाओं को ग्रहण करके उसका समुचित उपयोग करने को संज्ञान या समझ कहते हैं।► रेबर (1995) के अनुसार, ‘संज्ञान का तात्पर्य ऐसे ... Read More

अध्याय 17. इतिहास – सुदूरवर्ती भूभागों के सा...

अध्याय 17. इतिहास - सुदूरवर्ती भूभागों के साथ सम्पर्कदूरस्थ भूमि से सम्पर्क में व्यापारियों की भूमिकासुदूरवर्ती क्षेत्र में व्यापारी मुख्य भूमिका अदा करते थे। व्यापारी एक जगह से दूसरी जगह ... Read More

अध्याय 17 बालकों में अधिगम की वैकल्पिक अवधारणाएँ ...

अध्याय 17 बालकों में अधिगम की वैकल्पिक अवधारणाएँअधिगम की परिभाषाएं► स्किनर के अनुसार, “अधिगम व्यवहार में उतरोत्तर सामंजस्य की प्रक्रिया है।”► वुडवर्थ के अनुसार, “नवीन ज्ञान और नवीन प्रतिक्रियाओं को ... Read More

अध्याय 16. इतिहास – प्रथम साम्राज्य (Social ...

अध्याय 16. इतिहास - प्रथम साम्राज्यमगध: एक साम्राज्यमगध प्राचीन भारत के 16 महाजनपदों में सर्वाधिक शक्तिशाली था। मगध साम्राज्य की स्थापना 2300 वर्ष पूर्व चंद्रगुप्त मौर्य ने की थी। मौर्य ... Read More

अध्याय 16 बच्चा: एक समस्या समाधानकर्ता तथा एक वैज्...

अध्याय 16 बच्चा: एक समस्या समाधानकर्ता तथा एक वैज्ञानिक अन्वेषक के रूप मेंसमस्या-समाधान का अर्थ► शिक्षार्थियों को शिक्षण काल में अनेक समस्याओं या कठिनाईयों सामना करना पड़ता है, जिसका समाधान ... Read More

अध्याय 15. इतिहास – नये विचार (Social Scienc...

अध्याय 15. इतिहास - नये विचारपरिचयभारत एक ऐसा देश है जहाँ धार्मिक विविधता और धार्मिक सहिष्णुता को कानून तथा समाज दोनों द्वारा मान्यता प्रदान की गयी है। भारत के पूर्ण ... Read More

अध्याय 15 शिक्षण तथा अधिगम की आधारभूत प्रक्रियाएं ...

अध्याय 15 शिक्षण तथा अधिगम की आधारभूत प्रक्रियाएंशिक्षण तथा अधिगम की प्रक्रिया► शिक्षण एक सामाजिक प्रक्रिया है जो किसी शिक्षार्थी को ज्ञान, वैयक्तिक कौशल एवं सामाजिक मूल्य आदि सिखाकर उसे ... Read More

अध्याय 14. इतिहास – प्रारंभिक राज्य (Social ...

अध्याय 14. इतिहास - प्रारंभिक राज्यकुछ लोगों के शासक बनने के प्रक्रियाविश्व के विभिन्न भागों में शासकों का चुनाव मतदान के द्वारा किया जाता है, किंतु बहुत पहले शासक के ... Read More

अध्याय 14 बच्चों मे सोचना तथा सीखना (Child Develop...

अध्याय 14 बच्चों मे सोचना तथा सीखनाबच्चे कैसे सोचते हैं?सोचना अथवा चिंतन बालक में किसी भी वस्तु या पदार्थ के ज्ञान के साथ प्रारम्भ हो जाता है। जब कोई बालक ... Read More

अध्याय 13. इतिहास – प्रथम शहर (Social Scienc...

अध्याय 13. इतिहास - प्रथम शहरहड़प्पालगभग 150 वर्श पहले (1856 ई.) जब पंजाब में पहली बार रेलवे लाइनें बिछायी जा रही थीं तो इंजीनियरों को हड़प्पा पुरास्थल मिला जो आधुनिक ... Read More

अध्याय 13 प्रतिभाशाली, सृजनात्मक तथा विशिष्ट बालको...

अध्याय 13 प्रतिभाशाली, सृजनात्मक तथा विशिष्ट बालकों की पहचानप्रतिभाशाली बालकप्रतिभाशाली बालक से तात्पर्य ऐसे बालकों से है जो अपनी शैक्षिक उपलब्धियों, क्रियाओं तथा अपनी क्षमताओं के आधार पर विद्यालय में ... Read More

अध्याय 12. इतिहास – प्रथम कृषक और चारवाहे (S...

अध्याय 12. इतिहास - प्रथम कृषक और चारवाहेखेती और पशुपालन की शुरुआतदुनिया की बदलती जलवायु के साथ-साथ लोगों द्वारा उपयोग की वाली वनस्पतियों और पशुओं का भोजन के रूप में ... Read More

अध्याय 12 विकलांग तथा अधिगम अशक्तता वाले बालकों की...

अध्याय 12 विकलांग तथा अधिगम अशक्तता वाले बालकों की पहचानविकलांग बालक► विकलांग बालक में शारीरिक एवं मानसिक या सांवेगिक रूप से कमियाँ पाई जाती है जिस कारण से ये बालक ... Read More

अध्याय 11. इतिहास – प्रारंभिक समाज (Social S...

अध्याय 11. इतिहास - प्रारंभिक समाजआरंभिक मानवआज हम उन लोगों के बारे में जानते हैं, जो इस उपमहाद्वीप में बीस लाख साल पहले रहा करते थे। आमतौर पर वे जंगली ... Read More

अध्याय 11 समावेशी शिक्षा तथा विविध पृष्ठभूमि के बा...

अध्याय 11 समावेशी शिक्षा तथा विविध पृष्ठभूमि के बालकों की पहचानसमावेशी शिक्षा► स्मावेशी शिक्षा का लक्ष्य सभी शिक्षार्थियों को उनकी शारीरिक, बौद्धिक, सामाजिक, भावात्मक तथा अन्य दशाओं पर विशेश ध्यान ... Read More

अध्याय 10. इतिहास – भारतीय इतिहास के स्रोत (...

अध्याय 10. इतिहास - भारतीय इतिहास के स्रोतयूँ तो भारतीय इतिहास की जानकारी के संबंध में अनेक साधन उपलब्ध हैं, किन्तु भारत के प्राचीन इतिहास की जानकारी के साधन संतोशप्रद ... Read More

अध्याय 10 उपलब्धि का मूल्यांकन तथा विभिन्न प्रकार ...

अध्याय 10 उपलब्धि का मूल्यांकन तथा विभिन्न प्रकार के प्रश्नों का निर्माणउपलब्धि का मूल्यांकनशिक्षार्थी की उपलब्धि का मूल्यांकन लिखित तथा मौखिक दो प्रकार से होता है। शिक्षार्थियों के मूल्यांकन के ... Read More

अध्याय 1. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम – सामाजिक ...

अध्याय 1. सामाजिक अध्ययन का अधिगम - सामाजिक अध्ययन/सामाजिक विज्ञान की अवधारणा एवं प्रकृतिसामाजिक अध्ययन की अवधारणासामाजिक अध्ययन सामाजिक विज्ञान, मानविकी और इतिहास का समाकलित अध्ययन है। इसमें मानव संबंधों ... Read More

अध्याय 1 वृद्धि एवं विकास की अवधारणा तथा अधिगम से ...

अध्याय 1 वृद्धि एवं विकास की अवधारणा तथा अधिगम से उसका संबंधविकास की परिभाषाएंविकास एक सतत् प्रक्रिया है। एक बालक का विकास जीवनपर्यन्त होता रहता है। बालक के विकास में ... Read More

Chapter 94. Practice Questions on Indian Polity (G...

Practice Questions on Indian Polity (General Studies—Mains)I. Long Answer QuestionsInstructions: Answer the following questions. Answer to each question should be in about 250 words. Each question carries 30 Marks.1. How ... Read More

Chapter 93. UPSC Questions on Indian Polity (Gener...

UPSC Questions on Indian Polity (General Studies—Mains)1993 Test Paper1. (a) What are the essentials of a true federation? Analyse the nature of the Indian federation. (About 250 words) 40OR(b) Describe ... Read More

Chapter 92. Practice Questions on Indian Polity (G...

Practice Questions on Indian Polity (General Studies—Prelims)1. Which article of the Indian Constitution deals with the suability of the State of India?(a) Article 100(b) Article 200(c) Article 300(d) Article 3302 ... Read More

Chapter 91. UPSC Questions on Indian Polity (Gener...

UPSC Questions on Indian Polity (General Studies–Prelims)1993 Test Paper1. The only instance when the President of India exercised his power of veto related to(a) the Hindu Code Bill(b) the PEPSU ... Read More

Chapter 90. Sections of The Constitution of Jammu ...

Sections of The Constitution of Jammu and KashmirPreliminary1. Short title and commencement2. DefinitionsThe State3. Relationship of the State with the Union of India4. Territory of the State5. Extent of executive ... Read More

Chapter 9. Teaching Learning Materials (Language E...

Chapter 9. TEACHING LEARNING MATERIALSINTRODUCTIONWhile teaching a class, a teacher may use certain tools or teaching materials to clarify the concepts or to make the class interesting and effective. These ... Read More

Chapter 9. Inclusive Education (Child Development ...

Inclusive EducationA child who has abilities that are different from that of an average child is said to be a child with special needs. The deviation from average child can ... Read More

Chapter 9. Commencement of Modern Nationalism (His...

Commencement of Modern NationalismFactors in the Growth of Modern NationalismThe rise and growth of Indian nationalism has been traditionally explained in terms of Indian response to the stimulus generated by ... Read More

Chapter 89. Chairpersons of The National Commissio...

Chairpersons of The National CommissionsA. National Human Rights CommissionSerial NumberNameTenure1.Justice Ranganath Misra1993 – 19962.Justice M.N. Venkatachaliah1996 – 19993.Justice J.S. Verma1999 – 20034.Justice A.S. Anand2003 – 20065.Justice Shivaraj V. Patil2006 – ... Read More

Chapter 88. Presidents, Vice-Presidents, Prime Min...

Presidents, Vice-Presidents,Prime Ministers, etc.A. PRESIDENTS OF INDIANameTenure1.Dr. Rajendra Prasad1950 – 19622.Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan1962 – 19673.Dr. Zakir Husain1967 – 1969 (Died)4.Varahagiri Venkatagiri1969 – 1969 (Acting)5.Justice Mohammad Hidayatullah1969 – 1969 (Acting)6.Varahagiri Venkatagiri1969 ... Read More

Chapter 87. Flag Code of India (Indian Polity ...

Flag Code of IndiaThere is universal affection and respect for, and loyalty to, the national flag. Yet, a perceptible lack of awareness is often noticed, not only amongst people but ... Read More

Chapter 86. Sections of The Representation of The ...

Sections of The Representation of The People Act, 1951A. Preliminary1. Short title2. InterpretationB. Qualifications And Disqualifications(a) Qualifications for Membership of Parliament3. Qualification for membership of the Council of States4. Qualifications ... Read More

Chapter 85. Sections of The Representation of The ...

Sections of The Representation of The People Act, 1950A. Preliminary1. Short title2. DefinitionsB. Allocation of Seats and Delimitation of Constituencies(a) The House of the People3. Allocation of seats in the ... Read More

Chapter 84. Model Code of Conduct Relating to Elec...

Model Code of Conduct Relating to ElectionsThe Model Code of Conduct (MCC) was agreed to by all the political parties in 1968. The Election Commission first effectively put to use ... Read More

Chapter 83. Allied Amending Acts at a Glance (Indi...

Allied Amending Acts at a GlanceName and Year of the ActAmended Provisions of the ConstitutionAssam (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1951Altered the boundaries of the state of Assam by ceding a ... Read More

Chapter 82. Constitutional Amendments at a Glance ...

Constitutional Amendments at a GlanceAmendment Number and YearAmended Provisions of the ConstitutionFirst Amendment Act, 19511. Empowered the state to make special provisions for the advancement of socially and economically backward ... Read More

Chapter 81. Definitions Under the Constitution (In...

Definitions Under the ConstitutionArticle 366 contains the definitions of various terms used in different provisions of the constitution. These are mentioned below:1. Agricultural Income means agricultural income as defined for ... Read More

Chapter 80. Oath by the Constitutional and other A...

Oath by the Constitutional and other Authorities1. Oath or Affirmation by the PresidentEvery President and every person acting as President or discharging the functions of the President shall, before entering ... Read More

Chapter 8. Learning and Pedagogy (Child Developmen...

Learning and PedagogyLearning: Basic Concepts & AspectsWhat Is LearningLearning is a process by which an individual, as a result of interactions in a situation, modifies his/her behaviour. It helps in ... Read More

Chapter 8. Evaluating Language Comprehension And P...

Chapter 8. EVALUATING LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION AND PROFICIENCYINTRODUCTIONApart from educational objectives and learning experiences, education is a process consisting of evaluation. A teacher not only teaches his/her students, but also assesses ... Read More

Chapter 8. Analysis of Reform Activities (History ...

Analysis of Reform ActivitiesSocio-Cultural Reform Movements and their Leaders Raja Rammohan Roy and Brahmo SamajRaja Rammohan Roy (1772-1833), often called the the father of Indian Renaissance and the maker of ... Read More

Chapter 79. Table of Precedence (Indian Polity �...

Table of PrecedenceThe Table of Precedence is related to the rank and order of the officials of the Union and State Governments. The present notification on this subject was issued ... Read More

Chapter 78. Subjects of Union, State and Concurren...

Subjects of Union, State and Concurrent ListsUnion List (List-I)1. Defence of India2. Naval, military and air forces; any other armed forces of the Union2A. Deployment of any armed force of ... Read More

Chapter 77. Articles of the Constitution (1–395) (...

Articles of the Constitution (1–395)Union and its Territory1. Name and territory of the union2. Admission or establishment of new states2A. Sikkim to be associated with the Union (Repealed)3. Formation of ... Read More

Chapter 76. National Commission to Review the Work...

National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitutionhe National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution (NCRWC) was set up by a resolution of the Government of India ... Read More

Chapter 75. Foreign Policy (Indian Polity & C...

Foreign Policyhe foreign policy of India regulates India’s relations with other states of the world in promoting its national interests. It is determined by a number of factors, viz., geography, ... Read More

Chapter 74. National Integration (Indian Polity &#...

National Integrationndia is a land of widespread diversities in terms of religion, language, caste, tribe, race, region and so on. Hence, the achievement of national integration becomes very essential for ... Read More

Chapter 73. Pressure Groups (Indian Polity & ...

Pressure GroupsMeaning and Techniqueshe term ‘pressure group’ originated in the USA. A pressure group is a group of people who are organised actively for promoting and defending their common interest ... Read More

Chapter 72. Anti-Defection Law (Indian Polity ...

Anti-Defection Lawhe 52nd Amendment Act of 1985 provided for the disqualification of the members of Parliament and the state legislatures on the ground of defection from one political party to ... Read More

Chapter 71. Electoral Reforms (Indian Polity &...

Electoral ReformsCommittees Related to Electoral Reformshe various committees and commissions which have examined our electoral system, election machinery as well as election process and suggested reforms are mentioned here.1. Joint ... Read More

Chapter 70. Election Laws (Indian Polity & Co...

Election LawsRepresentation of The People Act, 1950rticles 81 and 170 of the Constitution of India lay down the maximum number of seats in Parliament and in Legislative Assemblies of States ... Read More

Chapter 7. Reform Activities: Common Characteristi...

Reform Activities: Common CharacteristicsFactors Giving Rise to Desire for ReformThe dawn of the nineteenth century witnessed the birth of a new vision—a modern vision among some enlightened sections of the ... Read More

Chapter 7. Language Skills (Language English For C...

Chapter 7. LANGUAGE SKILLSINTRODUCTIONLearning a language is mainly a skill that depends on the learner's ability to learn by practice. The process of learning involves four aspects, i.e. writing, reading, ... Read More

Chapter 7. Language & Thought (Child Developm...

Language & ThoughtDevelopment Of Language And ThoughtIn developmental psychology, the term ‘development’ is described as a study of an individual which helps in knowing ‘how and why’ an individual develop ... Read More

Chapter 7 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation ...

Chapter 7 Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE)CCE is an approach that aims at assessing the overall development of a student at regular intervals of his/her academic session. In case a ... Read More

Chapter 69. Voting Behaviour (Indian Polity &...

Voting BehaviourMeaning of Voting Behaviouroting behaviour is also known as electoral behaviour. It is a form of political behaviour. It implies the behaviour of voters in the context of elections ... Read More

Chapter 68. Elections (Indian Polity & Consti...

ElectionsElectoral Systemrticles 324 to 329 in Part XV of the Constitution make the following provisions with regard to the electoral system in our country:1. The Constitution (Article 324) provides for ... Read More

Chapter 67. Political Parties (Indian Polity &...

Political PartiesMeaning and Typesolitical parties are voluntary associations or organised groups of individuals who share the same political views and who try to gain political power through constitutional means and ... Read More

Chapter 66. Special Provisions Relating to Certain...

Special Provisions Relating to Certain ClassesRationale of Special Provisionsn order to realise the objectives of equality and justice as laid down in the Preamble, the Constitution makes special provisions for ... Read More

Chapter 65. Language (Indian Polity & Constit...

Authoritative Text of the Constitution in HindiLanguageConstitutional Provisionsriginally, the Constitution of India did not make any provision with respect to an authoritative text of the Constitution in the Hindi language ... Read More

Chapter 64. Rights and Liabilities of the Governme...

Rights and Liabilities of the Governmentrticles 294 to 300 in Part XII of the Constitution deal with the property, contracts, rights, liabilities, obligations and suits of the Union and the ... Read More

Chapter 63. Tribunals (Indian Polity & Consti...

Tribunalshe original Constitution did not contain provisions with respect to tribunals. The 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 added a new Part XIV-A to the Constitution. This part is entitled as ... Read More

Chapter 62. Public Services (Indian Polity & ...

Public ServicesClassification of Serviceshe public services (civil services or government services) in India are classified into three categories—all-India services, Central services and state services. Their meaning and composition are explained ... Read More

Chapter 61. Official Language (Indian Polity &...

Official Languageart XVII of the Constitution deals with the official language in Articles 343 to 351. Its provisions are divided into four heads—Language of the Union, Regional languages, Language of ... Read More

Chapter 60. Co-operative Societies (Indian Polity ...

Co-operative SocietiesThe 97thConstitutional Amendment Act of 2011 gave a constitutional status and protection to co-operative societies. In this context, it made the following three changes in the constitution:1. It made ... Read More

Chapter 6. Challenges Of Teaching Language In A Di...

Chapter 6. CHALLENGES OF TEACHING LANGUAGE IN A DIVERSE CLASSROOMINTRODUCTIONIt is necessary to establish some form of communication between members belonging to a society.Language helps us to express thoughts, feelings ... Read More

Chapter 6. Assessment (Child Development & Pe...

AssessmentFirst of all we discuss basic terms related with assessment like measurement, assessment and evaluation. Lets us take help of an example: Ramesh has scored 65 marks in Mathematics in ... Read More

Chapter 6. 1857 Revolt (History of Modern India Su...

1857 RevoltSimmering DiscontentIn 1757, after the Battle of Plassey, the British laid the first step towards getting power in northern India. And in 1857 took place the major ‘Revolt’ which ... Read More

Chapter 6 Activities (EVS Environment Studies for ...

Chapter 6 ActivitiesActivities play a key role in environmental studies. Engaging in various activities will enhance a learner's knowledge and skills, which are required to negotiate effectively with different real-life ... Read More

Chapter 59. Lokpal and Lokayuktas (Indian Polity &...

Lokpal and LokayuktasGlobal Scenarioodern democratic states are characterised by a welfare orientation. Hence, the government has come to play an important role in the socio-economic development of a nation. This ... Read More

Chapter 58. Central Bureau of Investigation (India...

Central Bureau of InvestigationEstablishment of CBIhe Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) was set up in 1963 by a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs. Later, it was transferred to ... Read More

Chapter 57. Central Vigilance Commission (Indian P...

Central Vigilance Commissionhe Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) is the main agency for preventing corruption in the Central government. It was established in 1964 by an executive resolution of the Central ... Read More

Chapter 56. State Information Commission (Indian P...

State Information Commissionhe Right to Information Act of 2005 provides for the creation of not only the Central Information Commission but also a State Information Commission at the state level ... Read More

Chapter 55. Central Information Commission (Indian...

Central Information Commissionhe Central Information Commission was established by the Central Government in 2005. It was constituted through an Official Gazette Notification under the provisions of the Right to Information ... Read More

Chapter 54. State Human Rights Commission (Indian ...

State Human Rights Commissionhe Protection of Human Rights Act of 1993 provides for the creation of not only the National Human Rights Commission but also a State Human Rights Commission ... Read More

Chapter 53. National Human Rights Commission (Indi...

National Human Rights CommissionEstablishment of the Commissionhe National Human Rights Commission is a statutory (and not a constitutional) body. It was established in 1993 under a legislation enacted by the ... Read More

Chapter 52. NITI Aayog (Indian Polity & Const...

NITI AayogEstablishmentOn the 13th of August, 2014, the Modi Government scrapped the 65-year-old Planning Commission and announced that it would be replaced by a new body. Accordingly, on January 1, ... Read More

Chapter 51. Advocate General of the State (Indian ...

Advocate General of the Statehe Constitution (Article 165) has provided for the office of the advocate general for the states. He is the highest law officer in the state. Thus ... Read More

Chapter 50. Attorney General of India (Indian Poli...

Attorney General of Indiahe Constitution (Article 76) has provided for the office of the Attorney General for India. He is the highest law officer in the country.Appointment and TermThe Attorney ... Read More

Chapter 5. Struggle Against British Before 1857 (H...

Struggle Against British Before 1857Most of us think of the 1857 Revolt as the first major show of resentment against the British who were represented by the rule of the ... Read More

Chapter 5. Intelligence (Child Development &...

IntelligenceNature And Definitions Of IntelligenceScholars believe that intelligence is a general ability whereas others believe that intelligence is a range of aptitudes, skills and talents. Intelligence can be defined as ... Read More

Chapter 5. Critical Perspective On The Role Of Gra...

Chapter 5. CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE ROLE OF GRAMMAR IN LEARNING A LANGUAGEINTRODUCTIONIn simple words, grammar is a system of rules that provides a proper order or sequence to sentences ... Read More

Chapter 5 Learning Principles (EVS Environment Stu...

Chapter 5 Learning PrinciplesLearning brings about modifications in the behaviour of an individual. Learning is a comprehensive term that leaves a permanent effect on an individual. In other words, we ... Read More

Chapter 49. Comptroller and Auditor General of Ind...

Comptroller and Auditor General of Indiahe Constitution of India (Article 148) provides for an independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG). He is the head of ... Read More

Chapter 48. Special Officer for Linguistic Minorit...

Special Officer for Linguistic MinoritiesConstitutional Provisionsriginally, the Constitution of India did not make any provision with respect to the Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities. Later, the States Reorganisation Commission (1953-55) ... Read More

Chapter 47. National Commission for STs (Indian Po...

National Commission for STsike the National Commission for Schedules Castes (SCs), the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (STs) is also a constitutional body in the sense that it is directly ... Read More

Chapter 46. National Commission for SCs (Indian Po...

National Commission for SCshe National Commission for Scheduled Castes (SCs) is a constitutional body in the sense that it is directly established by Article 338 of the Constitution. On the ... Read More

Chapter 45. Finance Commission (Indian Polity ...

Finance Commissionrticle 280 of the Constitution of India provides for a Finance Commission as a quasi judicial body. It is constituted by the president of India every fifth year or ... Read More

Chapter 44. State Public Service Commission (India...

State Public Service Commissionarallel to the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) at the Centre, there is a State Public Service Commission (SPSC) in a state. The same set of Articles ... Read More

Chapter 43. Union Public Service Commission (India...

Union Public Service Commissionhe Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) is the central recruiting agency in India. It is an independent constitutional body in the sense that it has been directly ... Read More

Chapter 42. Election Commission (Indian Polity �...

Election Commissionhe Election Commission is a permanent and an independent body established by the Constitution of India directly to ensure free and fair elections in the country. Article 324 of ... Read More

Chapter 41. Scheduled and Tribal Areas (Indian Pol...

Scheduled and Tribal Areasrticle 244 in Part X of the Constitution envisages a special system of administration for certain areas designated as ‘scheduled areas’ and ‘tribal areas’. The Fifth Schedule ... Read More

Chapter 40. Union Territories (Indian Polity &...

Union Territoriesnder Article 1 of the Constitution, the territory of India comprises three categories of territories: (a) territories of the states; (b) union territories; and (c) territories that may be ... Read More

Chapter 4. Socialisation (Child Development &...

SocialisationSocialisation ProcessesSocial development is the process of learning values, knowledge and skills that help a child to relate to others efficiently. Through social development, a child can contribute to the ... Read More

Chapter 4. Role Of Listening And Speaking (Languag...

Chapter 4. ROLE OF LISTENING AND SPEAKINGINTRODUCTIONWhenever a student gets admission to any school in India, he/she is taught English as a second language. Usually, a teacher begins teaching by ... Read More

Chapter 4. Expansion and Domination under East Ind...

Expansion and Domination under East India CompanyThe British Imperial HistoryThe entire imperial history of Britain can be periodised into two phases, the ‘first empire’ stretching across the Atlantic towards America ... Read More

Chapter 4 Concept and Scope of EVS (EVS Environmen...

Chapter 4 Concept and Scope of EVSThe term environment is the sum total of all the physical, biological and social factors that form a part of the surroundings of an ... Read More

Chapter 39. Municipalities (Indian Polity & C...

Municipalitieshe term ‘Urban Local Government’ in India signifies the governance of an urban area by the people through their elected representatives. The jurisdiction of an urban local government is limited ... Read More

Chapter 38. Panchayati Raj (Indian Polity & C...

Panchayati Rajhe term Panchayati Raj in India signifies the system of rural local self-government. It has been established in all the states of India by the Acts of the state ... Read More

Chapter 37. Special Provisions for Some States (In...

Special Provisions for Some Statesrticles 371 to 371-J in Part XXI of the constitution contain special provisions for twelve states viz., Maharashtra, Gujarat, Nagaland, Assam, Manipur, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Sikkim, ... Read More

Chapter 36. Special Status of Jammu & Kashmir...

Special Status of Jammu & Kashmirnder Article 1 of the Indian Constitution, the State of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) is a constituent state of Indian Union and its territory forms ... Read More

Chapter 35. Subordinate Courts (Indian Polity ...

Subordinate CourtsThe state judiciary consists of a high court and a hierarchy of subordinate courts, also known as lower courts. The subordinate courts are so called because of their subordination ... Read More

Chapter 34. High Court (Indian Polity & Const...

High CourtIn the Indian single integrated judicial system, the high court operates below the Supreme Court but above the subordinate courts. The judiciary in a state consists of a high ... Read More

Chapter 33. State Legislature (Indian Polity &...

State LegislatureThe state legislature occupies a pre-eminent and central position in the political system of a state.Articles 168 to 212 in Part VI of the Constitution deal with the organisation, ... Read More

Chapter 32. State Council of Ministers (Indian Pol...

State Council of MinistersAs the Constitution of India provides for a parliamentary system of government in the states on the Union pattern, the council of ministers headed by the chief ... Read More

Chapter 31. Chief Minister (Indian Polity & C...

Chief MinisterIn the scheme of parliamentary system of government provided by the Constitution, the governor is the nominal executive authority (de jure executive) and the Chief Minister is the real ... Read More

Chapter 30. Important Notes (History of Modern Ind...

Important Notes1. Personalities Associated with Specific Movements Swadeshi Movement Lokmanya Tilak spread the message of swadeshi to Poona and Bombay and organised Ganapati and Shivaji festivals to arouse patriotic feelings ... Read More

Chapter 30. Governor (Indian Polity & Constit...

GovernorThe Constitution of India envisages the same pattern of government in the states as that for the Centre, that is, a parliamentary system. Part VI of the Constitution, which deals ... Read More

Chapter 3. Principles Of Language Teaching (Langua...

Chapter 3. PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE TEACHINGMEANING OF LANGUAGEThe term 'language' has been derived from the Latin word lingua which means ‘tongue’. But there are two French words, langue and parole ... Read More

Chapter 3. Piaget, Kohlberg And Vygotsky: Construc...

Piaget, Kohlberg And Vygotsky: Constructs And Critical PerspectivesAn individual goes through many stages of development or learning in his/her lifecycle. Some major stages and phases are that of cognitive development, ... Read More

Chapter 3. Indian Scenario: Before British Subjuga...

Indian Scenario: Before British SubjugationThe first half of the eighteenth century saw the decline of the mighty Mughals, who had been the envy of their contemporaries for almost two centuries ... Read More

Chapter 3 Travel (EVS Environment Studies for CTET...

Chapter 3 TravelTravel can be defined as a journey, or a gradual movement, from one place to another. In old days, people used draught animals, such as donkeys and horses ... Read More

Chapter 29. Public Interest Litigation (Indian Pol...

Public Interest LitigationThe concept of Public Interest Litigation (PIL) originated and developed in the USA in the 1960s. In the USA, it was designed to provide legal representation to previously ... Read More

Chapter 29. Legacy in Science and Civilisation (Ol...

29. Legacy in Science and CivilisationReligionMan's confrontation with nature gave rise to significant developments. People had to overcome the difficulties presented by the jungles, hills, hard soils, droughts, floods, animals, ... Read More

Chapter 29. Labour Class – uprisings (Histor...

Labour Class - uprisingsThe beginning of the second half of the nineteenth century heralded the entry of modern industry into India. The thousands of hands employed in construction of railways ... Read More

Chapter 28. Sequence of Social Changes (Old NCERT ...

28. Sequence of Social ChangesThere are no written texts for the study of society ill pre-Vedic times. Archaeology tells us that people lived in small groups in the hilly areas ... Read More

Chapter 28. Peasant Uprisings (History of Modern I...

Peasant UprisingsPeasantry Under ColonialismThe impoverishment of the Indian peasantry was a direct result of the transformation of the agrarian structure due to— ● colonial economic policies, ● ruin of the ... Read More

Chapter 28. Judicial Activism (Indian Polity &...

Judicial ActivismThe concept of judicial activism originated and developed in the USA. This term was first coined in 1947 by Arthur Schlesinger Jr., an American historian and educator.In India, the ... Read More

Chapter 27. Transformation of the ancient phase (O...

27. Transformation of the ancient phaseSocial Crisis aid Agrarian ChangesThe central factor that ultimately transformed the ancient Indian society into medieval society was the practice of land grants. Why did ... Read More

Chapter 27. Judicial Review (Indian Polity & ...

Judicial ReviewThe doctrine of judicial review originated and developed in the USA. It was propounded for the first time in the famous case of Marbury V. Madison (1803) by John ... Read More

Chapter 27. Growth of Education (History of Modern...

Growth of EducationFor the first 60 years of its dominion in India, the East India Company, a trading and profit-making concern, took no interest in the promotion of education. Some ... Read More

Chapter 26. Supreme Court (Indian Polity & Co...

Supreme CourtUnlike the American Constitution, the Indian Constitution has established an integrated judicial system with the Supreme Court at the top and the high courts below it. Under a high ... Read More

Chapter 26. India’s Cultural Contacts with A...

26. India's Cultural Contacts with Asian CountriesMedieval lawgivers and commentators ordained that a person 'should not cross the seas. This would imply that India shunned all relations with the outside ... Read More

Chapter 26. Growth of Indian Press (History of Mod...

Growth of Indian PressJames Augustus Hickey in 1780 started The Bengal Gazette or Calcutta General Advertiser, the first newspaper in India, which was seized in 1872 because of its outspoken ... Read More

Chapter 25. Parliamentary Forums (Indian Polity &#...

Parliamentary ForumsRationale of The GroupM.N. Kaul and S.L. Shakdher have nicely explained the rationale of the Indian Parliamentary Group (IPG) in the following way:The establishment and development of relations among ... Read More

Chapter 25. Economic Effect of British Governanace...

Economic Effect of British GovernanaceThe major difference between the British colonists in India and earlier invaders was that none of the earlier invaders made any structural changes in Indian economy ... Read More

Chapter 25. Developments in Philosophy (Old NCERT ...

25. Developments in PhilosophyGoals of LifeWhen the state and the varna-divided social order had been firmly established, the ancient thinkers laid down that a person should strive for the attainment ... Read More

Chapter 24. Parliamentary Forums (Indian Polity &#...

Parliamentary ForumsEstablishment of ForumsThe first Parliamentary Forum on Water Conservation and Management was constituted in the year 2005. Subsequently, seven more Parliamentary forums were constituted. At present, there are eight ... Read More

Chapter 24. Model Answers to Selected Questions (I...

24. Model Answers to Selected QuestionsQ.1 “A hard and fast control on the government’s fiscal freedom may be counterproductive to the economy”. In light of this statement, discuss the changing ... Read More

Chapter 24. Formation of New States and Rural expa...

24. Formation of New States and Rural expansion in the PeninsulaThe New PhaseThe period circa A.D. 300-750 marks the second historical phase in the regions south of the Vindhyas. It ... Read More

Chapter 24. Analysis of British Agenda in India (H...

Analysis of British Agenda in IndiaAdministrative PoliciesContrary to their pre-1857 intentions of trying to modernise India on progressive lines, now the administration adopted blatantly reactionary policies on the pretext that ... Read More

Chapter 23. Selected MCQs (Indian Economy Summary...

23. Selected MCQsSET- 11. Select the correct statements about the ‘hybrid annuity model’ (HAM) which the government has launched recently to promote the road projects in the country—use the codes ... Read More

Chapter 23. Parliamentary Committees (Indian Polit...

Parliamentary CommitteesMeaningThe Parliament is too unwieldy a body to deliberate effectively the issues that come up before it. The functions of the Parliament are varied, complex and voluminous. Moreover, it ... Read More

Chapter 23. Harsha and his empire (Old NCERT Histo...

23. Harsha and his empireHarsha's KingdomThe guptas with their seat of power in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar ruled over north and western India for about 160 years, until the middle ... Read More

Chapter 23. Constitutional, Administrative & ...

Constitutional, Administrative & Judicial DomainThe establishment of the East India Company in 1600 and its transformation into a ruling body from a trading one in 1765 had little immediate impact ... Read More

Chapter 22. Towards Independence (History of Moder...

Towards IndependenceAttlee’s Statement of February 20, 1947Clement Attlee, the British prime minister, sensing the trouble all around, made an announcement on February 20, 1947. The British House of Commons declared ... Read More

Chapter 22. Spread of Civilization in Eastern Indi...

22. Spread of Civilization in Eastern IndiaSigns of CivilizationA region is considered to be civilized if its people know the art of writing, have a system for collecting taxes and ... Read More

Chapter 22. Parliament (Indian Polity & Const...

ParliamentThe Parliament is the legislative organ of the Union government. It occupies a pre-eminent and central position in the Indian democratic political system due to adoption of the parliamentary form ... Read More

Chapter 22. Economic Concepts and Terminologies (I...

22. Economic Concepts and TerminologiesAbuse of DominanceA situation when a dominant firm/company (or a group of firms) is engaged in promoting its market position through ‘anti-competitive’ business practices, such as—predatory ... Read More

Chapter 21. Post-WW2 Situation (History of Modern ...

Post-WW2 SituationTwo Strands of National UpsurgeTwo basic strands of national upsurge can be identified during the last two years of British rule—(i) tortuous negotiations involving the government, Congress and Muslim ... Read More

Chapter 21. Life in the Gupta age (Old NCERT Histo...

21. Life in the Gupta ageSystem of AdministrationIn contrast to the Maurya rulers, the Gupta kings adopted pompous titles such as parameshavara maharajadhiraja and paramabhaitaraka which signify that they ruled ... Read More

Chapter 21. Ecology (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services C...

Chapter 21. Ecology (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. Consider the following animals of India:(2003)1. Crocodile2. ElephantWhich of these is/are endangered species?(a) Only 1(b) ... Read More

Chapter 21. Cabinet Committees (Indian Polity ...

Cabinet CommitteesFeatures of Cabinet CommitteesThe following are the features of Cabinet Committees:1. They are extra-constitutional in emergence. In other words, they are not mentioned in the Constitution. However, the Rules ... Read More

Chapter 21. Burning Socio-Economic Issues (Indian ...

21. Burning Socio-Economic Issues1. BAD BANKIntroduction __________________The burden of bad debts, i.e., non-performing assets (NPAs) of banks, especially of the public sector banks (PSBs), has been increasing with every passing ... Read More

Chapter 20. The Rise and Growth of the Gupta Empir...

20. The Rise and Growth of the Gupta EmpireBackgroundAfter the break-up of the Maurya empire, the Satavahanas and the Kushans emerged as two large political powers. The Satavahanas acted as ... Read More

Chapter 20. Important Events QIM, Pakistan, and IN...

Important Events QIM, Pakistan, and INAQuit India MovementAfter Cripps’ departure, Gandhi framed a resolution calling for British withdrawal and a non-violent non-cooperation movement against any Japanese invasion. The CWC meeting ... Read More

Chapter 20. Human Development in India (Indian Ec...

20. Human Development in IndiaIntroductionEconomic growth still remains the immediate focus of the world economies. But, income enhancement can only bring the desired development in the country once it is ... Read More

Chapter 20. Central Council of Ministers (Indian P...

Central Council of MinistersAs the Constitution of India provides for a parliamentary system of government modelled on the British pattern, the council of ministers headed by the prime minister is ... Read More

Chapter 20. Biology (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services C...

Chapter 20. Biology (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. Most of the desert plants bloom during night time because (1995)(a) their blooming is controlled ... Read More

Chapter 20. Assessment and Review (Old NCERT Histo...

CHAPTER 20 Assessment and ReviewThe thousand years from the beginning of the eighth century to the end of the seventeenth century saw important changes in the political, economic and cultural ... Read More

Chapter 2. Methodologies (History of Modern India ...

Methodologies The modern history of India, for the convenience of understanding, can be broadly read under four approaches— the Colonial (or the Imperialist), Nationalist, Marxist, and Subaltern—each with its own ... Read More

Chapter 2. Learning And Acquisition (Language Engl...

Chapter 2. LEARNING AND ACQUISITIONLEARNINGLearning is a common term that is used many times in our daily life. However, in the field of education, the term has a special meaning ... Read More

Chapter 2. Heredity And Environment (Child Develop...

Heredity And EnvironmentHuman development is affected by several factors. Different studies were conducted to understand the factors influencing human development and two factors were found to play a major role ... Read More

Chapter 2 Food and Nutrition (EVS Environment Stud...

Chapter 2 Food and NutritionWe all need food to grow and work. It gives us energy to speak, think, work and play. In fact, our body is built up from ... Read More

Chapter 19. WW2 and Nationalist Action (History of...

WW2 and Nationalist ActionCongress Crisis on Method of StruggleIn the aftermath of the civil disobedience movement, there was some disarray within the Congress. In Gandhi’s perception there was rising corruption ... Read More

Chapter 19. Sustainability and Climate Change: Ind...

19. Sustainability and Climate Change: India and the WorldIntroductionImproving living standards for mankind has been the single minded goal of all nations and world bodies. After defining development in numerous ... Read More

Chapter 19. Prime Minister (Indian Polity & C...

Prime MinisterIn the scheme of parliamentary system of government provided by the constitution, the President is the nominal executive authority (de jure executive) and Prime Minister is the real executive ... Read More

Chapter 19. Crafts Trade and Towns in the post Mau...

19. Crafts Trade and Towns in the post Mauryan ageThe age of the Shakas, Kusbans, Satavahanas (200 B.C. A.D. 300) and the first Tamil states was the most flourishing period ... Read More

Chapter 19. Climax and Disintegration of Mughal em...

CHAPTER 19 Climax and Disintegration of Mughal empire IIThe Rise of the Marathas We have already seen that the Marathas had important positions in the administrative and military systems of ... Read More

Chapter 19. Chemistry (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services...

Chapter 19. Chemistry (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. Which one of the following can be used to confirm whether drinking water contains a ... Read More

Chapter 18. World Geography (Geography Notes)

WORLD GEOGRAPHYRacial Groups and Their Distribution PatternContinents Major Ethnic Group/Race Distribution RemarksAsiaArabian (Middle East)Bahrain, State of Palestine, Lebanon, Comoros, Kuwait, Qatar, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Morocco, Egypt, Jordan, Iraq, Tunisia, ... Read More

Chapter 18. Vice-President (Indian Polity & C...

Vice-PresidentThe Vice-President occupies the second highest office in the country. He is accorded a rank next to the President in the official warrant of precedence. This office is modelled on ... Read More

Chapter 18. The Dawn of History in Deep South (Old...

18. The Dawn of History in Deep SouthThe Megalithic BackgroundAfter the pre-historic age several elements mark the beginning of the historical period. These are: settlements of large scale rural communities ... Read More

Chapter 18. Public Finance in India (Indian Econo...

18. Public Finance in IndiaIntroductionPublic finance is a much wider title which includes all those matters which are connected with public money, i.e., the money a government gets, spends, borrows, ... Read More

Chapter 18. Physics (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services C...

Chapter 18. Physics (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. A parachutist jumps from a height of 5000 metre. The relationship between his falling speed, ... Read More

Chapter 18. Indian Freedom Struggle (Indian Histor...

Chapter 18 INDIAN FREEDOM STRUGGLEIntroductionThe national movement in India started in the second half of the nineteenth century. As we already know that the English had come to India to ... Read More

Chapter 18. INC Governments in States (History of ...

INC Governments in StatesCongress ministries were formed in Bombay, Madras, Central Provinces, Orissa, United Provinces, Bihar and later in the NWFP and Assam also.Gandhi’s AdviceGandhi advised Congressmen to hold these ... Read More

Chapter 18. CHPATER 18 Climax and Disintegration o...

CHPATER 18 Climax and Disintegration of the Mughal empire - IProblems of SuccessorsTHE LAST YEARS of Shah Jahan's reign were clouded by a bitter war of succession among his sons ... Read More

Chapter 17. The British East India Company (Indian...

Chapter 17 THE BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANYIntroductionThe riches of Asia were comparably greater than those of European Estates in the middle of 17th century. European sailors and traders came to ... Read More

Chapter 17. The Age of the Satvahans (Old NCERT Hi...

17. The Age of the SatvahansPolitical HistoryThe most important of the native successors of the Mauryas in the north were the Shungas followed by the Kanvas. In the Deccan and ... Read More

Chapter 17. Tertiary Sector In Indian Economy (UPS...

Chapter 17. Tertiary Sector In Indian Economy (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. Which one of the following is not an instrument of selective ... Read More

Chapter 17. Tax Structure in India (Indian Econom...

17. Tax Structure in IndiaTaxModern economics defines tax as a mode of income redistribution. There might be other ways also to look at it—the usual meaning of tax people think ... Read More

Chapter 17. President (Indian Polity & Consti...

PresidentArticles 52 to 78 in Part V of the Constitution deal with the Union executive.The Union executive consists of the Presi-dent, the Vice-President, the Prime Minister, the council of ministers ... Read More

Chapter 17. Oceanography (Geography Notes)

OCEANOGRAPHYOceans and Seas➤ The oceans comprise more than 70.1% of the earth’s surface.➤ They exert a great influence upon the global and regional climates.➤ They help to modify the distribution ... Read More

Chapter 17. Evolution Of The Constitution Of India...

CONSTITUTION OF INDIA : AT A GLANCEIMPORTANT PROVISIONSPART–I : THE UNIONS AND ITS TERRITORYArticles1. Name and territory of the Union.2. Admission or establishment of new States.2A. (Repealed)3. Formation of new ... Read More

Chapter 17. Cultural and Religious Developments (O...

CHAPTER 17 Cultural and Religious DevelopmentsThere was an outburst of many-sided cultural activity in India under the Mughal rule. The traditions in the field of architecture, paluting, literature and music ... Read More

Chapter 17. After CDM Movement (History of Modern ...

After CDM MovementFollowing the withdrawal of the Civil Disobedience Movement, there was a two-stage debate on the future strategy of the nationalists: the first stage was on what course the ... Read More

Chapter 16. Two Important Events: CDM & RTC (...

Two Important Events: CDM & RTCThe Run-up to Civil Disobedience Movement Calcutta Session of CongressIt was at the Calcutta session of the Congress in December 1928 that the Nehru Report ... Read More

Chapter 16. International Economic Organisations a...

16. International Economic Organisations and IndiaInternational Monetary SystemThe international monetary system (IMS) refers to the customs, rules, instruments, facilities, and organisations facilitating international (external) payments. Sometimes the IMS is also ... Read More

Chapter 16. Indian Industries And Trade (UPSC IAS ...

Chapter 16. Indian Industries And Trade (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. Which of the following benefits are likely to accrue to India from ... Read More

Chapter 16. Emergency Provisions (Indian Polity &#...

Emergency ProvisionsThe Emergency provisions are contained in Part XVIII of the Constitution, from Articles 352 to 360. These provisions enable the Central government to meet any abnormal situation effectively. The ... Read More

Chapter 16. Economic and Social Life Under the Mug...

CHAPTER 16 Economic and Social Life Under the MughalsEconomic and Social ConditionsThe Mughal Empire reached its territorial zenith by the end of the seventeenth century. During the period it had ... Read More

Chapter 16. Drainage (Geography Notes)

DRAINAGE➤ The Drainage refers to a body of flowing water, ranging in scale from a rill to river.➤ The evolution of drainage system in a particular region is determined by ... Read More

Chapter 16. Chronology Of The British India (India...

Chapter 16 CHRONOLOGY OF THE BRITISH INDIAIntroductionEuropeans had a great demand for Indian products such as Indian spices like pepper, cinnamon, cardamom, ginger and such other things which provoked them ... Read More

Chapter 16. Central Asian Contacts and their Resul...

16. Central Asian Contacts and their ResultsThe period which began in about 200 B.C. did not witness a large empire like that of the Mauryas, but it is notable for ... Read More

Chapter 16. Amendment Of Constitution (Polity ...

AMENDMENT OF CONSTITUTIONProcedure for Amendment of the Constitution Article 368 in Part XX of the Constitution deals with the powers of Parliament to amend the Constitution to the changing conditions ... Read More

Chapter 15. Vegetation (Geography Notes)

VEGETATIONMajor Forest types(1) Tropical Hardwood Forestc :These are found in the regions of high temperature and high rainfall.Forests are divided into two types.(a) Equatorial Forest : These forests extend between ... Read More

Chapter 15. The Mughal Empire (Indian History Note...

Chapter 15 THE MUGHAL EMPIREIntroductionThe Saiyyid and the Lodhi rules failed to stop the decline of the Delhi Sultanate. Babur took full advantage of the political chaos and established the ... Read More

Chapter 15. Simon Commission and Afterwards (Histo...

Simon Commission and AfterwardsAppointment of the Indian Statutory CommissionThe Government of India Act, 1919 had a provision that a commission would be appointed ten years from date to study the ... Read More

Chapter 15. Significance of the Mauryan Rule (Old ...

15. Significance of the Mauryan RuleState ControlTHE Brahmanical law-books again and again stressed that the king should be guided by the laws laid down in the Dharmashastras and by the ... Read More

Chapter 15. Inter-State Relations (Indian Polity &...

Inter-State RelationsThe successful functioning of the Indian federal system depends not only on the harmonious relations and close cooperation between the Centre and the states but also between the states ... Read More

Chapter 15. India in the First Half of the Sevente...

CHAPTER 15 India in the First Half of the Seventeenth centuryPolitical and Administrative Developments in IndiaThe first half of the seventeenth century in India was, on the whole, an era ... Read More

Chapter 15. Important Institutions: Constitutional...

IMPORTANT TABLEImportant InstitutionsElection CommissionUPSCFinance CommissionSC/ST CommissionCAGNHRCCICCVCTypeConstitutionalConstitutionalConstitutionalConstitutionalConstitutionalStatutoryStatutoryStatutoryArticle/ActArticle 324Articles 315 to 323Article 280Article 338, 338AArticle 148Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993Right to Information Act (2005).Parliament act 2003Compositionchief EC and other ECs as ... Read More

Chapter 15. External Sector in India (Indian Econ...

15. External Sector in India DefinitionAll economic activities of an economy which take place in foreign currency fall in the external sector such as export, import, foreign investment, external debt, ... Read More

Chapter 15. Agriculture In National Economy (UPSC ...

Chapter 15. Agriculture In National Economy (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. Agricultural income tax is assigned to the State Government by:(1995)(a) Finance Commission(b) ... Read More

Chapter 14. The Deccan and South India (Old NCERT ...

CHAPTER 14 The Deccan and South IndiaWe have mentioned in an earlier chapter that following the breakup of the Bahmani kingdom, three powerful states, Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golconda emerged on ... Read More

Chapter 14. The Age of Mauryas (Old NCERT History ...

14. The Age of MauryasChandragupta MauryaThe Maurya dynasty was founded by Chandragupta Maurya, who seems to have belonged to some ordinary family. According to the brahmanical tradition he was born ... Read More

Chapter 14. Sufi And Bhakti (Indian History Notes)

Chapter 14 SUFI AND BHAKTIMOVEMENTIntroductionThe medieval period saw the rise and growth of the Sufi and Bhakti movement in India. These movements brought a new form of religious expression amongst ... Read More

Chapter 14. Security Market in India (Indian Econ...

14. Security Market in IndiaDefinitionThe segment of a financial market of an economy from long-term capital is raised via instruments such as shares, securities, bonds, debentures, mutual funds, and is ... Read More

Chapter 14. Poverty Finance Planning & Econom...

Chapter 14. Poverty Finance Planning & Economic Social Development (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. Which one of the following Five Year Plans recognised ... Read More

Chapter 14. Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movements...

Non-Cooperation and Khilafat MovementsDuring 1919-22, the British were opposed through two mass movements—the Khilafat and Non-Cooperation. Though the two movements emerged from separate issues, they adopted a common programme of ... Read More

Chapter 14. Glossary Of Constitutional Terms (Poli...

GLOSSARY OF CONSTITUTIONAL TERMS➤ Ad hoc committees : These committees are appointed for a specific purpose and they cease to exist when they finish the task assigned to them and ... Read More

Chapter 14. Climate (Geography Notes)

CLIMATEWeather ElementsEvaporation and Condensation➤ Evaporation is the process by which water is transformed from liquid to gaseous form.➤ It takes approximately 600 calories of energy to convert one gram of ... Read More

Chapter 14. Centre–State Relations (Indian Polity ...

Centre–State RelationsThe Constitution of India, being federal in structure, divides all powers (legislative, executive and financial) between the Centre and the states. However, there is no division of judicial power ... Read More

Chapter 13. The Vijayanagar Empire (Indian History...

Chapter 13 THE VIJAYANAGAR EMPIREIntroductionOne of the important kingdoms in the medieval Indian history, Vijayanagara is in today’s Bellary District of northern Karnataka. The historic kingdom was extended over South ... Read More

Chapter 13. Struggle for Swaraj II (Old NCERT Hist...

13. Struggle for Swaraj IIEmergence of New ForcesTHE YEAR 1927 witnessed many portents of national recovery and the emergence of the new trend of socialism. Marxism and other socialist ideas ... Read More

Chapter 13. State and Varna Society in the Age of ...

13. State and Varna Society in the Age of the BuddhaMaterial LifeThe picture of material life in north India, especially in eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, can be drawn on ... Read More

Chapter 13. Non Constitutional Bodies (Polity ...

NON CONSTITUTIONAL BODIESNational Human Rights Commission➤ The National Human Rights Commission is a statutory body.➤ It was established in 1993 by a legislation enacted by the parliament.Namely the protection of ... Read More

Chapter 13. Insurance in India (Indian Economy Su...

13. Insurance in IndiaDefinitionIn economic terms, anything used to cut down the risk is known as insurance. But in familiar terms, insurance is provided by an insurance company which covers ... Read More

Chapter 13. Indian Economy & Demographics (UP...

Chapter 13. Indian Economy & Demographics (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. According to the 1991 Census, the highest percentage of population in India ... Read More

Chapter 13. Federal System (Indian Polity & C...

Federal SystemPolitical scientists have classified governments into unitary and federal on the basis of the nature of relations between the national government and the regional governments. By definition, a unitary ... Read More

Chapter 13. Consolidation of the Mughal Empire of ...

CHAPTER 13 Consolidation of the Mughal Empire of Akbar)When Humayun was retreating from Bikaner, he was gallantly offered shelter and help by the Rana of Amarkot. It was at Amarkot, ... Read More

Chapter 13. Atmosphere (Geography Notes)

ATMOSPHERECompositionNitrogen (N2) 78.084 %Neon 00.0018 %Oxygen (O2) 20.947 %Helium 00.0005 %Argon (Ar) 00.934 %Methane 00.0002 %Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 0.0314 %Krypton 00.0001 %Hydrogen (H2) 00.00005 %Structure Of Atmosphere➤ The atmosphere has ... Read More

Chapter 13. Appearance of Gandhi (History of Moder...

Appearance of GandhiTowards the end of the First World War, various forces were at work in India and on the international scene. After the end of the war, there was ... Read More

Chapter 12. WW1 and Nationalist Action (History of...

WW1 and Nationalist ActionIn the First World War (1914-1919), Britain allied with France, Russia, USA, Italy and Japan against Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey. This period saw the maturing of Indian ... Read More

Chapter 12. The Earth (Geography Notes)

THE EARTHInternational Date Line (IDL)➤ The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line on the surface of the Earth, that runs from the north to the south pole and ... Read More

Chapter 12. The Delhi Sultanate (Indian History No...

Chapter 12 THE DELHI SULTANATETHE BACKGROUND OF DELHISULTANATE1. First Muslim Invasion - Mohamamd Bin Qasim’s invasion (712 AD) 2. First Turk Invasion - Mahmud Ghaznavi’s invasion (998-1030 AD).3. Second Turk ... Read More

Chapter 12. Struggle for Swaraj I (Old NCERT Histo...

12. Struggle for Swaraj IThe THIRD and the last phase of the national movement began in 1919 when the era of popular mass movements was initiated. The Indian people waged ... Read More

Chapter 12. Struggle for Empire in North India-II ...

CHAPTER 12 Struggle for Empire in North India-IIMughals and Afghans (1525-1555)Central Asia and BaburImportant changes took place in Central and West Asia during the fifteenth century. After the disintegration of ... Read More

Chapter 12. Parliamentary System (Indian Polity &#...

Parliamentary SystemThe Constitution of India provides for a parliamentary form of government, both at the Centre and in the states. Articles 74 and 75 deal with the parliamentary system at ... Read More

Chapter 12. Local Government (Polity & Consti...

LOCAL GOVERNMENTPanchayati Raj : Panchayati Raj is a subject of state list ➤ State Government have right to establish and election of it.➤ Part IX of the constitution relates to ... Read More

Chapter 12. Judiciary (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services...

Chapter 12. Judiciary (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. The power of the Supreme Court of India to decide disputes between the Centre and ... Read More

Chapter 12. Iranian and Macedonian Invasions (Old ...

12. Iranian and Macedonian InvasionsIranian InvasionIn north-east India smaller principalities and republics gradually merged With the Magadhan empire. But the north-west India presented a different picture in the first half ... Read More

Chapter 12. Banking in India (Indian Economy Summ...

12. Banking in IndiaIntroduction The sense in which we today use the term banking has its origin in the western world. It was introduced in India by the British rulers, ... Read More

Chapter 11. Universe And Solar System (Geography N...

UNIVERSE AND SOLAR SYSTEMUniverse➤ The vast surrounding space is called Universe. It incorporates everything that exists, the stars, planets, satellite as well as our earth and all the objects on ... Read More

Chapter 11. Territorial States and the Magadhan Em...

11. Territorial States and the Magadhan EmpireFrom the sixth century B.C. onwards, the widespread use of iron in eastern Uttar Pradesh and western Bihar created conditions for the formation of ... Read More

Chapter 11. Punchyati Raj And Public Policy (UPSC ...

Chapter 11. Punchyati Raj And Public Policy (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. Which one of the following is incorrect in respect of Local ... Read More

Chapter 11. Period of Militant Uprisings (History ...

Period of Militant Uprisings (1905-1909) Growth of Militant NationalismA radical trend of a militant nationalist approach to political activity started emerging in the 1890s and it took a concrete shape ... Read More

Chapter 11. Nationalist Movement 1905-1918 (Old NC...

11. Nationalist Movement 1905-1918GROWTH OF MILITANT NATIONALISMGRADUALLY, over the years, the trend of militant nationalism (also known as Extremism) had been growing in the country. It found expression in the ... Read More

Chapter 11. Medieval Period (Indian History Notes)

Chapter 11 MEDIEVAL PERIODUNIT-II : MEDIEVAL HISTORY OF INDIAIntroductionDuring the medieval times in India, there have been developed important milestones in the field of religion, folk art and language. The ... Read More

Chapter 11. Laws Related To Deprived And Disadvant...

Laws Related To Deprived And Disadvantaged SectionsThe deprived and disadvantaged sections of the society often lack opportunities to enjoy a quality life. Children belonging to these sections need proper attention ... Read More

Chapter 11. Indian Financial Market (Indian Econo...

11. Indian Financial MarketIntroductionThe market of an economy where funds are transacted between the fund-surplus and fund-scarce individuals and groups is known as the financial market (definition). The basis of ... Read More

Chapter 11. Emergency Provisions (Polity & Co...

EMERGENCY PROVISIONS➤ The President is empowered to promulgate three kinds of emergencies—1. On the ground of threat to the security of India by a war or an external aggression or ... Read More

Chapter 11. Cultural Development in India (From th...

CHAPTER 11: Cultural Development in India (From the thirteenth to the fifteenth century)The establishment of the Delhi Sultanat towards the beginning of the thirteenth century may be said to mark ... Read More

Chapter 11. Basic Structure of the Constitution (I...

Basic Structure of the ConstitutionEmergence of the Basic StructureThe question whether Fundamental Rights can be amended by the Parliament under Article 368 came for consideration of the Supreme Court within ... Read More

Chapter 10. Struggle for Empire in North India-I (...

CHAPTER 10: Struggle for Empire in North India-I (Circa 1400-1525)The growing weakness of the Delhi Sultanat and the attack of Timor on Delhi in 1398 followed by the flight of ... Read More

Chapter 10. Services Sector (Indian Economy Summa...

10. Services SectorIntroductionIndia’s services sector has not only outperformed other sectors of the Indian economy, but has also played an important role in India’s integration with world trade and capital ... Read More

Chapter 10. Remedial Teaching (Language English Fo...

Chapter 10. REMEDIAL TEACHINGINTRODUCTIONThe term ‘remedial teaching’ has been an integral part of the teaching-learning process for a long time.In June 1963, a seminar was conducted by National Council of ... Read More

Chapter 10. Population : 2011 Census (Geography No...

POPULATION : 2011 CENSUSThe study of population is called Demography.Population Trend in India➤ 1891-1921 Period of stagnant population➤ 1921-1951 Period of steady growth➤ 1951-1981 Period of high growth➤ 1981-2011 Period ... Read More

Chapter 10. Neuro developmental Disabilities (Chil...

Neurodevelopmental DisabilitiesAfter going through this unit, you must have a basic understanding about the common neurodevelopmental disabilities. After describing the concept and definition of the specific type of neurodevelopmental disability ... Read More

Chapter 10. Jainism and Budhism (Old NCERT History...

10. Jainism and BudhismNumerous, religious sects, arose in the middle Gangetic plains in the-second half of the sixth century B.C. We hear of as many as 62 religious sects. Many ... Read More

Chapter 10. India After Harsha (Indian History Not...

Chapter 10 INDIA AFTER HARSHAIntroductionAfter the death of Harshavardhan, the unity fabricated by him in the north India, disintegrated. There opened several centres of power and resulted in the emergence ... Read More

Chapter 10. INC: Establishment and the Moderate Pe...

INC: Establishment and the Moderate PeriodFoundation of Indian National CongressIn the later 1870s and early 1880s, a solid ground had been prepared for the establishment of an all-India organisation.The final ... Read More

Chapter 10. Growth of New India – Religious and So...

10. Growth of New India – Religious and Social Reforms after 1858THE RISING tide of nationalism and democracy, which led to the struggle for freedom, also found expression in movements ... Read More

Chapter 10. Government And Administration (UPSC IA...

Chapter 10. Government And Administration (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. Which one of the following is correct in respect of the commencement of ... Read More

Chapter 10. Constitutional Bodies (Polity & C...

CONSTITUTIONAL BODIESUnion Public Service Commission (UPSC)➤ The Union Public Service Commission is the central recruiting agency in India. It is an independent constitutional body in the sense that it has ... Read More

Chapter 10. Amendment of the Constitution (Indian ...

Amendment of the ConstitutionLike any other written Constitution, the Constitution of India also provides for its amendment in order to adjust itself to the changing conditions and needs. However, the ... Read More

Chapter 1. Sources of History (History of Modern I...

Sources of HistoryArchives Archives refer to a collection of historical records and documents, usually primary source documents. An important part of archives relating to modern India are the official records, ... Read More

Chapter 1. Reading Comprehension: Prose (Language ...

Chapter 1. READING COMPREHENSION: PROSEINTRODUCTIONOne of the major aims of teaching a language is to enable the learner to express himself correctly in spoken as well as written form of ... Read More

Chapter 1. Development (Child Development & P...

DevelopmentConcept Of DevelopmentWhat Is DevelopmentLooking back at our lives, we have memories that remind us about the changes we have faced over time and it is a fact that humans ... Read More

Chapter 1 Family and friends (EVS Environment Stud...

Chapter 1 Family and friendsRelationship refers to the state of connection in which two or more people are related by blood, marriage or feelings.Spending more quality time with family and ... Read More

Chapter 09. The Later Vedic Phase: Transition to t...

9. The Later Vedic Phase: Transition to the State and Social OrdersExpansion in the Later Vedic Period (c 1000-500 B C )The history of the later Vedic period is based ... Read More

Chapter 09. The Gupta Empire (Indian History Notes...

Chapter 9 THE GUPTA EMPIREIntroductionBy the end of third century A.D. the powerful empires established by the Kushanas in the north and Satvahanas in the Deccan had come to end ... Read More

Chapter 09. The Age of Vijayanagara and the Bahman...

CHAPTER 9: The Age of Vijayanagara and the Bahmanids and the Coming of the Portuguese (Circa 1350-1565)The Vijayanagara and Bahmani kingdoms dominated India, south of the Vindhyas, for more than ... Read More

Chapter 09. Judiciary In India (Polity & Cons...

JUDICIARY IN INDIATHE SUPREME COURT➤ The supreme court of India replaced the federal court which was setup under the Government of India Act, 1935.➤ It came into existence on January ... Read More

Chapter 09. Industry and Infrastructure (Indian Ec...

9. Industry and InfrastructureIntroductionMany of the western economies have already written their success stories of industrialisation leading to accelerated growth and development by the time India became an independent economy ... Read More

Chapter 09. Indian Polity & Constitution (UPS...

Chapter 09. Indian Polity & Constitution (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. Which of the following is/are extra-constitutional and extralegal device(s) for securing cooperation ... Read More

Chapter 09. Indian Geography Misc (Geography Notes...

INDIAN GEOGRAPHY MISCTribesTribal Group Found in Tribal Group Found inAbhorArunachal PradeshKhondJharkhandAdivasiAP, Bihar, Odisha, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamilnadu, Some Northeastern States, West Bangal, Andaman and NicobarKhasiMeghalayaAhganiManipurKhariaJharkhand, OdishaApataniArunachal PradeshKolMadhya PradeshBaigaMadhya ... Read More

Chapter 09. Growth of New India the nationalist Mo...

9. Growth of New India the nationalist Movement 1858-1905The SECOND half of the 19th century witnessed the full flowering of national political consciousness and the growth of an organised national ... Read More

Chapter 09. Fundamental Duties (Indian Polity ...

Fundamental DutiesThough the rights and duties of the citizens are correlative and inseparable, the original constitution contained only the fundamental rights and not the fundamental duties. In other words, the ... Read More

Chapter 08. The World after the Second World War (...

Chapter 8. The World after the Second World WarThe world has been completely transformed during the years since the end of the Second World War in 1945. Its political map ... Read More

Chapter 08. The State Executive (Polity & Con...

THE STATE EXECUTIVE➤ In India, except Jammu and Kashmir all the states have the same pattern of government as the centre.➤ Articles 153 to 167 deal with the state executive.➤ ... Read More

Chapter 08. The Sangam Age (Indian History Notes)

Chapter 8 THE SANGAM AGEIntroductionSanskrit word ‘Sangha’ means a group of persons or an association. The Tamil Sangam was an academy of poets and bards, who flourished in three different ... Read More

Chapter 08. India Agriculture (Geography Notes)

INDIA AGRICULTURECrop Classification : Indian crops can be divided into following categories :1. Food Crops : Rice, Wheat, Maize, Millets-Jowar, Bajra, Ragi, Pulses-Gram, Tur (Arhar).2. Cash Crops : Cotton, Jute, ... Read More

Chapter 08. Government, Economic and Social life u...

CHAPTER 8: Government, Economic and Social life under the Delhi SultanatThe State set up by the Turks towards the end of the twelfth century in northern India gradually developed into ... Read More

Chapter 08. Economic Impact of the British Rule (O...

8. Economic Impact of the British RuleTHE BRITISH conquest had a pronounced and profound economic impact on India. There was hardly any aspect of the Indian economy that was not ... Read More

Chapter 08. Directive Principles of State Policy (...

Directive Principles of State PolicyThe Directive Principles of State Policy are enumerated in Part IV of the Constitution from Articles 36 to 51. The framers of the Constitution borrowed this ... Read More

Chapter 08. Agriculture and Food Management (India...

8. Agriculture and Food ManagementIntroductionAgriculture remains the most important sector of the Indian economy, whether it be the pre-independence or the post-independence periods. This fact is emphatically proved by the ... Read More

Chapter 08. Agriculture (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Servic...

Chapter 08. Agriculture (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. In the map the given four areas are differently shaded, three of which indicate cereal ... Read More

Chapter 08. Advent of the Aryans and the Age of th...

8. Advent of the Aryans and the Age of the Rig VedaOriginal Home and IdentityIt is difficult to say that all the earliest Aryans belonged to 6ne race, but their ... Read More

Chapter 07. The Second World War (Old NCERT World ...

Chapter 7. The Second World WarThe Second World War, like die First, start world war. In spite of the fact that Western countries had acquiesced in all the aggressions of ... Read More

Chapter 07. The Parliament (Polity & Constitu...

THE PARLIAMENTLOK SABHA: STRUCTRE, COMPOSITION & FUNCTIONS➤ Parliament is the supreme legislative body of India.➤ Article 79 to 122, Part V deals with the Parliament.➤ According to Article 79, the ... Read More

Chapter 07. The Mauryan Empire (Indian History Not...

Chapter 7 THE MAURYAN EMPIREIntroductionThere are two important sources of Mauryan history. One is the ‘Arthashastra’, written by Kautilya also known as Chanakya, the Prime Minister of Chandragupta Maurya, which ... Read More

Chapter 07. The Harappan Culture Bronze age Civili...

7. The Harappan Culture Bronze age CivilisationGeographical ExtentThe indus or the Harappan culture is older than the chalcolithic cultures which have been treated earlier, but it is far more developed ... Read More

Chapter 07. The Delhi Sultanat-II (circa 1200-1400...

CHAPTER 7 The Delhi Sultanat-II (circa 1200-1400)The Khaljis and the TughlaqsAfter the death of Balban in J286there was again confusion in Delhi for some lime. Balban’s chosen successor, Prince Muhammad, ... Read More

Chapter 07. Inflation and Business Cycle (Indian ...

7. Inflation and Business Cycle IntroductionFor a layman, inflation is just price rise. It becomes a matter of everyday discussion if the prices of daily or weekly items start rising ... Read More

Chapter 07. Indian GEOGRAPHY (UPSC IAS CSE Civil S...

Chapter 07. Indian GEOGRAPHY (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. The alpine vegetation in the Western Himalayas is found only up to a height ... Read More

Chapter 07. India Soils (Geography Notes)

INDIA SOILS➤ Soil is a mixture of many solid, liquid and gaseous substances. It forms the top most layer of earth’s crust.➤ In India there is a vast variety in ... Read More

Chapter 07. Fundamental Rights (Indian Polity ...

Fundamental RightsThe Fundamental Rights are enshrined in Part III of the Constitution from Articles 12 to 35. In this regard, the framers of the Constitution derived inspiration from the Constitution ... Read More

Chapter 07. Administrative Changes after 1858 (Old...

7. Administrative Changes after 1858THE REVOLT of 1857 gave a severe jolt to the British administration in India and made its reorganisation inevitable. The Government of India’s structure and policies ... Read More

Chapter 06. World Political Geography (UPSC IAS CS...

Chapter 06. World Political Geography (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. Given below is a map of some countries which were parts of the ... Read More

Chapter 06. Union Executive (Polity & Constit...

UNION EXECUTIVETHE PRESIDENT➤ There shall be a President of India (Article 52).➤ The executive power of the union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him ... Read More

Chapter 06. The World from 1919 to the Second Worl...

Chapter 6. The World from 1919 to the Second World WarHardly twenty years had passed since the end of the Fust World War, when, in 1939, the Second World War ... Read More

Chapter 06. The Revolt of 1857 (Old NCERT History ...

6. The Revolt of 1857A MIGHTY popular revolt broke out in Northern and Central India in 1857 and nearly swept away the British rule. It began with a mutiny of ... Read More

Chapter 06. The Delhi Sultanat (circa 1200-1400) (...

CHAPTER 6: The Delhi Sultanat (circa 1200-1400)The Mameluk SultanSome of the factors which enabled the Turks to extend their conquest from the Punjab and Multan into the Ganga valley and ... Read More

Chapter 06. Religious Revolution (Indian History N...

Chapter 6 RELIGIOUS REVOLUTIONtrade was generally looked down upon by the brahmins. The vaisyas who practiced this trade wanted to raise their social position in the eyes of religion.The vaisyas ... Read More

Chapter 06. India Minerals (Geography Notes)

INDIA MINERALSMineral Ore Found in FeaturesIronMagnetite—the best quality of iron ore and contains 72% pure iron. Haematite-contains 60 to 70% pure iron. Limonite-contains 40 to 60% pure iron. Siderite-contains many ... Read More

Chapter 06. Economic Reforms (Indian Economy Summ...

6. Economic Reforms IntroductionThe economic reforms initiated in 1991 is now into the 26th year. In this period there was hardly a day that some news, news analysis, write-up or ... Read More

Chapter 06. Citizenship (Indian Polity & Cons...

CitizenshipMeaning and SignificanceLike any other modern state, India has two kinds of people—citizens and aliens. Citizens are full members of the Indian State and owe allegiance to it. They enjoy ... Read More

Chapter 06. Chalcolithic Farming cultures (Old NCE...

6. Chalcolithic Farming culturesChalcolithic SettlementsThe end of the neolithic period saw theme of metals. The metal to be used first was copper and several cultures were based on the use ... Read More

Chapter 06. Art & Culture : India (History No...

ART & CULTURE : INDIAClassical DancesClassicalDacesStatesExponentsRelated StylesOdishiOriginated in 2nd century B.C., based on the Natya Shastra, Originated in temple during King Khaarvela reign, woven around Tribhanga poseOdishaKelucharan Mahaptara, Pankaj Charan ... Read More

Chapter 05. World History (History Notes)

WORLD HISTORYAncient Civilizations of The world :➤ It is the first of civilization to have ever emerged on the face of planet earth ever since the evolution of humans.➤ The ... Read More

Chapter 05. Union and its Territory (Indian Polity...

Union and its TerritoryArticles 1 to 4 under Part-I of the Constitution deal with the Union and its territory.Union of StatesArticle 1 describes India, that is, Bharat as a ‘Union ... Read More

Chapter 05. The Stone Age : The Early Man (Old NCE...

5. The Stone Age : The Early ManThe Palaeolithic Period: Hunters and Food GatherersThe earth is over 4000 million years old. The evolution of its crust shows four stages. The ... Read More

Chapter 05. The Russian Revolution (Old NCERT Worl...

Chapter 5. The Russian RevolutionIN a previous chapter, you have read about the rise and growth of the socialist movement. By the early years of the twentieth century, political movements ... Read More

Chapter 05. The Age of Conflict (circa 1000-1200) ...

CHAPTER 5: The Age of Conflict (circa 1000-1200)The period from 1000 to 1200 saw rapid changes both in West and Central Asia and in north India. It was these developments ... Read More

Chapter 05. Social and cultural awakening in the f...

5. Social and cultural awakening in the first half of the 19thcenturyIMMENSE intellectual and cultural stirrings characterized 19th century India. The impact of modern Western culture and consciousness of defeat ... Read More

Chapter 05. Planning in India (Indian Economy Sum...

5. Planning in India IntroductionIt was the Soviet Union which explored and adopted national planning for the first time in the world. After a prolonged period of debate and discussion, ... Read More

Chapter 05. Physical Geography (UPSC IAS CSE Civil...

Chapter 05. Physical Geography (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. A meteor is :(1995)(a) a rapidly moving star(b) a piece of mater which has ... Read More

Chapter 05. India Natural Vegetation And Wildlife ...

INDIA NATURAL VEGETATION AND WILDLIFEMAJOR INDIAN FOREST TYPES(1) Tropical Evergreen Forest➤ Region : Areas having 200-300 cm or more annual rainfall such as windward side of Western Ghats, North-Eastern hills ... Read More

Chapter 05. Emergence Of Mahajanapadas And Magadh ...

Chapter 5 EMERGENCE OF MAHAJANAPADAS AND MAGADHIntroductionJanapada literally means the place where the people put their feet. However, these were permanent settlements of the agricultural communities of the later vedic ... Read More

Chapter 05. Directive Principles Of State Policy (...

DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY➤ The constitution of India aims to establish not only political democracy but also socioeconomic justice to the people to establish a welfare state.➤ These provisions ... Read More

Chapter 04. The Vedic Age (Indian History Notes)

Chapter 4 THE VEDIC AGEIntroductionAfter the decline or destruction of the Indus Civilization a new civilization came into existence, but between these two major events there must have been a ... Read More

Chapter 04. The Geographical setting (Old NCERT Hi...

4. The Geographical settingThe history of India cannot be understood without some knowledge of its geography. The Indian subcontinent is as large in areas as Europe without Russia. Its total ... Read More

Chapter 04. The First World War (Old NCERT World H...

Chapter 4. The First World WarIN 1914, a war began in Europe which soon engulfed almost the entire world. The damage caused by this war had no precedent in history ... Read More

Chapter 04. Preamble of the Constitution (Indian P...

Preamble of the ConstitutionThe American Constitution was the first to begin with a Preamble. Many countries, including India, followed this practice. The term ‘preamble’ refers to the introduction or preface ... Read More

Chapter 04. Modern India (History Notes)

MODERN INDIADECLINE OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE➤ After the death of Aurangzeb, Muaazam emerged victorious in the war of succession.➤ Muaazam ascended the throne with the name of Bahadur Shah-I in ... Read More

Chapter 04. Indian National Movement (UPSC IAS CSE...

Chapter 04. Indian National Movement (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. The radical wing of the Congress Party with Jawaharlal Nehru as one of ... Read More

Chapter 04. India Drainage (Geography Notes)

INDIA DRAINAGE➤ India has been adorned, with hundreds of large and small rivers, by the nature.➤ The threefold physiographic division has an important bearing on the drainage of Indian Subcontinent.➤ ... Read More

Chapter 04. Fundamental Duties (Polity & Cons...

FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES➤ The Fundamental Duties are contained in Article 51 A of Part IV A of the Constitution.➤ The Fundamental Duties were inserted into the Constitution of India by the ... Read More

Chapter 04. Economic Planning (Indian Economy Summ...

4. Economic PlanningIntroductionIn order not to limit the discussion on economic planning to just an academic exercise, we need to discuss it taking real life examples from different economies. Without ... Read More

Chapter 04. Economic and social life, Education an...

CHAPTER 4 : Economic and social life, Education and religious beliefs (800-1200)Although we have not yet studied political developments in north India from 1000 to 1200the entire period from 800 ... Read More

Chapter 04. Administrative Organisation and Social...

4. Administrative Organisation and Social and Cultural PolicyWE HAVE seen in the previous chapter that by 1784 the East India Company's administration of India had been brought under the control ... Read More

Chapter 03. Types of Sources and Historical Constr...

3. Types of Sources and Historical ConstructionMaterial RemainsThe ancient Indians left innumerable material remains. The stone temples in south India and the brick monasteries in eastern India still stand to ... Read More

Chapter 03. The Structure of Government and the Ec...

3. The Structure of Government and the Economic Policies of the Britsh Empire in India, 1757-1857HAVING acquired the vast empire of India, the East India Company had to devise suitable ... Read More

Chapter 03. The Chola Empire (Old NCERT History M...

CHAPTER 3 The Chola Empire(From the ninth to twelfth century)The Chola empire which arose in the ninth century brought under its control a large part of the peninsula. The Cholas ... Read More

Chapter 03. Salient Features of the Constitution (...

Salient Features of the ConstitutionIntroductionThe Indian Constitution is unique in its contents and spirit. Though borrowed from almost every constitution of the world, the constitution of India has several salient ... Read More

Chapter 03. Modern History (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Ser...

Chapter 03. Modern History (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. In the interim government formed in 1946, the Vice-President of the Executive Council was: ... Read More

Chapter 03. Medieval India (History Notes)

MEDIEVAL INDIAMUSLIM INVASIONTHE GHAZNAVIS➤ Alpatgin established an independent kingdom with its capital at Ghazni.➤ Mahmud ascended the throne(998-1030) at Ghazni.➤ Firdausi was the poet laureate at the court of Mahmud.➤ ... Read More

Chapter 03. Indus Valley Civilization (Indian Hist...

Chapter 3 INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATIONIntroductionExcavation of Harappa and Mohenjodaro in Punjab and Sind, now in Pakistan, awared the world about an ancient most advanced civilization contemporary to Egypt, Mesopotamia and ... Read More

Chapter 03. India Climate (Geography Notes)

INDIA CLIMATE➤ The climate of India can be broadly describe as Tropical Monsoon Climate.➤ Derived from the Arabic word ‘Mausam’ monsoon implies a seasonal reversal in the wind direction through ... Read More

Chapter 03. Imperialism and Colonialism (Old NCERT...

Chapter 3. Imperialism and ColonialismTHE term ‘imperialism’ means the practice of extending the power, control or rule by a country over the political and economic life of areas outside its ... Read More

Chapter 03. Fundamental Rights (Polity & Cons...

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS➤ The fundamental Rights are meant for promoting the ideal of political democracy.➤ These are fundamental in the sense, that they are the most essential rights for the allround ... Read More

Chapter 03. Evolution of the Indian Economy (India...

3. Evolution of the Indian EconomyThe BackgroundThe economic profile of India was in complete distress at the time of Independence. Being a typical case of colonial economy, India was serving ... Read More

Chapter 02. Pre-Historic Period (Indian History No...

Chapter 2 PRE-HISTORIC PERIODIntroductionThe credit for the rediscovery of Indian pre-history goes to Dr. Primrose, an Englishman, who was the first person to discover pre-historic implements (stone knives and arrow-heads) ... Read More

Chapter 02. Northern India: Age of the Three Empir...

CHAPTER 2 Northern India: Age of the Three Empires(From the eighth to tenth century)A number of powerful empires arose in northern India and the Deccan between AD 750 and 1000 ... Read More

Chapter 02. Medieval India (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Ser...

Chapter 02. Medieval India (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. The Mughal school of painting formed the spinal column of different schools of Indian ... Read More

Chapter 02. Making of the Constitution (Indian Pol...

Making of the ConstitutionDemand for a Constituent AssemblyIt was in 1934 that the idea of a Constituent Assembly for India was put forward for the first time by M. N ... Read More

Chapter 02. India Physiography (Geography Notes)

INDIA PHYSIOGRAPHYHimalayasThe Himalayan mountain range and Tibetan plateau have formed as a result of the collision between the Indian Plate and Eurasian Plate (Plate tectonics) which began 50 million years ... Read More

Chapter 02. Growth, Development and Happiness (In...

2. Growth, Development and Happiness IntroductionSimilar to seers and philosophers, economists, were also party to human’s quest for a better tomorrow. We have been a witness to a number of ... Read More

Chapter 02. Feudalism, Capitalism and Socialism (O...

Chapter 2. Feudalism, Capitalism and SocialismIn the previous chapter, you learned about the rise of a new economic system in the world. In this chapter you will read of the ... Read More

Chapter 02. European Penetration and the British C...

2. European Penetration and the British Conquest of IndiaA New Phase in Europe’s Eastern TradeINDIA’S TRADE relations with Europe go back to the ancient days of the Greeks.During the Middle ... Read More

Chapter 02. Basic Provisions (Polity & Consti...

BASIC PROVISIONSPREAMBLE“WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens; JUSTICE, social, economic and ... Read More

Chapter 02. Ancient India (History Notes)

ANCIENT INDIAPRE-HISTORIC PERIOD➤ The Pre-historic phase can be roughly divided into 3 parts i.e., paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic.PALEOLITHIC AGE (250,000-10,000 B.C.)➤ Paleolithic Culture developed in the Pleistocene period.➤ Pleistocene was ... Read More

Chapter 02. Ancient Historians of Ancient India (O...

2. Modern Historians of Ancient IndiaColonialist Views and ContributionAlthough educated Indians retained their traditional history in the form of hand-written epics, Puranas and semi-biographical works, modern research in the history ... Read More

Chapter 01. The Importance of Ancient Indian Histo...

1. The Importance of Ancient Indian HistoryThe study of ancient Indian history is important for several reasons. It tells us how, when and where people developed the earliest cultures in ... Read More

Chapter 01. Sources Of Ancient Indian History (Ind...

Chapter 1 SOURCES OF ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORYIntroductionGenerally, Ancient History of India is divided into three periods - Palaeolithic period (pre-historic period); Mesolithic period (Prime historic period) and Neolithic period. The ... Read More

Chapter 01. Sources Of Ancient Indian History (His...

SOURCES OF ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORYPre Historic Period– It is the history of human culture prior to written records. The human of this period has not civilized. The history of this ... Read More

Chapter 01. Introduction (Indian Economy Summary)

1. IntroductionEconomics: the DisciplineThe study of every discipline starts with the process of defining it. Economics is no exception to this. But the challenge of articulating an over arching definition ... Read More

Chapter 01. Industrial Revolution (Old NCERT World...

Chapter 1. Industrial RevolutionIntroduction to ChapterTOWARDS the end of the middle Ages, feudalism as an economic system had started declining. This process was furthered by the Renaissance and other developments ... Read More

Chapter 01. India Location Aspects (Geography Note...

INDIA LOCATION ASPECTSLocationIndia is the seventh largest and the second most populous country in the world.➤ It lies between latitudes 8°4' N and 37°6' N and longitudes 68°7' E and ... Read More

Chapter 01. India in the Eighteenth Century (Old N...

1. India in the Eighteenth CenturyDecay of the Mughal EmpireTHE GREAT Mughal Empire, the envy of its contemporaries for almost two centuries, declined and disintegrated during the first half of ... Read More

Chapter 01. India and the World (Old NCERT History...

CHAPTER 1 India and the WorldMany important changes took place in Europe and Asia after the eighth century. These changes not only altered the relationship between Europe and Asia, but ... Read More

Chapter 01. Historical Background (Indian Polity &...

Historical BackgroundThe British came to India in 1600 as traders, in the form of East India Company, which had the exclusive right of trading in India under a charter granted ... Read More

Chapter 01. Constitution Of India : At A Glance (P...

EVOLUTION OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA➤ A constitution is a document of people’s faith and aspirations possessing a special legal sanctity.➤ It is the fundamental law of the country and ... Read More

Chapter 01. Ancient History (UPSC IAS CSE Civil S...

Chapter 01. Ancient History (UPSC IAS CSE Civil Services CSAT Prelims Paper-1 Topicwise Previous Year Papers)1. The word ‘Hindu’ as reference to the people of Hind (India) was first used ... Read More

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