Chapter 6 Major Landforms of the Earth

Chapter Review: ▸ The internal process leads to the upliftment and sinking of the earth’s surface at several places.
▸ The external process is the continuous wearing down and rebuilding of the land surface.
▸ The wearing away of the earth’s surface is called erosion.
▸ There are different landforms depending on elevation and slope as mountains, plateaus and plains.
Mountains ▸ A mountain is any natural elevation of the earth surface.
▸ There are permanently frozen rivers of ice. They are called glaciers.
▸ Mountains may be arranged in a line known as range.
▸ The Himalaya, the Alps and the Andes are mountain ranges.
▸ There are three types of mountains—Fold Mountains, Block Mountains and the Volcanic Mountains.
▸ The Himalayan Mountains and the Alps are young fold mountains.
▸ The Aravali range in India is one of the oldest fold mountain systems.
▸ Block Mountains are created when large areas are broken and displaced vertically.
▸ Volcanic mountains are formed due to volcanic activity, e.g. Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa.
▸ Water from the mountains is also used for irrigation and generation of electricity.
Plateaus ▸ A plateau is an elevated flat land.
▸ The Deccan plateau in India is one of the oldest plateaus.
▸ The Tibet plateau is the highest plateau in the world.
▸ The African plateau is famous for gold and diamond mining.
▸ The lava plateaus are rich in black soil that are fertile and good for cultivation.
Plains ▸ Plains are large stretches of flat land.
▸ Most of the plains are formed by rivers and their tributaries.
▸ In India, the Indo-Gangetic plains are the most densely populated region of the country.
Landforms and the People ▸ Humans have been living on different kinds of landforms in different ways.
▸ Sometimes, natural calamities such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, storms and floods cause widespread destruction.

In-Text Questions Solved

Question1. Look carefully at photograph nos. 1—10. Write one sentence about each of the photograph.
See NCERT Book Page 44–55
Answer: Photograph 1 — It is a desert, where camels are used to carry loads.
Photograph 2 — A person is standing on the sea beach.

Photograph 3 — Children are enjoying.
Photograph 4 — It is a forest area.
Photograph 5 — A thickly populated region in the plains.
Photograph 6 — Several women are engaged in plucking tea leaves from tea gardens.
Photograph 7 — It is a plateau.
Photograph 8 — People are seen busy in rafting.
Photograph 9 — Pastoralists are grazing their livestock in the hilly slopes of the Himalayas.
Photograph 10— It is a cold desert area.

Question2. Name the landform features shown in the photograph nos.
1, 2 and 7.
Answer: Photograph 1 is a desert.
Photograph 2 is a sea beach.
Photograph 7 is a plateau.

Question3. What appears to be the main use of this land?
(Photograph 9)
Answer: This land is used mainly in grazing sheep and cattle.

Question4. What activities do you see in the photograph nos. 3, 6, 8 and 9?
Answer: Photograph 3 — Boat race Photograph 6 — Plucking tea leaves Photograph 8 — Rafting in a river Photograph 9 — Grazing

Question5. What type of houses do you see in photograph nos. 4 and 5?
Answer: In photograph nos. 4 and 5 the houses have slanting roofs.

Question6. Name the water sport/games shown in photograph nos.
3 and 8.
Answer: Photograph 3 — Boat race Photograph 8 — Rafting

Question7. Name two means of transport shown in photograph nos.
1 and 10.
Answer: Photograph 1 — Camels Photograph 10 — Car.

Textbook Questions

Question1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(a) What are the major landforms?
(b) What is the difference between a mountain and a plateau?
(c) What are the different types of mountains?
(d) How are mountains useful to man?
(e) How are plains formed?
(f) Why are the river plains thickly populated?
(g) Why are mountains thinly populated?
Answer: (a) The major landforms are—mountains, plateaus and plains.
(b) A mountain may have a small summit and a broad base. But a plateau is flat-topped table standing above the surrounding area.
Example of mountain—The Himalayan mountains.
Example of plateau—The Deccan plateau.
(c) Mountains are of three types—
Fold mountains
Block mountains
Volcanic mountains
(d) Mountains are useful to man in a variety of ways:
(i) Mountains are storehouse of water which is the basic need of the human beings. Reservoirs are made and the water is harnessed for the use of people. Water is used for irrigation and generation of hydroelectricity.
(ii) Mountains have a rich variety of flora and fauna.
(iii) Mountains provide an idyllic site for tourists.
They visit the mountains for their scenic beauty.
(e) Plains are generally formed by rivers and their tributaries. The rivers flow down the slopes of mountains and erode them. They carry forward the eroded material. Then they deposit their load consisting of stones, sand and silt along their courses and in their valleys. It is from these deposits that plains are formed.
(f) The river plains are very suitable for human habitation. People get flat land for building houses and for cultivation. The soil of river plains is very fertile. Hence people live here and cultivate land for their living.
(g) Life is very difficult in mountain areas because of harsh climate. It is quite difficult to grow crops, build houses or roads in a mountain. Hence, people do not prefer to live here.

Question2. Tick the correct answer.
(a) The mountains differ from the hills in terms of
(i) elevation (ii) slope
(iii) aspect.
(b) Glaciers are found in
(i) the mountains (ii) the plains
(iii) the plateaus.
(c) The Deccan plateau is located in
(i) Kenya (ii) Australia
(iii) India.
(d) The river Yangtze flows in
(i) South America (ii) Australia
(iii) China.
(e) An important mountain range of Europe is
(i) the Andes (ii) the Alps
(iii) the Rockies.
Answer: (a)—(i), (b)—(i), (c)—(iii), (d)—(iii), (e)—(ii).

Question3. Fill in the blanks.
(a) A ……… is an unbroken flat or a low-level land.
(b) The Himalayas and the Alps are examples of ………
types of mountains.
(c) ……… areas are rich in mineral deposits.
(d) The ……… is a line of mountains.
(e) The ……… areas are most producting for farming.
Answer: (a) plain, (b) young fold, (c) Plateau, (d) range, (e) plain.

Question1. What kind of landforms are found in your state? Based on the reading of this chapter, say how they are of use to the people.
Answer: Plains are found in my state. Plains are generally very fertile. Hence, people can easily engage themselves in farming activities and get high produce. As the land is plain and level, construction of transport network is very easy. Construction of houses is also carried on large scale. Thus, plains provide all facilities for human habitation. Perhaps therefore, thick population is found here.
Map Skills
Q. 1. On an outline map of the world, mark the following :
(i) Mountain ranges : Himalayas, Rockies and Andes.
(ii) Plateau : Tibet.

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