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SS Social Science Compact Guide (in English) for TET Exams

Chapter 1 History Ancient India


1. Literary Sources : Vedic, Sanskrit, Pali, Prakrit and other literature and foreign accounts.
2. Archaeological : epigraphic, numismatic and architectural remains, archaeological explorations and excavations
❖ study of development of scripts: palaeography.
❖ study of inscriptions:epigraphy.
❖ study of coins: numismatics
❖ study of monuments, material remains: Archeology.


Indian Tradition of History Writing
Puranic Literature
➤ The Puranic literature is very vast. 18 main Puranas, 18 subsidiary Puranas and a large number of other books. According to the Puranas, following are the subject matters of history :
➤ The two great epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, may also be used as a source. It is generally held that there have been constant interpolations in these works.
Vedic Literature
The Four Vedas : We cannot find much trace of political history in the Vedas, but can have reliable glimpses of the culture and civilization of the Vedic period.
➤ Each vedanga has developed a credible literature around it which are in the sutra form i.e., precepts.
➤ This is a very precise and exact form of expression in prose which was developed by the ancient Indians.
Later Vedic Literature
Brahmanas elaborate on vedic rituals Aranyakas give discourses on different spiritual and philosophical problems.
Upanishads — Sulvasutra prescribe measurements for sacrificial altars. Mark the beginning of study of geometry and maths.
Srautasutra account of royal coronation ceremonies Grihyasutra domestic rituals with birth, naming, marriage, funeral etc.
Jain and Buddhist Literature
literature written in notes Jain Prakrit was a form of Sanskrit language Buddhist Pali as the form of Prakrit language which was in vogue in Magadha/South Bihar. Ashokan edicts are also in this language.
Kautilya’s Arthashastra
➤ A book on statecraft was written in the Maurya period.
➤ The text is divided into 15 chapters known as books.
➤ Different books deal with different subject matter concerning polity, economy and society.
➤ Mudrarakshusha, a play written by Vishakhadatta, also gives a glimpse of society and culture.
Notable writers
Kalidasa: Malavikagnimitram is based on some events of the reign of Pusyamitra Sunga, dynasty which followed the Mauryas. Abhgyanshakuntalam: glimpse of Guptas.
Bhasa and Sudraka: written plays based on historical events.
Banabhatta: Harshacharita throws light on many historical facts
Vakpati: wrote Gaudauaho, based on the exploits of Yasovarman of Kanauj
Bilhana: Vikramankadevachnrita describes the victories of the later Chalukya king Vikramaditya.
Kalhana: His book Rajatarangini.


Greek Ambassadors :
➤ Ambassadors were sent to Pataliputra by Greek kings.
➤ Notable: Megasthenese, Deimachus and Dionysios.
Megasthenese :
➤ The Greek ambassador (in the court of Chandragupta Maurya c. 324- 300 B.C.)
➤ Megasthenese wrote extensively in a book called Indika which is no longer available to us.
➤ These fragments of Indika, provide valuable information on Maurya Administration, social classes and economic activities.
Chinese Travelers
➤ visited India from time to time- as Buddhist pilgrims and therefore their accounts are somewhat tilted towards Buddhism. Three important pilgrims were
Notable Chinese writers
Fa-Hien visited India in fifth century A.D. Describes social-religious and economic conditions of India in the time of Guptas.
Hiuen-Tsang 7th Century In the age of Harshavardhana and some other contemporary kings of Northern India.
I-tsing 7th Century
Arab Historian: Al-Beruni
➤ Abu Rihan better known as Al-Beruni.
➤ Born in central Asia in A.D. 973 and died in Ghazni (present-day Afghanistan) in A.D.1048
➤ Contemporary of Mahmud of Ghazni.
➤ When Mahmud conquered part of central Asia, he took Al-Beruni with him.


Megaliths :
➤ Some people in South India, buried their dead with tools, weapons, potteries etc. Such graves were encircled by a big piece of stone. These structures are called Megaliths.
➤ The earliest system of writings is found in the Harappan seals. (2500BC) However, there has been no success in deciphering it. They are pictographic script- ideas/objects expressed in form of picture.
➤ Thus, the writing system of the Ashokan inscriptions (in Brahmi script) are considered to be the earliest (3rd AD).
➤ Ashoka’s views on dhamma and conquests of Samudragupta, and several others would have remained unknown without their epigraphs.


➤ We could not have known about most of the Indo Greek, Saka-Parthian and Kushana kings without numismatic sources.
➤ Some coins were issued by merchants and guilds with permission of rulers prove that commerce had became important in later history of Ancient India.
➤ Largest number of coins found in post-Maurya period trade had increased.
➤ Few coins from Post-Gupta period trade had declined.
Punch-Marked Coins are the earliest coins of India and they bear only symbols on them.
➤ Each symbol is punched separately, which sometimes overlap the another.
➤ silver and copper and rarely in gold.
➤ Kushanas issued mostly gold coins and numerous copper coins which are found in most parts of north India up to Bihar.
➤ Indian influence can be seen on them from the very beginning. We find many Indian gods and goddesses depicted on Kushana coins besides many Persian and Greek deities.
➤ issued largest number of Gold coins.
➤ Guptas appear to have succeeded Kushanas in the tradition of minting coins. They completely Indianised their coinage
➤ kings are depicted engaged in activities like hunting a lion or rhinoceros, holding a bow or battle-axes, playing musical instrument or performing Ashwamedh yajna.
➤ In addition to epigraphic and numismatic sources there are many other antiquarian remains which speak much about our past.
➤ Temples and sculptures are found all over the country right from the Gupta period upto recent times.
➤ These show architectural and artistic history of the Indians.
➤ They excavated large caves in the hills in Western India which are mostly Chaitya and viharas.


➤ The Pre-historic phase can be roughly divided into 3 parts i.e., paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic.

PALEOLITHIC AGE (250,000-10,000 B.C.)

➤ Paleolithic Culture developed in the Pleistocene period.
➤ Pleistocene was the period when ice covered the earth’s surface.
➤ The main tools used during this period are handaxes, cleavers, Choppers, flakes, burins, scrapers.
➤ Their tools were made up of hard rock called ‘quartzite’.
➤ The paleolithic sites are spread in practically all parts of India except the alluvial plains of the Indus and Ganga.
➤ The people of this age lived on hunting and gathering wild fruits and vegetables.
➤ Man during this period used tools of unpolished, undressed rough stones and lived in cave rock shelters.
➤ They had no knowledge of agriculture, fire, or pottery of any metal.
➤ In the later Paleolithic phase domestication of animals was practiced.
➤ Homo sapiens first appeared in the last of this phase.
➤ It has been pointed out that Paleolithic men belonged to the Negrito race.

MESOLITHIC AGE (10,000-6,000 B.C.)

➤ The Mesolithic Age began around 8000 B.C.
➤ It was the transitional phase between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age
➤ Blade, Mesolithic tools are microliths.
➤ Blade, Core, Point, Triangle, Lunate and Trapeze are the main types of Mesolithic tools.
➤ Important sites of Mesolithic Age are Bagor, Langhraj, Sarai Nahar Rai, and Birbhanpur
➤ Sites like Bhimbetka, Adamgarh and Mirzapur are rich in Mesolithic Art.

NEOLITHIC AGE (6000-2500 B.C.)

➤ The term ‘Neolithic’ was coined by Sir John Lubbock in his book ‘Pre Histroic Times’.
➤ Neolithic men cultivated land and grew fruits and corn like ragi and horse gram. They domesticated cattle, sheep and goat.
➤ Important sites are Gufkaral, Burzahom, Chirand, Mehargarh, Piklihal.
➤ Chopani Mando provides the earliest evidence of the use of pottery in the World.


➤ This phase is also called as chalcolithic phase.
➤ It is charaterised by the use of stone and copper.
➤ Chalcolithic people were not acquainted with burnt brick.
➤ People used different types of Pottery of which Black and Red ware was most popular.
➤ They worshipped Mother Goddess and Bull.
➤ They generally lived in thatched houses.


Manda (Kashmir) Daimabad (Maharashtra) Alamgirpur (Uttar Pradesh) Sutkagendor (Pakistan)
➤ According to Radio Carbon dating Harappan civilization developed between 2500 B.C. to 1750 B.C.
➤ Indus Civilization is also called as Harappan Civilization because the first excavated site is Harappa.
➤ It belongs to the Bronze Age.
➤ It extended from Manda (Jammu) in North to Daimabad in South.
➤ Major Settlements are in the Ghaggar-Hakra belt.
➤ More than 1000 sites have been excavated.
➤ Copper, bronze, silver, gold were known but not iron.
➤ Seals were made up of steatite
➤ Majority of the seals have an animal engraved on it with a short inscription. The most frequently found animal is unicorn bull.
➤ They worshipped, Proto-Shiva, Mother-Goddess, Bull, and Pipal tree.
➤ Harappan civilization was the first urban civilization.
➤ Their Pottery was red or black Pottery
➤ The script was pictographic. The writing was Boustrophedon.
➤ Mohenjodaro a Sindhi word meaning “Mound of the dead.”
➤ Rakhigarhi is the latest site discovered in India.
➤ Indus people were the first to produce cotton in the world.
Note : Two big mounds of Harappan sites found at Rakhigarhi in Hisar district of Haryana in January 2014. It has led to archaeologists establishing it as the biggest Harappan civilization site.

Site : Important Archaeological Findings

Harappa : Stone symbols of Lingam (male sex organ) and Yoni (female sex organ), Painted pottery, Clay figures of Mother Goddess, Wheat and Barley in wooden mortar, Copper scale, Crucible for bronze, Copper-made mirror, Vanity box, Dice. 6 Granaries in row, Working floors, Workmen’s quarters, Virgin-Goddess (seal), Cemetery (R-37, H).
Mohenjodaro : Great Bath, Great Granery (the largest build ing of civilization), Assembly hall, Shell strips, Pashupati Mahadeva/ Proto-Shiva (seal), Bronze Image of a nude woman dancer, Steatite image of bearded man, Human skeletons huddled together, The evidence of an Indian ship (figured on a seal). Painted seal (Demi-God), Clay figures of Mother Goddess, A fragment of woven cotton, Brick Kilns, 2 Mesopotamian seals, 1398 seals (57% of total seals of Harappan civilization), Dice.
Chanhudaro : City without a citadel, Inkpot, Lipstick; Metal-workers’, shell-ornament makers’ and bead-makers’ shops; Imprint of dog’s paw on a brick, Terracotta model of a bullock cart, Bronze toy cart.
Lothal : Dockyard, Rice husk; Metal-workers’, shell-ornament makers’ and bead-makers’ shopes; Fire altars, Terracotta figurine of a horse, Double burial (burying a male and a female in a single grave), Terracotta model of a ship, Dying vat, Persian / Iranian seal, Baharainean seal, Painted jar (bird and fox).
Kalibanga : Ploughed field surface (Pre-Harappan), 7 Fire altars, Decorated bricks, Wheels of a toy cart, Mesopotamian cylindrical seal.
Banawali : Lack of chess-board or gridiron pattern town planning, Lack of systematic drainage system, Toy plough, Clay figures of Mother Goddess.
Dholavira : A unique water harnessing system and its storm water drainage system, a large “well and a bath (giant water reservoirs), Only site to be divided into 3 parts, Largest Harappan inscription used for civic purposes, A stadium.
Surkotada : Bones of horse, Oval grave, Pot burials.
Daimabad : Bronze images (Charioteer with chariot, ox, elephant and rhinoceros)


SiteExcavatorPresent Position
Harappa Dayaram Shahani (1921) Montogomery (Punjab) Pakistan
Mohenjodaro Rakhal Das Banerjee (1922) Sindh (Pakistan)
Kalibanga Amlananda Ghosh, Hanumangarh
B. B. Lal (Rajasthan)
Lothal S. R. Rao (1957) Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
Banwali R. S. Bist (1973) Hissar (Haryana)
Rangpur M. S. Vatsa (1931) Gujarat (near Madar river)
Ropar Y. D. Sharma (1955-56) Punjab (Sutlej Bank)
Alamgirpur Y. D. Sharma Meerut (Hindon river)
Sutkagendor A. Stein, George Dales Baluchistan (Dashak river)
Surkotada J. P. Joshi (1964) Gujarat (Kuchchh Plain)
Dabarkot Macay (1935) Baluchistan
Chanhudaro N. G. Majumdar (1931) Sindh (Pakistan)
Ali Murad K. M. Kazzak Sindh (Pakistan)
Mitathal Punjab University Bhiwani
Rakhi Garhi Suraj Bhan Jind (Haryana)
Sutkakoh Dales (1962) 8 km from Penn
Manda Jagpati Joshi Akhnur


Mohenjodaro Indus Kalibanga Ghagghar
Banwali Ghagghar Rojdi Bhadar
Lothal Bhogava Sutkakoh Shadi Kaur
Malavan Tapti Chanhudaro Indus
Sutkagendor Dashak Alamgirpur Hindon
Bhagtrav Kissagar confluence Kot Diji Indus
Rangpur Bhadar Harappa Ravi


➤ It is also known as Rig Vedic Age. Rig Vedic Age gives us knowledge about the Aryans they were come in India from central Asia (Steppe region)
➤ The earliest Aryans lived in the land of ‘Sapta Sindhava’ i.e., land of Seven rivers. The early vedic society was Pastoral.
➤ Cattle was the chief measure of wealth and wealthy man was called ‘Gomat’.
➤ The term Aghanya or not to be killed, has been used for cows. The Raja or chief is called ‘Gopati’. In the Rigveda Godhuli is used as a term for a measure of time.
➤ Apart from Yava or Barley, no other grain is mentioned
➤ Indra was the greatest God of Aryans Agni occupied the second position. Varuna occupied the third position and he personfied water.
➤ The Battle of Ten Kings ended with the victory of the Bharatas led by Sudas.
➤ Widow marriage and Niyoga prevailed in the society. Important functionaries were Purohita, Senani, and gramini
➤ Important tribal Assemblies were Sabha, Samiti, Vidath and Gana.
➤ Sabha performed judicial and administrative functions. King attended Sabha but was not elected by it.
➤ Samiti is mentioned nine–times in Rigveda. Samiti was presided over by king. King was elected in Samiti.
➤ ‘Gana’ is mentioned for 46 places in Rigveda. Leader of Gana was called as ‘Ganapati’.
➤ Dasyus were the most bitter enemies of the Rigvedic people.
➤ Rigvedic people were not aware of Iron.
➤ Agni was called as Bhuvanchakshu.
➤ Gayatri Mantra is mentioned in IIIrd Mandal of Rigveda.
➤ Asvins and Nasatyas were divine physicians. Yama was the Lord of the dead. Aditi is the mother of Surya. Varuna bears the title ‘Asura’.
➤ River Indus was the most important river in Vedic period.
➤ River Sarswati was the most sacred river in Vedic period.


➤ The period assigned to later Vedic phase is 1000 B.C. to 600 B.C. These communities used a particular kind of pottery called the Painted Grey Ware (PGW).
➤ Iron objects are common to most PGW sites. This metal was introduced around 1000-800 B.C. It is mentioned as Ayas.
➤ Society was clearly divided into four Varnas namely–Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudras.
➤ The upper three classes were known as Dvij (twice born).
➤ Gotra first appeared in Atharvaveda with the meaning of clan. There was practice of class exogamy.
➤ There was reference to sati but not in common fashion. There were instances of child marriage.
➤ Indra and Agni lost their importance. Prajapati (the creator) became supreme.
➤ Vishnu came to be conceived as the preserver and protector of the people. Pushan became God of Shudras. Sacrifices became more important and elaborate. There were 33 deities during later Vedic period.
➤ The king’s influence was strengthened by rituals. Rajasuya conferred supreme power on king. Chariot racing was the main sport and gambling was the main pastime.
➤ Vajapeya was a drink of strength.
➤ Aswamedha was the horse sacrifice. Kings were known with different names in different region.
➤ Eastern Kings were called Samrat. Western Kings were called Svarat. Northern Kings were called Virat. Southern Kings were called Bhoja. Kings of the middle country were called Raja.
➤ Earliest evidence of medicine comes from Atharvaveda.
➤ Atharvaveda mentions Sabha and Samiti as daughters of Prajapati.
➤ During later vedic period Prajapati came to occupy the Supreme position.
➤ Institution of Gotra appeared during later vedic period. Duties of four varnas are given in Aatreya Brahamana.
➤ Three roomed mud house has been discovered at Bhagwanpura.
➤ Largest deposit of Iron weapon have been found at Atranjikhera. Two furnaces for iron smelting have been found at Suneri village in Jhunjhunu district.
➤ Eight forms of marriages are given in Ashvalahayan Grihyasutra. Satapatha Brahamana says that ‘wife is half her husband’.
➤ Women enjoyed freedom and respect but their status deteriorated compared to the early vedic period.
➤ Earliest clear reference to the four ashrams is given in Jabala Upnishad.


➤ The word Veda is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Vidi’ meaning, to know or knowledge par excellence.
➤ Vedic texts are divided between Sruti (based on hearing), which is distinct from Smriti (based on memory).
➤ Four Vedas and their Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the Upanishads form a class of literature known as Sruti.


➤ It is divided into 10 Books or Mandalas. Books II to VII are considered the oldest. Book I, VIII and X seem to be later additions.
➤ A collection of 1028 hymns of a number of priestly families.
➤ Written between 1700-1500 B.C. when Aryans were still in Punjab.
➤ The IX mandala is dedicated exclusively to Soma.
➤ The singer of the Rig veda is called the Hotra.
➤ The X Mandala contains the famous Purushsukta hymn that explains the origin of four Varnas.
➤ Gayatri Mantra is the most sacred hymn of Rig Veda. Mentioned in 3rd mandal, written by Viswamitra.


➤ A ritualistic Veda. It is divided into Shukla Yajurveda and Krishna Yajurveda. Written in prose, it deals with procedure for performance of sacrifices and contains rituals as well as hymns. The singer of the Yajur Veda is called Ardhavayu.


➤ Sam Veda derives its roots from Saman, which means a melody. A collection of melodies. A collection of 1603 hymns. Except 99, all other were derived from Rig Veda. It contains the Dhrupada Raga. The singer of Sama Veda is called Udgata.


➤ A collection of 711 hymns, it is divided into 20 khandas. It is the latest Veda. Atharva Veda is a book of magical formula medicinal treatises etc. It contains charms and spell to ward off evil and disease. Its content throws light on the practices of non-Aryans. In Atharvaveda, Sabha and Samiti are described as uterine sisters–The two daughters of Prajapati. This veda is also known as Brahma Veda.
➤ The Upanishadas are philosphical texts. They are generally called Vedanta, as they came towards the end of the Veda. There are 108 Upanishadas. Vrihadaranyaka is the oldest Upanishada.
Literature of Vedic Tradition (600 BC-600 AD)
➤ Literature of Vedic Tradition (Smriti i.e. rememberance literature) comprises of 6 literary works :
1. Vedangas/Sutras 2. Smritis Dharmashastras 3. Mahakavyas (Epics) 4. Puranas 5. Upvedas 6. Shad Dharshanas.
There are six Vedangas :
(i) Shiksha (Phonetics): Tratishakhya’- the oldest text on phonetics.
(ii) Kalpa Sutras (Rituals) : (a) Shravta Sutras/Shulva Sutra – deal with the sacrifices, (b) Grihya Sutras—deal with family ceremonies, (c) Dharma Sutras—deal with Varnas, Ashramas etc.
(iii) Vyakarana (Grammar) : ‘Ashtadyayi’ (Panini) — oldest grammar of the word.
(iv) Nirukta (Etymology) : ‘Nirukta’ (Yask) based on ‘Nighantu’ (Kashyap)— a collection of difficult vedic words—(‘Nighantu’—the oldest wordcollection of the-world; ‘Nirukta’—the oldest dictionary of the world).
(v) Chhanda (Metrics) : ‘Chhandasutras’ (Pingal)–famous text.
(vi) Jyotisha (Astronomy) ‘’Vedanga Jyotisha’ (Lagadh Muni – the oldest Jyotisha text.
There are six famous smritis :
(i) Manu Smriti (Pre-Gupta Period)— the oldest Smriti text; Commentators : Vishwarupa, Meghatithi, Gobindraj, Kulluk Bhatt.
(ii) Yajnavalkya Smriti (Pre-Gupta Period)— Commentators : Vishwarupa, Vijayaneshwar, Apararka (a king of Shilahar Dynasty)
(iii) Narad Smriti (Gupta period),
(iv) Parashara Smriti (Gupta period)
(v) Brihaspati Smriti Gupta period),
(vi) Katyayana Smriti (Gupta period).
➤ There are mainly two Mahakavyas (Epics) :
(i) The Ramayana (Valmiki) : It is known as ‘Adi Kavya’ (the oldest epic of the world). At present, it consists of 24,000 shlokas i.e. verses (Originally 6,000, Later – 12,000, Finally – 24,000) in 7 Kandas i.e. sections. 1st and 7th Kandas were the latest additions to the Ramayana.
(ii) The Mahabharata (Ved Vyasa) : The longest epic of the world. At present, it consists of 1,00,000 shlokas i.e. verses (Originally–8,800- Jay Samhita, Later-24,000–Chaturvinshati Sahastri Samhita/Bharata, Finally-l,00,000-Shatasahastri Samhita/Maha Bharata) in 18 Parvans i.e. chapters, plus the Harivamsa supplement. Bhagavad Gita is extracted from Bihshma Parvan of Mahabharata. Shanti Parvan is the largest parvan (chapter) of the Mahabarata.
➤ The Purana means ‘the old’. There are 18 famous ‘Puranas’. The Matsya Purana is the oldest Puranic text. The other important Puranas are the Bhagavata, the Vishnu, the Vayu and the Brahmanda. They describe genealogies of various royal dynasties.
➤ The Upavedas (the auxiliary vedas) were traditionally associated with vedas :
Upavedas Associated with
1. Ayurveda i.e. Medicine Rig Veda
2. Gandharvaveda i.e. Music Sama Veda
3. Dhanurveda i.e. Archery Yajur Veda
4. Shilpveda/Arthaveda i.e. the science of Atharva Veda craft/wealth (Vishwakarma)
➤ There are 6 schools of Indian philosophy known as Shad-Darshanas.

S.No.DarshanaFounderBasic Text
1. Sankhya Darshana Kapila Sankhya Sutra
2. Yoga Darshana Patanjali Yoga Sutra
3. Nyaya Darshana Akshapada Gautama Nayaya Sutra
4. Vaishesika Darshana Uluka Kanada Vaishesika Sutra
5. Miraansa/Purva Mimansa Jaimini Purva Mimansa Sutra
6. Vedant/Uttara-Mimansa Badarayana Brahma Sutra/ Vedant Sutra

Rigvedic Name Modern name Region

SindhuIndusPunjab (Pakistan) & J&K
Vitasta Jhelum Punjab J&K
Asikani Chenab Punjab (Pakistan) & J&K
Vipas Beas Punjab
Parushni Ravi Punjab
Sutudri Sutlej Punjab
Saraswati Sarsuti Rajasthan
Drishadvati Ghaggar Rajasthan
Kubha Kabul Afghanistan
Suvastu Swati Afghanistan
Krumu Kurram Afghanistan
Gomati Gomal Afghanistan


Six Systems of Philosophy

PhilosophyFounderOther Scholars
Sankhya Kapila Ishwar Krishna, Vachaspati
Nyaya Akshapada Gautma Vatsayayan, Udyanacharya, Jayantbhatt
Yoga Patanjali Myas
Vaisheshika Uluka Kanada Keshav raishra, Vishvanath
Mimansa Jamini Sabrasvamin, Kumaril Bhatt
Vedanta Badrayana Shankaracharya, Vachaspati, Ramanuj, Madhvacharya etc.

Famous Religions, Founders, Holy Books & Places of Worship

ReligionFounderHoly BooksPlace of Worship
Hinduism No single Founder. Ramayana, Vedas, Puranas and Geeta Temple
Sikh Guru Nanak Dev Guru Grantha Sahib Gurdwara
Christianity Jesus Christ Bible Church
Islam Prophet Mohammed Koran (Quran) Mosque
Parsi Zoroaster Zend Avesta Fire Temple
Jainism Adinath Rishabh Dev Jain Granth Jain Temple
Buddhism Gautama Buddha Tripitaka Buddha
Jew Moosa Jorah Synagogue

Other Religious-ideas and their founders

Religious ideas/sectFounder
1. Pasupatas
2. Lingayats
3. Pratyabhijna
4. Spanda-sastra
5. Siva-Siddhanata
6. Advait
7. Vishistadvait
8. Brahm Sampradaya
9. Sanak Sampradaya
Kallata and Samnanda



➤ The origin of Saivism can be traced back to the pre-vedic times. By the early centuries of the Christian era it was a popular sect all over India.
➤ Siva was the principle deity of this sect. Siva was worshipped in the form of Linga.
➤ Tamil Sangam work refers to Siva as the greatest of all gods (mamudu mudalvan).
➤ Siva’s consort Parvati was adored as Sakti. In Satavahana kindom Parvati was worshipped as Gauri.
➤ In Tamil country Skanda was worshipped in the Murugan form.
➤ Ganesa was the younger brother of Skanda. Ganesa was also known as Vinayak.
➤ The most popular Saiva sect was Pasupata sect.
➤ The Kapalika and Kalamukha sect developed much later.


➤ The principal deity of this sect was Vishnu.
➤ The cult of Vishnu in the early period was known by the name Bhagavatism. Bhagavatism owed its origin to the Upanishadas. Bhagavatism arose around the Mathura region.
➤ Acharyas are the great leader philosophers of Vaishnavism who defended and popularised the religion. Some of the prominent acharyas are : Ramanuja, Chaitanya, Madhava, Nimbarka, Nathmuni, Yamunacharya.
➤ It was developed and popularised in south by twelve saints known as Alvars.
➤ Nammalvar and Tirumalsalvar were the greatest of twelve Alvars.


➤ This religion was founded by Jesus Christ. He was born to Mother Marry and Joseph in Bethlehem near Jerusalem. His birth day (25th December) is celebrated as the holy festival, Christmas.
➤ His first two disciple, Andrews and Peter, were hanged in AD 33 by the Roman Governor Portius.
➤ Bible is the holy book of Christians and the sign of ‘cross’ is their holy symbol.


Hazrat Muhammad Saheb
founded the islamic religion. He was born to Amina (mother) and Abdullah (father) at Mecca in AD 570.
➤ He was married to Khajida (a widow) at the age of 25 yrs. His daugher, Fatima, was married to Ali Hussain.
➤ Hazrat Muhammad attained supreme knowledge or enlightment in AD 610 in the Hira Cave near Mecca. His teachings are compiled in the Holy Quran.
➤ 24th September AD 622, the day Hazrat Muhammad started his journey from Mecca to Medina mark the beginning of Hijri Era
➤ He died on 8th June, AD 632 and was buried at Medina.
➤ After his death Islam divided into Shia and Sunni cult. His successors were known as Khalifa. The Turkish ruler, Mushtafa Kamal Pasha, Kalifah ended the designation of Caliphate 1924 A.D.


➤ Parsi religion was founded by Prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra). His teachings compiled in the holybook, Zend Avesta. His followers believed in one God, Ahur.


➤ Buddhism was founded by Gautama Buddha.
➤ Buddha was born on the Vaisakh Purnima day in 563 B.C.
➤ He belonged to the Sakya clan of Kshatriyas.
➤ His father was Suddhodana, the ruler of Kapilvastu.
➤ He was born in Lumbini in Kapilvastu.
➤ His mother was Mahamaya of the Kosala dynasty.
➤ Buddha got Nirvana at the age of 35 years.
➤ Buddha got Nirvana at Uruvela on the bank of river Niranjana.
➤ Buddha gave his first Sermon at Sarnath.
➤ Buddha’s first sermon is called as “Dharma Chakraparivartana”
➤ Buddha died in 483 B.C. at Kushinagar.
➤ Kushinagar has been identified with village Kasia in Deoria district of U.P.
➤ Buddha’s last words were “All composite things, strive diligently”.
➤ Buddha was brought up by his stepmother Gautami.
➤ After seeing an old man, a sick man, a corpse and an ascetic, Buddha decided to become a wanderer.
➤ Asvajit, Upali, Mogallana, Sariputra and Ananda were five disciples of Buddha
Five Great Events of Buddha’s Life and their symbols
Birth : Lotus and Bull
Great Renunciation : Horse
Nirvana : Bodhi tree
First Sermon : Dharmachakra or wheel
Parinirvana or Death : Stupa
Four Noble Truths
➤ The world is full of sorrows.
➤ Desire is root cause of sorrow.
➤ If desire is conquered, all sorrows can be removed.
➤ Desire can be removed by following the eight-fold path.
Eight Fold Path
(1) Right understanding (2) Right speech (3) Right livelihood (4) Right mindfulness (5) Right thought (6) Right action (7) Right effort and (8) Right concentration
Three Ratnas
➤ Buddha ➤ Dhamma ➤ Sangha
Code of Conduct :
(1) Do not covet the property of others
(2) Do not commit violence
(3) Do not speak a lie
(4) Do not indulge in corrupt practices


The First Council was held in 483 BC at Saptaparni cave near Rajagriha to compile the Dhamma Pitaka and Vinaya Pitaka.
Chairman : Mahakassapa, Patron : Ajatshatru
The Second Council was held at Vaisali in 383 BC. The monks of Vaisali wanted some change in the rites. Schism into Sthaviravadins and Mahasanghikas.
Chairman : Sabakami, Patron : Kalashoka
The Third Council was held at Pataliputra during the reign of Ashoka 236 years after the death of Buddha. It was held under the Presidentship of Moggliputta Tissa to revise the scriptures.
The Fourth Council was held during the reign of Kanishka in Kashmir under the Presidentship of Vasumitra, who was helped by Aswvaghosha and resulted in the division of Buddhists into Mahayanists and Hinayanists.


Hinayana :
(a) Its followers believed in the original teachings of Buddha
(b) They sought individual salvation through self-discipline and meditation.
(c) They did not believe in idolworship
(d) Hinayana, like Jainism, is a religion without God, Karma taking the place of God
(e) Nirvana is regarded as the extinction of all
(f) the oldest school of Hinayana Buddhism is the Sthaviravada (Thervada in Pali) or the ‘Doctrine of the Elders’
Mahayana :
(a) Its followers believed in the heavenliness of Buddha and sought the salvation of all through the grace and help of Buddha and Bodhisatvas.
(b) Believes in idolworship.
(c) Believes that Nirvana is not a negative cessation of misery but a positive state of bliss.
(a) Its followers believed that salvation could be the best attained by acquiring the magical power, which they called Vajra.
(b) The chief divinties of this new sect were the Taras.
(c) It became popular in Eastern India, particularly Bengal and Bihar.

S. No.Buddhist
1. Nalanda Badagoan, Bihar Kumargupta-I
2. Vikramshila Bhagalpur, Bihar Dharmapala (Pala ruler)
3. Somapuri North Bengal Dharmapala (Pala ruler)
4. Jagadal Bengal Ramapala (Pala ruler)
5. Odantpuri Bihar Sharit, Bihar Gopala (Pala ruler)
6. Vallabhi Gujarat Bhattarka (Maitrak Rule)


➤ The Buddhist scriptures in Pali are commonly referred to as Tripitaka i.e. Three fold Basket.
➤ Tripitaka includes Vinaya Pitaka, Sutta Pitaka, and Abhidhamma Pitaka.
➤ The Vinayapitaka comprires of suttavibhanga, Khandakas and Parivarpatha.
➤ The Vinay Pitaka :
(a) Mainly deals with rules and regulations, which the Buddha promulgated.
(b) It describes in detail the gradual development of the Sangha.
(c) An account of the life and teaching of the Buddha is also given.
➤ The Sutta Pitaka is divided into five Nikayas.
➤ The five Nikayas are Digh Nikaya, Majjhima Nikaya, Samyutta Nikaya, Anguttara Nikaya and Khuddaka Nikaya.
➤ The Sutta Pitaka consists chiefly of discourses delivered by Buddha himself on different occasions. It lays down the principles of Buddhism.
➤ The Abhidhamma Pitaka is written in the form of questions and Answers.
➤ The Abhidhamma Pitaka Contains the profound philosophy of the Buddha’s tecahings.


➤ Buddhist architecture developed essentially in three forms, viz.
(a) Stupa (relics of the Buddha or some prominent Buddhist monks are preserved)
(b) Chaitya (prayer hall)
(c) Vihara (residence)


➤ Jainism was founded by Vardhamana Mahavira.
➤ Mahavira was born in 540 B.C.
➤ Mahavira’s Birth place was Kundagram in Vaishali
➤ He belonged to the Jantriak Kshatriya clan.
➤ His father’s name was Siddhartha and mother’s name was Trishala, who was a sister of the Lichchavi prince Chetak of Vaishali.
➤ Mahavira was married to Yashoda.
➤ He left home at the age of 30 and wandered for 12 years.
➤ He is regarded as the 24th Tirthankara.
➤ Rishabha was the 1st Tirthankara.
➤ Parsavanath was the 23rd Tirthankara.
➤ Mahavira’s first disciple was Jamali.
➤ He attained Kaivalya on the bank of river Rijupalika near Jrimbhikgrama.
➤ In the course of wandering Mahavira met Mokhliputta (the founder of Ajivika sect).
➤ Ashoka’s grandson Samparati accept Jainism.
➤ In First century A.D. Mathura became the Centre of Jaina art and culture.
➤ The spread of Jainism in Karnataka is attributed to Chandragupta Maurya.
➤ Many Jaina followers went to south under the leadership of Bhadrabahu.
➤ These southern followers later formed the Digambra sect (lives nude)
➤ Those who remained at Magadha, under the leadership of Sthalabahu, formed Shvetambar sect (wears white garments)


➤ Non-injury (ahimsa)
➤ Non-lying
➤ Non-Stealing (asateya)
➤ Non-Possession (aparigraha)
➤ Observe continence (Brahamcharya). It was added by Mahavira.


➤ Most of the literature is written in Prakrit.
➤ The jaina Literature includes, (1) The 12 Angas (2) The 12 Upangas (3) The 10 Prakirna (4) The 6 Chhedsutras (5) The 4 Mulasutras


First Council was held at Pataliputra by Sthulabahu in the beginning of the third century BC and resulted in the compilation of 12 Angas to replace the lost 14 Purvas.
Second Council was held at Valabhi in the 6th (513 AD) century AD under the leadership of Devaradhi Kshamasramana and resulted in final compilation of 12 Angas and 12 Upangas.
Digambaras and Shvetambaras : After the death of Mahavira during the reign of king Chandragupta Maurya a severe famine led to the migration of some jains under Bhadrabahu to the Deccan. Sthulabhadra remained in North and allowed wearing white garments Bhadrabahu maintained nudity leading to division as Digambaras (sky clad or naked) and shwetambars (white clad).
Similarities between Buddhism and Jainism
➤ Both opposed Brahmanical domination and caste system but uphold the essence of Vedas, Preached Truth, non violence, celibacy and detachment from material comforts, believed in karma and rebirth and were liberal towards women.
➤ Aacharangsutra about rules and regulation for Jain Bhikshus.
Differences between Buddhism and Jainism

Followers Monks Lay man
Salvation Moderate one Extreme one
Spread Died in India but spread to foreign lands Confined to India and survived
Ahimsa Liberal Policy Over-emphasis
Soul Did not believe in soul Belived in soul


➤ The Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya gives the list of sixteen Mahajanapadas at the time of Buddha.
➤ These Mahajanapadas extended from the North western Pakistan to east Bihar and from Himalayas to the river Godavari.
Mahajanapada Capital Area

Anga Champa Bhagalpur, Munger (Bihar)
Magadha Rajgriha Patna, Gaya (Bihar)
Kasi Varanasi Near Varanasi
Kosal Saketa, Sravasti Eastern Uttar Pradesh
Vajji (Ganasangha) Vaishali Muzaffarpur (Bihar)
Malla Kusinara/Pava Gorakhpur (U.P.)
Chedi Suktimati Bundelkhand (U.P.)
Vatsa Kaushambi Allahabad (U.P.)
Kuru Indraprastha Meerut Delhi region
Panchal Ahicchatra, Kampilya Western U.P.
Sursena Mathura Mathura (U.P.)
Gandhar Taxila Peshawar (Pakistan)
Kamboja Rajpura Near Gandhar
Asmak Paithan Godhavari area (M.H.)
Avanti Ujjain, Mahishmati Malwa region
Matsya Viratnagar Near Jaipur

➤ Kashi was famous for its cotton textiles and market for horses.
➤ Champa was noted for its trade and Commerce.
➤ Vajji represented a confederacy of eight clans.
➤ The Buddha died in the vicinity of Kusinara.
➤ The Northern Panchalas had their capital at Ahicchatra.
➤ The Southern Panchalas had their Capital at Kampilya.
➤ Viratnagar was used as the hiding place by Pandavas.
➤ Mathura was located at the junction of two famous trade routes i.e. Uttrapatha and Dakshinapatha.
➤ The Kambojas were regarded as uncultured by the Brahamanical texts.
➤ The Buddha calls himself Kosalan in the Majjhima Nikaya.
➤ Kashi had emerged as a cloth manufaturing centre by the time of Buddha.



➤ The epic Mahabharata has provided information about the early period of Magadha.
➤ Jarasandh and Brihdrath were the rulers during the period of Mahabharata.
➤ Girivraja was the magadhan capital during the early period.

BIMBISARA (544-492 B.C.)

➤ Bimbisara established Haryank dynasty.
➤ Rajgir was the capital of the state.
➤ Bimbisara ascended the throne in 544 B.C.
➤ Bimbisara had three wives, mahakosala, Chellana and Khema.
➤ Mahakosala was the sister of Kosal ruler Prasenjit and Chellana was Lichchhavi Princess.
➤ Bimbisara defeated Anga and annexed it.
➤ Bimbisara was contemporary of Buddha.
➤ Bimbisara send his physician Jivak to treat Chand Pradyot of Avanti
➤ Bimbisara was prisoned by his son Ajatshatru and died in 493 B.C.

AJATSHATRU (492-460 B.C.)

➤ Ajatshatru sat on Magadha throne in 492 B.C.
➤ Ajatshatru followed an expansionist policy.
➤ After a long struggle he defeated Kasi and Vajji confederacy.
➤ Ajatshatru took the services of his minister Vassakar to divide the Vajji confederacy.
➤ Ajatshatru got a large stupa constructed in Rajgriha.
➤ Gautama Buddha died during his reign; arranged the first Buddhist council.
➤ Ajatshatru constructed a fort around Rajgriha to protect it from Lichcchavi attack.
➤ Ajatshatru was killed by his son Udayin in 461 B.C.
➤ Udayin transferred the Capital to Patliputra.
➤ Udayin was a follower of Jainism.
➤ The last Haryank ruler was Nagdasak.


➤ Nagdasak was killed by his minister Shisunaga.
➤ Shisunaga established Shisunaga dynasty in 412 B.C.
➤ Shisunaga annexed Avanti to Magadha.
➤ Shisunaga established his capital at Vaishali.
➤ Kalashoka came to the throne in 344 B.C.
➤ Kalashoka again transferred the capital to Pataliputra.
➤ During the reign of Kalashoka second Buddhist council was organized at Vaishali.
➤ Nandivardhan was the last Shisunaga ruler.

NANDA DYNASTY (344-323 B.C.)

➤ Nanda Dynasty was established by Mahapadmananda.
➤ According to Puranas he was not a Kshatriya.
➤ Mahapadmananda was known as Ekarat and Sarvakshatrantaka.
➤ Mahapadmananda conquered Kalinga.
➤ Last Nanda ruler was Dhanananda.
➤ Dhanananda was the contemporary of Alexander.
➤ Alexander attacked India in the reign of Dhanananda (the last ruler)
➤ The Nandas were fabulously rich and enormously powerful.
➤ Nanda Dynasty was destroyed by Chandragupta Maurya and Chanakya.
➤ Nandas have been termed as first empire builders of India.


➤ Magadha enjoyed an advantageous geographical position
➤ Iron deposits were situated close to Rajgir, the earliest capital of Magadha.
➤ Rajgir and Pataliputra were situated at very strategic points.
➤ Pataliputra was surrounded by rivers from all sides it was called as jaladurga (water-fort).
➤ Magadha lay at the centre of the middle Gangetic plain.
➤ Magadha for the first time used elephants on a large scale in wars.


➤ The Period of 6th century B.C. marked by political instability in North-West India.
➤ In 516 B.C. the Iranian ruler Darius penetrated into North- West India. Darius annexed Punjab, west of Indus and Sindh.
➤ This area constituted the 20th kshatrapy (province) of Iran.
➤ The Indian Kshatrapy included Sindh, the North-West frontier and part of Punjab.
➤ The Iranian Scribes brought into India Kharoshti script.
➤ Under the leadership of Alexander of Macedonia, the Greeks destroyed the Iranian Empire.
➤ Alexander marched to India through the Khyber Pass in 326 B.C.
➤ Ambhi was the king of Taxila.
➤ Porus ruled between Jhelum and Ravi.
➤ Porus provided a strong resistance to Alexander.
➤ Battle of Hydaspes was fought between Porus and Alexander.
➤ Alexander’s invasion paved the way for the expansion of Mauryan Empire in North West India.
Effects of Alexander’s Invasion
➤ It exposed India to Europe by opening up four distinct lines of communication three by land and one by sea.
➤ Due to cultural contacts, a cosmopolition school of art came up in Gandhara.
➤ It paved the way for the unification of North India under chandragupta by weakening small states.



➤ The Mauryan dynasty was founded by Chandragupta Maurya with the help of Chanakya or Kautilya.
➤ Brahamanical texts say he was born of Mura, a sudra women in the court of the Nandas.
➤ An earlier Buddhist tradition says he belonged to the Moriya Kshatriya clan.
➤ He fought Seleucus in 305 B.C.
➤ Seleucus surrendered a large territory including Paropanisadai (Kabul), Aria (Herat), Arachosia (Gandhara) and Gedrosia (Baluchistan), in return for 500 elephants.
➤ According to Jaina tradition Chandragupta was converted to Jainism.
➤ Chandragupta Maurya passed his last days at Sravanbelagola near Mysore. Where he died by starvation (Sallekhana/Santhara) ritual of Jains.
➤ Seleucus sent an ambassador Megasthenes to the Mauryan court.
➤ Megasthenes wrote the text ‘Indica’

BINDUSARA (298-272 B.C.)

➤ Bindusara succeeded Chandragupta Maurya.
➤ In Jain literature he has been called as ‘Simhasen’.
➤ Antiochus sent Deimachus as an ambassador to Bindusara’s court.
➤ Ptolemy Philedelphus of Egypt sent Dionysius as ambassador.
➤ He was known as Amitraghata. He was also known as Amitrochates.
➤ He sent his son Ashoka to quell a rebellion in Taxila.
➤ He was a followers of Ajivika sect
➤ The Syrian ambassador Deimachus was sent to his court.

ASHOKA (273-232 B.C.)

➤ Ashoka (273-232 B.C.) succeeded Bindusara.
➤ He was holding viceroyalty of taxila and Ujjain during his fathers lifetime.
➤ He fought Kalinga war in 260 B.C. in the 9th year of his reign.
➤ Under Ashoka, the empire reached its zenith. And in the history, for the first time, the entire Indian sub-continent came under a single umbrella (except extreme Southern India).
➤ Ashoka banned animal sacrifice, regulated the slaughter of animal for food as per 1st major rock edict.
➤ 13th rock edict mentions Kalinga war.
➤ According to his Maski and Gurjara inscriptions he was known as Devanam Priya Priyadarshi.
➤ He was converted to Buddhism by Nigrodh.
➤ Ashoka sent peace missionaries inside India as well as abroad.
Location of Major Rock Edicts
(1) Kalshi (Dehradun) (2) Manshera (Hazara dist. Pakistan) (3) Shahbazgarhi (Peshawar) (4) Girnar (Gujarat) (5) Sopara (Near Mumbai) (6) Dhauli (Odisha) (7) Jaugada (Odisha) (8) Maski (Andhra Pradesh) (9) Yerragudi (Andhra Pradesh)
Location of Minor Rock Edicts
(1) Bairat (2) Rupnath (3) Sahsaram (4) Rupnath (5) Brahmagiri (6) Gavimath (7) Jatinga Rameshwar (8) Maski (9) Palkigundu (10) Rajula-Mandagiri (11) Suvarnagiri (12) Yerragudi (13) Gurjara (14) Ahraura
Location of Pillar Edicts
(1) Allahabad (2) Delhi-Topra (3) Delhi-Meerut (4) Nigalisagar (5) Lauriya-Araraj (6) Lauriya- Nandangarh (7) Rampurva


➤ Maski edict discovered in 1915 is the only edict which mentions the name Ashoka.
➤ The Topra & Meerut pillars were brought to Delhi by Feroz Shah Tughlaq.
➤ Ashokan edicts were deciphered by James Princep in 1837.
➤ The Kausambi pillar was brought to Calcutta by Jahangir.
➤ The Bairat inscription was brought to Allahabad by Cunningham.
➤ Two major rock edicts as Mansehra and Sahbazgarhi are in Kharoshti script.
➤ The Kandhar inscription is bilingual- Greek and Aramaic.
➤ Most of the Ashokan edicts are written in Brahmi script.
➤ The language used in Ashokan edicts except Kandhar is Prakrit.
➤ The inscription in fragmentary condition found at Lampak/ Lamghan is in Aramaic
➤ In all the edicts except the Maski edict Ashoka refers to himself by his title Devanampiya Piyadassi.
➤ The Allahabad pillars (brought from Kausambi) contains the inscription of Samudra Gupta and Jehangir also.
➤ Major rock edicts are fourteen in number.
➤ Total number of pillar edicts is thirteen, they are inscribed in ten pillars. Out of thirteen seven are major pillar edicts, four are minor pillar edicts and two are commemorative pillar edicts.
➤ Of the four minor pillars edicts one is known as Queen’s edict and it is on Allahabad pillar.
➤ The commemorative pillar edicts are Rumeindei and Nigalisagar (both in Nepal).
➤ The longest among the major rock edict is 13th rock edict (in Odisha).
➤ 7th pillar edict is longest among all the edicts.
➤ The Allahabad pillar contains first six pillar edicts, Queen’s edict, Kosam Schism edicts, Prasasti of Samudragupta written by Harisena and some decrees of Jehangir.
➤ Kharosthi script was derived from Persian Aramaic.
➤ He constructed Sanchi Stupa at Vidisha (M.P.)



➤ Pushyamitra laid the foundation of Sunga dynasty.
➤ Pushyamitra killed the last Mauryan ruler Brihdrath in 185 B.C.
➤ Patanjali, Malavikagnimitram was a contemporary of Pushyamitra Sunga.
➤ The last Sunga king was Devabhuti.


➤ The Puranas speak only of Andhra rule and not of Satvahana rule.
➤ Simuka was the first Satvahana king.
➤ They issued mostly coins of lead.
➤ They were the successors of the Mauryans in the Deccan and the central India.
➤ Gautamiputra Satkarni (106-130 A.D.) called himself the only Brahamana.
➤ His achievements are recorded in Nasik Inscription.
➤ Nasik Inscription belongs to his mother Gautami Balasri.
➤ Satvahanas were the first rulers to make land grants to Brahamanas.
➤ Prakrit text Gathasaptashati is attributed to Satvahana king Hala.
➤ They had brisk trade with Romans.
➤ Nasik and Nanaghat are important inscription of the Satvahana period.


➤ A series of invasions from central Asia began around 200 B.C.
➤ The first to cross the Hindukush were the Indo–Greeks.
➤ The most famous Indo-Greek ruler was Menander (165-145 B.C.). His capital was Sakala or Sialkot.
➤ Menander was converted to Buddhism by Nagasena or Nagarjuna.
➤ The conversation between the two is recorded in a book named ‘Milindapanho’, or question of Milinda.
➤ Indo–Greeks were the first to issue gold coins in India.
➤ They were the first rulers in India to issue coins definitely attributed to the kings.
➤ They also introduced practice of military governorship. The governors were called ‘Strategos’.


➤ The Greeks were followed by the Sakas.
➤ They are referred to as scythians.
➤ The Saka poured into India through the Bolan Pass.
➤ The earliest Indian textual reference to the Sakas are found in the Mahabhasya.
➤ The most famous of the Saka rulers was Rudradaman (130- 152 A.D.)
➤ His achievements are highlighted in his Junagarh Inscription.
➤ It is the first major inscription to be written in Sanskrit.
➤ It records the repair of Sudarshan lake undertook by his officers.


➤ They are referred to as Yuch- Chis or Tocharians.
➤ They belonged to one of the five clans of the Yuch-Chis tribe.
➤ They came from North Central Asia near China. Their empire included a good part of central Asia a portion of Iran a portion of Afghanistan, Pakistan and almost the whole of North India.
➤ Kanishka (78-144 A.D.) started the Shaka era (78 A.D.)
➤ His two capitals were Purushpura (Peshawar) and Mathura.
➤ Charak was the court physician of Kanishka.
➤ Fourth Buddhist Council was held under his patronage at Kundalvan.
➤ Kanishka controlled the famous Silk route in central Asia.
➤ The Gandhara School of art recieved royal patronage of the Kushans.
➤ Kanishka provided patronage to Ashvaghosha and Nagarjuna.

THE GUPTAS (320-550 A.D.)

➤ Sri Gupta was the founder of Gupta rule.
➤ He was succeeded by Ghatotkacha.
➤ The real founder of the Gupta power was Chandragupta I (319- 355 A.D.)
➤ He was the first independent king with the title of Maharajadhiraja.
➤ He started the Gupta era in 319-320 A.D.
➤ He married a Lichchavi Princess.
➤ His empire included Bihar, Uttar Pradesh and Bengal.
➤ Samudragupta (355-380 A.D.) enlarged enormously the Gupta kingdom.
➤ His achievements are mentioned in the Prayag-Prasasti composed by Harisena.
➤ He defeated 12 rulers of Dakshinapatha.
➤ Harisena and Vasubandhu adorned his court.
➤ He was a great patron of art and adopted the title of Kaviraja.
➤ On some coins he is shown playing the Veena.
➤ V.A. Smith calls Samudragupta the ‘Napoleon of India’.
➤ Samudragupta had a disputed accession to the throne.
➤ Virasena was the commander of Samdragupta during his southern campaign.
➤ Samudragupta performed the Aswamedha Yajna and struck gold coins of Yupa type.
➤ He granted permission to the Buddhist king of Ceylon Meghavarman to build a Monastery at Bodh Gaya.
➤ Samudragupta was succeeded by Ramgupta but Chandragupta II killed him and married his queen Dhruvadevi.
➤ He entered into matrimonial alliance with the Nagas by marrying princess Kubernaga.
➤ He defeated the Saka king Rudrasimha III and annexed his kingdom.
➤ He adopted the title of Vikramaditya. Mehrauli iron pillar inscription mentions his authority over North western India and a portion of Bengal.
➤ Virasena’s Udaigiri cave inscription refers to his conquest of the whole world.
➤ He made Ujjain his second capital.
➤ His court contained 9 gems including Kalidasa, Amarsimha, Fa-hien, Acharya Dignaga etc.
➤ Veerasena Saba was the court poet and minister of Chandragupta II. Amarkhaddava was his army general.
➤ Fa-hien, the Chinese traveller came during the time of Chandragupta II.
➤ He issued silver and copper coins.
Taxes Levied during the Gupta Dynasty
Bhag Kings share of produce
Bhoga General tribute
Hiranya Tax on special produce taken in cash
Bedakbhog Irrigation tax
Bhatta Police tax
Charasana Grazing tax
Chat Security tax
Gupta Temples : Places
Vishnu temple : Tigawa (Jabalpur)
Dasavtar temple : Deogarh (Jhansi)
Bhitargaon temple : Bhitargaon
➤ His predecessors had issued only gold coins.
➤ The gold coins were called ‘Dinara’.
➤ Chandragupta II was succeeded by Kumargupta I.
➤ His inscriptions are the Bilsad inscription, the Karandanda inscription, the Mandsor inscription, the Damodarpur copper plate inscription.
➤ He founded the Nalanda University.
➤ Towards the last year of his reign, the Gupta empire faced foreign invasions.
➤ Skandagupta had to fight the Pushyamitras and the Hunas.
➤ He was successful in throwing the Hunas back.
➤ The Junagarh inscription of his reign tells that his governor Parnadatta got the Sudarshan lake repaired.
➤ He adopted the title of Vikramaditya.


➤ Harshavardhan ascended the Pushyabhuti throne in 606 A.D. Harshavardhan was also known as Siladitya.
➤ Banabhatta and Hiuen Tsang have provided important information about Harsha’s reign.
➤ Poet Banabhatta wrote ‘Harshacharita’.
➤ Harsha was not successful in his first expedition against Gauda. In his second expedition Harsha conquered Magadha and Sasanka’s empire. Gauda was divided between Harsha and Bhaskarvarman.
➤ The Aihole inscription mentions that Harsha met defeat at the hands of Pulakesin II.
➤ Harsha’s empire extended from the Punjab to northern Orissa and from Himalayas to the banks of Narmada.
➤ Harsha wrote three Sanskrit plays-Nagananda, Ratnavali and Priyadarshika.
➤ Banabhatta wrote Harshacharita and Kadambri.
➤ Harsha showed equal respect to all religious sects.
➤ Harsha built rest houses, hospitals, and endowed numerous Brahamanical, Buddhist and Jaina establishments.
➤ The Kannauj assembly was held in the honour of Hiuen-Tsang.
➤ Harsha used to celebrate religious festivals at the end of every five years at Prayag.
➤ Harsha sent an embassy in 641 A.D. to the Chinese emperor.
➤ Harsha also received a Chinese embassy in return.



➤ The Vakatakas in the deccan were followed by the Chalukyas of Badami.
➤ The Chalukyas established their base at Badami (Vatapi) in Bijapur district of Karnataka.
➤ The Chalukyas claimed their descent either from Manu or Moon.
➤ Pulakesin-I (543-66) : founder of the Chalukya dynasty, established a small kingdom with Badami/Vatapi in Bijapur District as its capital.
➤ Pulakesin II was able to check Harsha’s design to conquer Deccan.
➤ Aihole inscription is a eulogy written by his court poet Ravikirti.
➤ The Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang Visited his kingdom.
➤ Pallava ruler Narsimhavarman I invaded the Chalukya kingdom, killed Pulakesin II and captured Badami.
➤ Vishnuvardhan, son of Pulakesin II, founded the eastern branch of the Chalukyas with its capital at Vengi.

THE PALLAVAS (560-803)

➤ The Pallavas played an important role after the fall of Satvahanas in 3rd century until the rise of the Cholas.
➤ The origin of Pallavas is a debatable issue.
➤ Pallava dynasty was founded by Simhavisnu in 560 A.D. ➤ Mahendravarman-I was defeated by Pulakesin-II.
➤ Narasimhavarman was the greatest king. He defeated Pulakesin II and captured Badami/Vatapi. So, took the title of Vatapikonda.
➤ Narsimhavarman also defeated Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas, thus became supreme in South India.
➤ Narsimhavarman was a great builder, having constructed Mamallapuram and the various buildings here. During his reign Hieun Tsang visited Kanchi.
➤ Narsimhavarman II constructed the shore temple of Mamallapuram and the Kailasnath temple of Kanchi. He sent embassies to China to encourage maritime trade.
➤ Nandivarman-II was a worshipper of Vishnu. He built Vaikuntaperumal temple at Kanchi.
➤ The last Pallava ruler, Aparajita Pallava was defeated by Aditya Chola.
➤ Kanchi, Pallavas capital was a great centre of Sanskrit learning.
➤ Both Bharavi and Dandin, the authors of ‘Kirtarjuniyam’ and ‘Dashkumarcharitam’ respectively lived in the Pallava court.
➤ The scientific works of Varahamihira and the poetry of Kalidasa were well known in the Pallava country.
➤ Most of the kings were accomplished scholars and Mahendravarman-I himself wrote the famous burlesque ‘Mattavilasa Prahasana.’


➤ The Gangas were the contemporaries of the Chalukyas and the Pallavas.
➤ They ruled over a large part of modern Mysore.
➤ The region was called after them as Gangavadi.
➤ The founder of the Ganga dynasty was Konkanivarman Dharmamahadhiraja.
➤ The Gangas had matrimonial alliances with the Pallavas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas.


➤ The Kadamba dynasty was founded by Mayur Sarman.
➤ The Kadambas ruled from Banvasi from 345 A.D. to 365 A.D.
➤ Kakusthavarman (435-455 A.D.) was the most powerful ruler of the dynasty.
➤ Kakusthavarman established matrimonial relations with the Gangas and the Guptas.


➤ The Cholas were the feudatories of the Pallavas
➤ The founder of Chola dynasty was Vijayalaya, who was at first a feudatory of the Pallavas. He captured Tanjore in 850 A.D.
➤ The greatest Chola rulers were Rajaraja (985-1014 A.D.) and his son Rajendra I (1014-1044 A.D.)
➤ Raja built a Saiva, a temple of Rajarajeshwara at Tanjore.
➤ Rajendra I assumed the title of Gangaikondachola and built a city called Gangaikondacholapuram.
➤ The Chola empire was divided into Mandalams or provinces and these in turn were divided into Valanadu and Nadu.
➤ Chola rulers marked their victories by erecting a number of Shiva and Vishnu temples.
➤ During the reign of Rajendra I a naval expedition was sent against the Sri Vijaya empire.
➤ The Bay of Bengal was converted into a ‘Chola lake’.
➤ Rajaraja gave his daughter Kundavai to Vimaladitya (Eastern Chalukya of Vengi) and restored Vengi to him.
➤ Rajaraja conferred the title of ‘Mahadandanayaka’ upon Rajendra-I for his victory over Pandyas & Keralas.
➤ Rajaraja-I started the system of land survey called ‘kadamb’.
➤ Adhirajendra was killed in a public revolt.
➤ Kulotunga-I of Vengi united the kingdom of Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi and Chola kingdom. His other name was Rajendra-II. He was given the title of Sangam Tavirtta (he who abolished tolls).
➤ Rajendra II was crowned in the battle field of Koppam. He was given the title of Prakesari.
➤ The gopuram style was developed under the Cholas.
➤ The system of canals in south is a contribution of the Cholas.
➤ Rajendra-I built Shiva temple at Gangaikondacholapuram.
➤ The Cholas were famous for the bronze statue of Nataraja.
➤ Kamban wrote Ramayana. Sivagasindamani was also produced.
➤ Temple architecture in south attained its climax under the Cholas.
➤ The style of architecture which came into vogue during this period is called Dravida.
➤ ‘Mandap’ was the pillared hall.
➤ ‘Garbhgriha’ was the room of the chief-deity.
➤ Ceremonial dances were performed by Devadasis.
Administrative Units of Chola Dynasty

Kottam Division
Nadu District
Kurtam Group of villages

Tripartite Struggle (Palas, Pratiharas and Rastrakutas)
➤ A number of powerful empires arose in Northern India and the Deccan between 750 A.D.-1000 A.D.
➤ The Gurjara Pratiharas, the Palas and the Rastrakutas emerged almost at the same time.
➤ These three powers fought for the supremacy over Kannauj.


➤ The Pratiharas emerged from Gurjaratra or South West Rajasthan.
➤ They resisted Araburincrusions from Sindh into Rajasthan.
➤ Pratihara dynasty was founded by Nagabhatta-I.
➤ Pratihara power revived under Nagabhatta-II. He defeated Dharmapala near Monghyr (Mudgir).
➤ Their capital was at Mahodaya (Kannauj).
➤ The real founder and the greatest king was Bhoja (836–885 A.D.).
➤ Bhoja is also called Mihir Bhoja.
He defeated Devapala and got Kannauj back.
➤ Bhoja was a devotee of Vishnu and adopted the title of Adivaraha.


➤ The Pala empire was founded by Gopala in 750 A.D.
➤ Gopala was elected as the king by the notable men of the area.
➤ Gopala was succeeded by his son Dharmapala in 770 A.D.
➤ Palas established their rule in Bengal and Bihar.
➤ Dharmapala (770-810) was defeated by Dhruva (Rashtrakuta) and Nagabhatt II (Pratihara).
➤ During Dharmapala, two brothers Indra & Chakra clashed for Kannauj.
➤ Dharmapala revived Nalanda University, which had been famous all over the eastern world.
➤ He also founded the Vikramshila University.


➤ Founded by Dantidurga in deccan.
➤ Their capital was at Manyakhet or Malkhed near modern Sholapur (earlier at Ellora).
➤ Amoghvarsha rulled for 68 years.
➤ Amoghvarsha wrote ‘Kavirajamarga’, a book on Poetics Kannada.
➤ Amoghavarsha first transferred capital from Ellora to Manyakhet or Malkhed.
➤ Indira III (915-927) defeated Mahipala (Pratihara) and sacked Kannauj in 915, Indra was the most powerful ruler of his time.
➤ Rashtrakutas imported horses from Arabia, West-Asia and central Asia.
➤ In the Rashtrakuta kingdom, the directly administered areas, were divided into Rashtras (provinces), Visaya and Bhukti.
➤ The last ruler Karka was overthrown by Tailap, the founder of Chalukyas of Kalyani.
➤ Dantidurga built the Dashavatara temple at Ellora.
➤ Krishna-I built the Kailasa or Shiva temple at Ellora in the 9th century.
➤ The great Apabhramsha poet Svayambhu and his son lived at the Rashtrakuta court.



➤ The Parmaras ruled in the Malwa region.
➤ The Parmaras initially had their capital at Ujjain.
➤ The Parmaras later transferred their capital to Dhara.
➤ Vakpati Munj was the founder of the Parmara dynasty.
➤ Padmagupta, Dhananjya, graced the court of Vakpati.
➤ The greatest ruler of dynasty was Bhoja.
➤ Bhoja built the city of Bhojapur.
➤ Bhoja founded a college, Bhojshala near Dhara.


➤ The Gahadaval dynasty was founded by Chandradeva.
➤ The capital of Gahadaval was Kannauj.
➤ In the Battle of Chandawar (1194 A.D.) Muhammad Ghori defeated Jaichandra.
➤ Harischandra was the last ruler of Gahadaval dynasty.


➤ The Chahamana (Chauhan) dynasty emerged near Sakambhari (Ajmer).
➤ The Chauhans were the feudatories of Pratihara.
➤ Simharaja declared independence in the middle of 10th century.
➤ Ajayraja founded the city of Ajaymeru (Ajmer).
➤ Prithviraja Chauhan ascended to the throne in 1177 A.D.
➤ Prithviraja Chauhan defeated Muhammad Ghori in the first battle of Tarain (1191 A.D.).
➤ In the second battle of Tarain (1192 A.D.) Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithviraja Chauhan.


➤ Three dynasties Karkota, Utpala and Lohar ruled Kashmir during 800 A.D. to 1200 A.D.
➤ Karkota dynasty was founded by Durlabh Vardhana.
➤ Lalitaditya Muktapida defeated Yasovarman of Kannauj.
➤ Lalitaditya built the famous Sun temple at Martand.
➤ Utpala dynasty was founded by Avantivarman.
➤ Queen Didda ruled from 980 A.D. to 1003 A.D. ➤ Sangramraja founded the Lohara dynasty.
➤ King Harsha belonged to Lohara dynasty.
➤ Kalhana wrote ‘Rajatarangini’ in 12th century.


➤ The Chandelas ruled in Bundelkhand.
➤ The dynasty was founded by Nanuka in the early years of 9th century and his capital was Khajuraho.
➤ Dhanga was the first independent king of the Chandella dynasty and assumed the title Maharajadhiraja.
➤ He was succeeded by Ganda who in turn was succeeded by Vidyadhara.
➤ During Vidyadhara’s reign Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Kalinjar in 1019 and again in 1022.
➤ In 1165 Parmardideva was defeated by Prithviraja Chauhan.
➤ Qutub-ud-din Aibak defeated Parmadideva and occupied greater part of Bundelkhand.
➤ Alauddin Khalji captured the whole of the kingdom.
➤ Temples of Khajuraho were built by Chandellas.
➤ The most prmoinent among the Khajuraho temples are the Kandariya Mahadeva, Devi Jagadamba, Parsvanatha, Lakshamana and the Viswanatha temples.


➤ The Senas supplanted the Palas in Bengal.
➤ The Senas called themselves ‘Brahma Kshatriya’.
➤ Vijayapuri and Vikrampuri were two capitals of Senas.
➤ Vijayasena was succeed by his son Ballalsena.
➤ Ballalsena established the tradition of ‘Kulinism’.
➤ Ballalsena wrote ‘Adbhutsagar’ and ‘Dansagar’.
➤ Bakhtiyar Khalji invaded Bengal during the reign of Lakshmansena.
➤ Jayadeva, Dhoyi, Halayudha adorned Lakshmansena’s court.


➤ The word Sangam is associated with the assembly of Tamil Scholars and Poets flourished under the royal patronage of the Pandyan Kings at Madurai.
➤ The first Sangam was held at Madurai but its work has not survived. Its Chairman was Agastya.
➤ The second Sangam was held in Kapatpuram. Its Chairman was Tolkapiyar.
➤ The third Sangam was held in Madurai. Its chairman was Nakkirar.
➤ Tolkapiyam belongs to second Sangam.
➤ Tokapiyam is a work on grammar.
➤ The Sangam literature was compiled in circa A.D. 300-600.
➤ Thirukural of Kural by Tiruvalluvar is sometimes called the ‘fifth Veda’ or ‘Bible of the Tamil land’.
➤ Silpaddikaram literally ‘The jeweled Anklet’ by Ilango Adigal is an epic, deals with the love stories of Kovalan and Madhavi.
➤ Manimekhalai is written by Sattalai Sattanar, considered the ‘Odysseus of Tamil poetry’.
➤ Jivaga Chintamani, a third epic by the Jaina Tiruttakadevar.
➤ Roman king built a temple of Augustus at Muziris.
➤ Murugan was the God par excellence of the Tamils, also known as Subramaniyam.
➤ Yavan Priya is a Sanskrit terms for pepper.
Sangam Literature
➤ The word Sangam is associated with a college or assembly of Tamil scholars and poets flourished under the royal patronage of the Pandyan kings.
➤ The whole Sangam age is called Golden or Augustan Age. According to Tamil sources, the father of Tamil literature is ‘Agastya.’

SANGAM AGE (AD First-Third Century)

KingdomLocationCapitalEmblemFamous portFamous Rules
North-East of Pandyas between Penner and Vellar rivers Uraiyaur (famous for Cotton trade) and Puhar Tiger Puhar Elara was the earliest known Chola king, ffe conquered Sri Lanka and ruled over it for 50 years. Karikala founded the capital city Puhar/Kaveripatnam and constructed embankment along Cauveri river.
Chera Part of Kerala and Tamil Nadu Venji of Karur Bow Muzris Todi, Bandar Udiyangera is one of the earliest known Chera rulers. This title of Udiyangeral was given to him because he served both the armies of KurukshetraWar, Senguttuvan / Red Chera, was the greatest Chera King, ffe invaded the north and crossed Ganga.
Pandya Southern most part of India Mudurai Carp Korkai, Saliyur Mudukudumi was the earlist known Pandyan ruler. Nedunjelian was the most important king of Pandya. He accused Kovalon of theft. As a result, the city of Madurai was laid under a curse by Kannagi (Kovalan’s wife).

Sangams Venue Chairman Surviving Text

2nd Kapatapuran Alvai Agastya (founder Tolakappiyan (later chairman)) Tolakappiyan (Tamil Grammar)
3rd North Madurai Nakkirar Ettutogati Patinenki lakanakku, pattu-Pattu



Ashtadhyayi Panini Meghduta Kalidas
Buddhacharita Asvaghosha Mitakshara Vijnaneshwara
Charak Samhita Charak Mrichhkatikam Sudraka
Devi Chandra- Vishakadutta Mudra Rakshasha Vishakhdatta
guptam Nagananda Harshavardhana
Gita Govind Jayadeva Natya Shashtra Bharata
Harsha Charita Banabhatta Nitisara Kamandaki
Kadambari Banabhatta Priyadarshika Harshavardhana
Kumar Sambhava Kalidas Ramcharita Sandhyakara
Kumarpalcharita Hemchandra Nandi
Mahabhashya Patanjali Ritu Samhara Kalidas
Mahavir Charita Bhavabhuti Sisupal Vadha Magha
Malvikagnimitram Kalidas Susruta Samhita Susruta

Revenue Terminologies

KaraiLand tax
Irai Tribute paid by feudatories and body collected in war
Iravu Extra demand or forced gift
Ulgu Custom duties
Variyar Tax collector
Variyan A well known unit of territory yielding tax

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