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Haryana HSSC GK General Knowledge Book (in English) for all HSSC & HPSC Exams (Police, Clerk, Teacher Exams)

CHAPTER 1 ANCIENT HISTORY (Haryana HSSC GK General Knowledge Book)

The history of Haryana can be traced from various sources like mythological sources, archaeological sources,monetary sources and so on. The state has many sites belonging to the Indus valley civilisation, which flourished well in the state. It also remained a place of many dynasties.Haryana came into existence as a separate state on 1st November, 1966 but its history is very old. According to Manusmriti, the state got its origin by many deities, thus, it was earlier known as Brahmavrat.

Historical Sources of Haryana

Literary Sources

These sources include mythological sources, Buddhist and Jain literary sources and inscriptions.
Mythological Sources
The word ‘Haryana’ is mentioned in ‘Kumarika Khanda’ of Skanda Purana. The social and political life of the state is mentioned in different historical texts like Brahmana texts, Rigveda, Shatapatha Brahmana, Aitareya Brahmana and Chandogya Upanishad.Maharishi Ved Vyasa wrote ‘Mahabharata epic in Kurukshetra ,Haryana.Mahabharata has mentioned Haryana as Bahudhanyaka (the land of plentiful grains) and Bahudhana (the land of immerse riches). ‘Rohtak’ got its mention in the ‘Nakula-Digvijyam’ of Mahabharata. ‘Karnal’ city is associated with Karna of Mahabharata. Vamana Purana, a Sanskrit text, has mention of rivers and forest of the region around Thanesar and Kurukshetra in modern Haryana.Haryana also got its mention in texts like Ashtadhyayi,Mahabhashya, Chaturbharni,Harshacharita and Rajatarangini.
Buddhist and Jain Literary Sources
Haryana got its mention in the Buddhist texts like Majjhima Nikaya and Divyavdan. Agroha (Hisar) is mentioned in Divyavdan text, which was the important centre of Buddhist religion. It is mentioned in the ‘Pamchasudani text’ that Mahatma Buddha travelled many places of Haryana. Agroha is also mentioned in the Jain texts like ‘Kathakosh’ and ‘Bhadrabahu Charita’, where Lohacharya, a Jain scholar was lived. Agroha was also the major centre of Jain religion.
Many inscriptions have been found in Haryana and the most important among these, is the Asokan pillar, which is located at Topra (Ambala). Three inscriptions of ruler Vigraharaja-IVth (11th century) are also mentioned on the pillar of Topra.
Topra inscription was transferred by Firoz Shah Tughlaq to Delhi. An inscription written in Kharosthi script has been found in Karnal. An incomplete inscription have been found in Kapal mochan area of Haryana. Raja Devanka wrote about the glory of Kurukshetra in an inscription of Laos country. An inscription has been found from Sirsa which has mention of Pashupati community of this place. All the seven notes of music have been mentioned in the inscription which has been found in Agroha. An inscription, found from Hansi is associated with Prithviraj-II. According to an inscription which has been found in Ladnu (Rajasthan),Delhi was the capital of Haryana. Eight inscriptions have been found from a pillar which is located in Gujri Mahal in Hisar. It has mention about Gods which came from eight different places. A rock inscription of Pratihara king,Mahendra Pala, has been found at Pehowa which has mention of construction of temples.

Archaeological Excavations

Palaeolithic tools have been found from the ancient places of Pinjore-Kalka region in Haryana. Rakhigarhi is an ancient place which is located in Hisar district. It is the second largest site of Indus Valley Civilisation, after Mohenjodaro. Banawali is a small village of Fatehabad district of Haryana. Its excavation was started in 1974 where many important archaeological evidences have been found.
Many relics of pre-Harappan culture and civilisation have been found form Mitathal (Bhiwani).Many relics of Hakra Culture and pre-Harappan culture have been found in Bhinhada, in Fatehabad district. Black-shiny clay pots of Later Vedic Period have been found from Sugh, Stupa of Thanesar,Hisar and Topra.Many archaeological evidences have been found from Balu, Bhagwanpura, Siswal,Madina and Girawad.

Monetary Sources

Many stamps have been found from Khokhrakhot, Achched, Paharipur,Mohanbadi, Aurangabad, Agroha, Rakhigarhi, Sugh, Karnal, etc. These stamps were used to mint coins. Coins, which have been found after excavation have mark of Kartikeya, a Yaudheya ruler, on them. ‘Jaymandhar’ is engraved on a coin which has been found in Sunet (Ludhiana).
This coin is a symbol of success of Kartikeya, a Yaudheya ruler. Coins of Kumaragupta period show that Yaudheya Religion (Kartikeya) became the state religion. There was another important group of Kuninda rulers. These people resided in the Shiwalik hills. Their coins depicted Laxmi,Deer and Shiva along with a prong. Indo-Greek coins and Punch marked coins have been discovered from the mounds of Hisar and Agroha. Copper coins of Harsha period and Indo Greek’s Dirham have been found in Sonipat.
Other Sources
Indus valley colonies were found along the two ancient and sacred rivers of Haryana, namely, Saraswati and Drishadvati rivers. Shiva ‘Mukhalingam’ have been found in Kiloi village of Rohtak district (first in sculptural art) and Beri village of Jhajjar district. These Mukhalingam are engraved on spotted red stone.
Many important artefacts have been found in the state like Boar of Rohtak (Gupta Period), Vishnu of Kosli,Harihar of Bans-Petwar, Buddha of Jhajjar and boar of Hansi, etc.Dihole inscription has description about the war between Harshavardhana and Pulakeshin (630-634 CE). Two temples which looks like peak have been discovered in Kalayat of Haryana which are made of later Gupta period bricks. These temples resemble of the period between pre-historic and medieval times.
Relics and their Places

Mauryan Stupa and relicsHisar and Fatehabad
Relics and ornaments before the Harappan CivilisationKunal (Hisar)
Relics of the Harappan/Indus Valley CivilisationBhiwani
Gold and Copper coins of Kushana periodMitathal (Bhiwani region)
Coins of Indo-GreeksKhokhrakhot(Rohtak)
Gold and Copper CoinsMitathal (Bhiwani)
Coin MoldingsKhokhrakhot, Aurangabad
Minting factoriesAgroha, Barwala, Aurangabad
Coins of Kuninda PeriodKarnal, Jagadhri, Budiya
Coins of Samundra gupta periodMitathal
Tablet of Shunga periodSugh
Copper currency of Harsha periodSonipat
Seals of Yudheya periodNaurangbad (Bhiwani)
Jain SculpturesHansi and Shanila

Ancient History of Haryana

As per the historical sources, the ancient histroy of Haryana can be divided into three different parts, i.e. pre-historic, proto-historic and historic periods. These are discussed below :

Pre-historic Period

The period which has no written evidences is known as ‘pre-historic period’. The relics of the pre-historic period give information about Haryana state. This period is divided into three different periods as: Palaeolithic Age Stone tools of this period have been found in Pinjore,Dhamli, Suketari, Ahiya, Paplina near Kulka, Chandigarh, Firozpur, Jhirka, Kotla and Sohan valley. These are made of small, flat and rounded stones.
Neolithic Age In this period, human had started the practice of agriculture. The evidences of the agriculture have been found from Siswal. Thus, this civilisation is also named as Siswal civilisation/culture.
Chalcolithic Age Copper tools of this period have been found in some parts of Rohtak and Hisar districts of Haryana.

Proto-historic Period

It was the age before the historical period, when the script and letters were known to the people of the time but we could not read it, thus this period is known as ‘Proto-historic Period’. It includes Siswal culture,Hakra culture and Indus Valley Civilisation. Relics of this period have been found in Haryana
Siswal Culture
It was a Chalcolithic culture dating around 3800 BCE. It is also known as Sothi-Siswal Culture. The excavation work was done in Siswal village under the supervision of Dr Surajbhan and many relics of Siswal culture were found in 1968.
Important places related to Siswal Culture are as follows :
Hisar Siswal, Salimgarh, Shahpur, Patan, Satrod Khurd, Alipur, Sisai,Data, Pali, Rakhigarhi Sirsa/Fatehabad Bani, Talwada, Rattiba, Chimu Bhiwani Dadri,Manhedu.
Rewari Badli, Lohar, Badhsa.
Gurugram Alduka, Sultanpur,Mukola,Gokalpur,Mundehra, Papra.
Kaithal Moh
Hakra Culture in Haryana
The period of Hakra culture in Haryana is considered before the period of Harappan Civilisation dating between 3300-2800 BCE. This basically represent the development of farming community, thus this is also known as Early Farmer’s Culture. The evidences of this culture have been found in the drainage area of the Ghaggar Hakra river thus, it is also known as Hakra culture. Kunal is the first excavated site from where the evidences of Hakra culture have been found.
Indus Valley Civilisation/Harappan Civilisation
Important centres of Indus Valley Civilisation in the state are as follows : Banawali is the important place of Indus Valley Civilisation which is located in the ancient river valley of Saraswati in Fatehabad district,Haryana. It was discovered by RS Bisht in 1973-74. A striking animal posture has been found in this place which has the body of lion and horns of bulls. Besides, other evidences of this period have been found in this place like a clay toy (Plough), signs of wheels of Bullockcart, evidences of barley, two terracotta sculptures of ‘Matra devi’ and evidences of five vans. Relics which have been found from Tigdana village of Bhiwani district in 2016, show the evidence of Industrial and Trade Centres.
Rakhigarhi This archaeological site is located on the right bank of Rigvedic Drishadvati river in Narnaund block in Hisar district.Many pre-Harappan and mature Harappan evidences have been found from this place. It is also an important centre of Siswal Culture. It is the largest Indus Valley Civilisation site followed by Mohenjodaro. It was excavated by Dr Amrendra Nath from 1997 to 2000.
Other evidences have also been found from this place like houses, pottery and ornaments made form some precious stones.
Mitathal This village is located in Bhiwani district which was excavated by Dr Surajabhan in 1967-68. Coins of Gupta and Kushana periods have also been found from this place.
Madina This village is located in the central block of Rohtak district. It was excavated in 2007-08 under the supervision of Dr Manmohan Kumar.
Bhirrana This village is an archaeological site which is located on the left bank of Saraswati river in Fatehabad district. It was excavated in the year 2003-04.
Bhagwanpura This village is located in Kurukshetra district. This site is notable for showing an overlap between late Harappan period and painted GreyWare culture of vedic age. This area thus can be considered as the junction of two great civilisations of India.
Farmana Khas (Daksha-Khera) It is located in Rohtak district which comes after Rakhigarhi in the list of archaeological sites of Harappan Civilisation. It is the largest burial site of the civilisation with 65 burials found in India. Alabaster seals have also been found in this place.Other archaeological sites of Harappan civilisation are Kunal village (Fatehabad), Balu village (Kaithal), and Girawar village (Rohtak).
Historical Period
The period when all the recorded history of that period can be read, is known as ‘historical period’. The relics of this period give information about Haryana state. It includes the following periods : Rigvedic Period (1500-1000 BCE)
Vedic Civilisation made its beginning along the river Saraswati in the region of modern day Haryana and Punjab. It is believed that the Vaivas to Manu, the origin of the human race, was the king of this state. Among the four sons of Manu (Ikshvaku, Parashu, Sudhaman and Sharyati),area above the Saraswati was the workplace of Sudhaman (includes Ambala- Kurukshetra) and the area which situated along the border of Rajasthan was under the Sharyati.
Puru clan was established after the name of ‘Puru’, the son of King Yayati and its capital was Hastinapur.Dushyant was one of the king of Puru clan lineage and his descendant was Bharata after whom India got its name ‘Bharat’. A battle between Puru ruler Sudas and ten tribal kingdoms on the bank of Parusni river took place which is known as ‘Battle of the Ten Kings’. In this battle, Sudas defeated all the kingdoms. Kuru was a branch of ‘Puru’ but after defeated by Sudas, the Kuru kings went on the Indo-Iranian regions and settled there.
Panchalas of Ganga valley invaded into Haryana and defeated the Puru King Samvarana, who later exiled with his family. But the Puru King regained Haryana with the help of Kurus, who became very strong in the regions lying along the border of India and Iran.
Later Vedic Period (1000-600 BCE)
Kuru clan was established by King Kuru. Its capital was Indraprastha. King Kuru defeated the Panchalas and captured the Saraswati region and renamed it as ‘Kurujangal’. It was later renamed as Kurukshetra.Gandharas also invaded Haryana but they were defeated by Kuru King Shantanu. In the same period, ‘Mahabharta War’ took place between Kauravas and Pandavas.
Regions of Vedic Period

HisarKaulgarh, RattaTibba, Uklana, Burj, Hansi, Pali, Sinhwa
SirsaKariwali, Humayunkheda, Bani, Nakora , Rania
JindTohana-Ghasera, Rupawali Kalayat, Ritauli Kalan, Rajand, Beri Kheda
KurukshetraRasulpur, Kariala, Chaba, Rattakhera, Ramthali, Shergarh, Mundakhera, Naya Gaon, Arnai, Ladwa, Bhagwanpur, Morthali, Daulatpur
KarnalNisang, Asandh, Sambh, Poojam, Bhola
SonipatSaman, Gumad
RohtakBaliana, Bahadurgarh, Kharkada, Hulsana, Kansala, Nakauli

Mahajanapada Period
In the later Vedic Period, tribal states were replaced by territorial states and they were developed in the 6th century BCE. Thus,many big states came into existence.
The Buddha test ‘Anguttar Nikaye’ has mention of 16 Mahajanapadas, and one of these is ‘Kuru’which had some areas of Haryana.Meerut,Delhi and Thaneshwar were a part of Kuru Mahajanapada and its capital was Hastinapur during Mahabharata Period.
Mauryan Period
This dynasty was established by Chandragupta Maurya which also had Haryana as his territory. Topra pillar inscription in Ambala is the evidence of this fact. Asoka also constructed a Stupa in Thaneshwar which has relics of Mahatma Buddha.
Yaudheya Period
Yaudheyas came after Mauryans. Yaudheya clan was founded by Yaudheya which is mentioned in ‘Drona Prav’ in Mahabharata. It is also mentioned in the grammar treatise of Panini i.e. ‘Mahabhashya’ in the form of ‘Ayudhjivi.’ Puranas have described Yaudheyas as the descendants of Usinara and Nrigu.
A rock inscription of Junagarh has mentioned about Yaudheya clan. Coins, which have been found from Naurangabad in Bhiwani district, depict ‘Yaudheyana Bahudhunya’, which is written in Brahmi script.Haryana was known as Bahudhanyaka during Yaudheya period.
Coins of Yaudheya clan have been discovered by captain Kotley from Behat village near Saharanpur, and by Caningham from Sonipat in 1834. Similar coins have also been found in Hansi, Kharkhoda, Sirsa,Hisar, Rohtak, Sonipat,Gurugram and Karnal. It is known form the scripture of Vijaygarh that king himself was the Supreme Commander. Their coins depict the name of ‘Brahmana Deva’, which means ‘Kartikeya’.He was the adorable god of Yaudheya region.
Agar Period
Coins which have been found in Barwala and Agroha (Hisar) show that Hisar was a seat of Agar Republic and its capital was Agroha. It is also mentioned in Ashtadhyayi, Baudhayana Sutras and Mahabhashya. This republican state was ruled by Maharaja Agrasena.
Kuninda and Arjunayanas Period
Kuninda kingdom was located in Ambala district. Kuninda kingdom had the republican system similar to Yaudheyas and Agar republican states. Kunindas along with Yaudheyas expelled the Kushanas from India. Arjunayana Republic was located in some areas of Rajasthan and Mahendragarh of Haryana. According to Dr Altekar, the currency of that period depicted a word ‘Dwi’which was a sign of merging of Yaudheyas and Arjunayanas.
Gupta Period
It is revealed from Allahabad Pillar Inscription (Prayag Prashasti) that the Gupta ruler, Samudragupta subdued the Yaudheya republican state into Gupta Empire.
Vardhana Dynasty
A commander, named Pushyabhuti, founded an independent state (in Thanesar) during 6th century AD which was known as ‘Vardhana dynasty’. Thanesar (Sthanishvara) was the capital of this dynasty. There are six well-known rulers of this dynasty such as Naravardhana, Rajyavardhana-I, Adityavardhana, Prabhakaravardhana, Rajyavardhana-II and Harshavardhana.
Harshavardhana defeated the Huna ruler and Gauda ruler Shashanka.Harsha shifted his capital from Thanesar to Kanyakubja. After the death of Harshavardhana, ‘Yadu’ and ‘Kadu’ clans were risen in Haryana. Kurukshetra was ruled by Kurus and the South-Western part was ruled by ‘Yadu’ rulers.During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Chinese Traveller Xuan Zang visited his court and wrote about the power and glory of Thanesar in his account.
Gurjara-Pratihara Period
After the death of Harshavardhana,Haryana went into the hands of Gurjara-Pratiharas. The Pratihara ruler,Nagabhatta-II made his rule strong over Haryana.During the reign of Mihira Bhoja, the ruler of the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty, Pehowa was a big trading centre of the Northern India, which was famous for horse trade.
Ancient Names of Some Districts

Present NameAncient NamePresent NameAncient Name
MewatSatyevpuramKurukshetraSthanishvara (Thanesar)
PalwalUpbala, ApbalaKaithalKapisthal

Ancient Names of Some Towns
Ancient Name Present Name Ancient Name Present Name

Ancient NamePresent NameAncient NamePresent Name
KhariyalEllenabad (Sira)SharfabadBahadurgarh (Jhajjar)
AyohdakAgroha (Hisar)MahesthaMaham (Rohtak)
NavrashtraNarnaul (Mahendragarh)PradathPehowa (Kurukshetra)
PrakritnakAurangabad (Palwal)YugandharJagadhri (Yamunanagar)
BatramgarhVallabhgarh (Faridabad)KalakulaKalka (Panchkula)

MEDIEVAL HISTORY OF HARYANAAfter the death of Harshavardhana,Haryana went into the hands of Gurjara- Pratiharas and then to many other rulers.Medieval history of Haryana was the period when Muslim invasions took place and Mughal Empire established in India.

The Tomara Dynasty

After the decline of Pratihara rule, Tomara dynasty was established by the 10th century. Anangapala, the Tomara ruler, built Delhi city in the 11th century and made Haryana his capital.During the 11th century, they had to face the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni and his descendants.
Invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Thanesar Haryana in 1009 CE and in 1014 CE.
According to Al-Biruni, the temples of Thanesar had many sculptures of bronze, made deities, which had wheels, holding in their hands. These sculptures were known as ‘Chakra Swami’.During the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni, these temples and sculptures were destroyed.During the invasion of Mahmud of Ghazni, Thanesar was under the control of Tomara ruler, Jaypal.
Al-Biruni mentioned in his book ‘Kitab-ul-Hind’, that Thanesar was the important centre for Hindus. In 1037 CE,Masud, the son of Mahmud of Ghazni, also invaded Hansi and defeated the Tomara ruler, Kumarapala Dev. Thus, he captured the whole Haryana along with Thanesar-Kurukshetra region.
In 1043 CE,Mawdud, the son of Masud of Ghazni, invaded Haryana. But, Kumarapala Dev, the Tomara ruler, defeated him with the help of other rulers. In 1043 CE, a consolidated Union of Kumarapala Dev, Chauhan, Parmar and Kalachuris invaded the Ghaznavid Empire and defeated its army. According to ‘Dwasrai Epic’ of Jain writer,Hemchandra, the war between Chauhan and Tomaras ended with the capture of Vigrahraj, the Chauhan ruler Delhi and Hansi regions.
Invasion of Muhammad Ghor
During the 12th century, Chauhan or Chahamanas rulers defeated the Tomara rulers and established their rule over Delhi and Haryana. These rulers fought many wars with their neighbouring states and also faced Muslim invasions like Ghurids.
Prithviraj Chauhan established forts at Taraori and Hansi in the 12th century.
First Battle of Tarain
In 1191 CE,Muhammad of Ghor, the Ghurid king went from Ghazni to Tabar-e-Hind (Bathinda) via Lahore. Then a consolidated army of Prithviraj III, also known as Prithviraj Chauhan, the Hansi ruler Govind Rai and many Rajwada rulers and Princes of Northern India, fought a battle at Taraori. In this battle, Muhammad of Ghor was defeated by Prithviraj III. This battle is known as the ‘First Battle of Tarain’.
Second Battle of Tarain
In 1192 CE, the second battle of Tarain was fought between Prithviraj III and Muhammad of Ghor at Taraori. In this battle, Prithviraj-III was defeated and subsequently killed.Govind Rai has also took part in this battle. After this battle, Qutb-ud-din Aibak ruled over the region as a representative of Muhammad of Ghor till 1206 CE and Agroha became a part of Muslim rule. After the death of Muhammad in 1206, Aibak founded the Slave dynasty at Delhi.
The Slave Dynasty
Qutb-ud-din Aibak became the first Muslim ruler of Delhi and Haryana. After the death of Qutb-ud-din Aibak in 1210 CE, Iltutmish became the ruler of this dynasty.
He declared Delhi as the capital of his empire.He completed the Qutab Minar started by Qut-ud-din Aibak.
After his death in 1236 CE, Razia Sultana, daughter of Iltutmish became the first women to sit on the throne of Delhi.During her reign,many revolts happened in Lahore and Bathinda. She was killed in 1240 CE near Kaithal. A dome is established by her name in Kaithal. After the death of Sultan Nasiruddin, Balban became the Sultan of Delhi in 1266 CE.He tried hard to destroy the power of the Mewati of the state, who were very powerful.He constructed the Gopala Giri fort on the border of Delhi-Gurugram.
The Khilji Dynasty
It was the second Muslim dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate. After the death of Balban, this dynasty was established by the Jalal-ud-din Firuz Khilji, the first ruler of Khilji dynasty in 1290 CE. After the death of Jalal-ud-din Khilji, Ala-ud-din Khilji became the Sultan of Delhi in 1296 CE.
The Tughlaq Dynasty
After Khilji dynasty, Tughlaq dynasty was founded by Ghazi Malik in 1320 AD, who assumed the title ‘Ghiyath-al-din Tughlaq’. After his death,Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq ascended the throne of Delhi Sultanate.Due to the unsatisfactory policies of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, farmers of many places of Haryana like Guhram, Kaithal , Sunam, and Samana, etc, stopped giving revenue to him.
First Revolt of Kaithal (1343 AD) was a Peasant Revolt, which happened during the period of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. Firoz Shah Tughlaq was the third ruler of Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi Sultanate (1351 to 1388 AD).He founded several cities around Delhi, including Jaipur, Firozpur,Hisar, Firuzabad and Fatehabad (after the name of Fateh Khan).He built a fort at Hisar in 1354 and also constructed canals which were known as rajwahas in Indo-Persian language. A revolt was happened in his reign in Gohana village.
In 1398 AD, an unprecedented invasion took place by Timur Lang in Delhi. After devastating Bhatner (present Hanumangarh) region completely, he moved to Haryana region (Sirsa, Fatehabad, Tohana, Punak, Kaithal, Asandh and Panipat) via Ghaggar river.

The Lodhi Dynasty

It was the last dynasty (1451 to 1526 AD) of the Delhi Sultanate which was founded by Bahlul Khan Lodhi.Haryana became a part of this dynasty in 1451 AD.
After the death of Bahlul Khan Lodhi in 1489 AD, his second son, Sikandar Khan Lodhi became the Sultan of Delhi and assumed the title ‘Sikandar Shah’.He founded Agra in 1504 AD.He also shifted the capital from Delhi to Agra.Due to his fanaticism,many revolts took place in Kalayat and Jind areas. Ibrahim Khan Lodhi was the last Lodhi Sultan of Delhi.He was defeated by, Babur, in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 AD, which marked the end of Lodhi Dynasty and the establishment of Mughal Dynasty

The Mughal Dynasty

Mughal Dynasty was founded by Babur, who belonged to Fargana valley of Central Asia.He was the descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan.He invaded Haryana in 1526 AD and confronted with the army of Shikder Hamid Khan Khaskheli of Hisar-Firoza.During the invasion of Babur, Jalal Khan was the ruler of Taoru Pargana.
The First Battle of Panipat
The First Battle of Panipat was fought between the last ruler of Lodhi dynasty, Ibrahim Lodhi and the ruler of Kabul, Babur on 21st April, 1526. Babur defeated Lodhi’s army with organisation and skilled dissemble in the historic Battle of Panipat.After this battle of Panipat,Mughals not only established their rule over Haryana but also in the whole country.
To rule over the newly conquered territory, Babur divided it into 4 governments (districts) i.e.Delhi Government,Mewat Government,Hisar Government and Sirhind Government. In 1527 AD, Babur fought a battle against Rana Sanga of Mewar in the Battle of Khanwa. A second battle was fought between them at Chanderi in 1528. Babur also fought other battles like Battle of Malwa in 1528 AD and Battle of Ghaghra (Bihar) in 1529 AD.Many revolts took place during the last days of Babur’s rule and the most terrible revolt took place in 1530 AD in Kaithal. After the death of Babur, his son Humayun ascendend the throne in 1530 AD.He gave Mewat Government to his brother Hindal Mirza and Hisar and Sirhind Governments to Kamran Mirza.
The Second Battle of Panipat
After the death of Humayun, Akbar became the Emperor of Mughal Empire in 1556 AD.Hemu (Hemchandra) was a military chief of the Afghan king, Adil Shah Suri of Suri Dynasty. Taking advantage of Humayun’s death,Hemu marched to Agra and Delhi in October, 1556 and occupied it without much difficulty and became the ruler under the title Raja ‘Vikramaditya’.
On 5th November, 1556 AD, the Second Battle of Panipat took place in which, Hemu was defeated and killed by Mughal army.Hemu was the last Hindu ruler to ascend the throne of Delhi. Akbar divided his territory into 15 subahs to govern the state in a well-organised manner. At that period, there were 70 Parganas and 5 Governments i.e. Sarkar-e-Dilli, Sarkar-e-Rewari, Sarkare-e-Hisar-Firoza, Sarkar-e-Mewati and Sarkar-e-Hind.

Later Mughal Period

After Akbar’s death, his son Jahangir became the fourth Mughal emperor in 1605 AD. After Jahangir, Shah Jahan became the fifth Mughal Emperor in 1628 AD.He is considered an art lover and a builder.Dara Shukoh, son of Shah Jahan was the desciple of Sheikh Chehli, who remained in contact with him in Thanesar.Dara Shukoh made a tomb after the death of Sheikh Chehli, which is also known as ‘Taj Mahal of Haryana’. After Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb became the sixth Mughal ruler in 1658.During his reign many revolts took place, like Satnami revolt in Narnaul (in 1672 AD) and Jat revolt in Saundh and Sinsini (in 1680 AD).

Revolt of Banda Bairagi

After Guru Gobind Singh, Banda Bairagi led the Sikh military activity/campaign against Mughals.He made Shrikhanda, near Sonipat, his headquarters.He captured Sonipat, Kaithal, Thanesar, Sirhind, Shahbad and Kunjpura in a battle with Mughals. But Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah, defeated him in the three wars between Karnal and Narwari in 1710 AD.
Ahir Rulers of Rewari
Ahir rule was established by Nandram, an Ahir of Garhi-Bolni village, in Rewari during the period of Aurangzeb. After him Balkishan became the ruler of Ahirs.
Influenced by his bravery,Mughal Emperor,Muhammad Shah gave him title of Shamsher Bahadur.Other important rulers of Ahir rule were Gujarmal , Bhawani Singh and many others.
Invasion of Nadir Shah
On 24th February, 1739, a battle between the forces of Nadir Shah, an Iranian adventurer and Mohammad Shah ‘Rangila’, the Mughal emperor took place at Karnal,Haryana in which the Mughals suffered a decisive defeat.Nadir Shah became the ruler of Persia by deposing the king in 1732. The violation by Mohammad Shah and the ill-treatment of his representatives by the Delhi court, served as the cause for his invasion.Nadir Shah marched to Delhi and massacred its inhabitants on 11th March.Nadir Shah left Delhi on 5th May with plunder, including the famous Peacock Throne of Shah Jahan and the Koh-i-noor diamond. The Mughal Empire never recovered from destruction.
Origin of Marathas
On 15th October, 1754 AD the Mughal Emperor Alamgir gave out Kurukshetra, the holy place of Haryana, to Marathas by expressing his gratitude towards Marathas. In 1761 AD, Third Battle of Panipat took place between Ahmad Shah Abdali (Afghan) and Marathas in which Marathas were defeated.
George Thomas and Haryana State
George Thomas was an Irish mercenary.He is also known as ‘Jahazi Sahib’ in Haryana.He joined the military force of Begum Samru of Sardhana (Meerut) in 1787 AD and married her daughter. In 1793, he worked for Apa Khande Rao, a Maratha Chieftain under Maharaja Mahadaji Scindia of Gwalior state.He was then given the responsibility of Mewat province.
He established a military force and forcibly collected taxes from rebellious farmers of Mewat. To give out salaries to his army, he plundered the villages of Gurugram and Badshahpur which were the estates of Begum Samru.He also plundered Bahadurgarh and Jhajjar in 1794 AD.With the aim to establish his independent rule in the whole Haryana, Thomas changed his capital from Jhajjar to Hansi.
In March 1799 AD, the Battle of Narnaund took place between Sikhs and George Thomas near Narnaund village, which is situated between Hansi and Jind areas.
This battle was ended by a treaty.George Thomas was finally defeated and captured by Scindia’s army under General Pierre Cuillier-Peron.He died on 22nd August, 1802.
History of Land Settlement and Land Tax in Haryana
Raja Todarmal , the Finance Minister of Akbar, was the first to introduce a new system of revenue collection and agriculture tax in Haryana, which is known as ‘Dahshala System’. Agricultural land based on rainfall was known as ‘Barani’ and agricultural land based on irrigation was known as Chahi (irrigated by wells).
One-sixth part of produce was taken as a land tax from the farmers who were under the British Rule.One-fourth part of produce was taken as a land tax by the Nawabs and Feudalist ( Jagirdaar) from the farmers who were under Princely States.
During the periods of droughts and famines, the land tax was put off in the areas under British rule. Sometimes a part of a complete land tax was refused.Haryana was the first state of India where no land tax was levied on the produce on Barani field (agricultural field based on rainfall). Land tax was collected after every six month from farmers in canal irrigated areas.

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