Paper 1 – CTET Child Development And Pedagogy Previous Papers
Directions (Q. 1–30): Answer the following questions by selecting the correct/most appropriate options:
1. Which one of the following best describes a teacher’s role?
(1) Creating a relaxed space where children learn through dialogue and inquiry.
(2) Teacher’s most important role in the classroom is to maintain discipline.
(3) A teacher should adhere to the prescribed textbook.
(4) Completing the syllabus in time leaving enough time for revision is important.
Explanation: According to NCF-2005, “A teacher’s role is best explained as a source of knowledge to being a facilitator, of transforming information into knowledge/ wisdom, as a supporter in enhancing learning through multiple exposures, encouraging the learner to continuously achieve his/her educational goals.”
2. Which one of the following classrooms encourages rich learning?
(1) A classroom with structured and planned learning driven by textbook content.
(2) A classroom with a variety of material displayed in the class beyond the reach of children so that the material lasts longer.
(3) A classroom with open activity corners and a variety of children’s literature in open shelves accessible any time of the day.
(4) A classroom with neatly organised material in cupboards brought out once a week for free play.
Explanation: The physical and psychological dimensions of the environment are important and are interrelated. Often classrooms are overcrowded, with no alternative spaces to learn, nor are they attractive, inviting or sensitive towards children’s needs. Inappropriate school design may drastically affect the teacher’s productive output and classroom management. The school environment must have all these elements in and around them. Open activity corners and open book shelves for children are some of the best effective ways to encourage rich learning.
So, option (3) is the most appropriate among all the given options.
3. Which one of the following best describes the role of textbooks in the classroom?
(1) They form the most essential learning resource in a resource-starved context.
(2) They are one of the resource and reference materials available in the class.
(3) They maintain homogeneity in learning across a State or the Nation.
(4) They provide guidance to teachers and parents about the course of study.
Explanation: The textbook plays an important role in teaching and learning. It represents a useful resource for both teachers as a course designers and learners as persons who are acquiring the subject.So, option (2) is correct.
4. The National Curriculum Framework-2005 derives its understanding from
(1) cognitive theories (2) humanism
(3) behaviourism (4) constructivism
Explanation: Constructivism sees learning as a dynamic and social process in which learners actively construct meaning from their experiences in connection with their prior understandings and the social setting. The National Curriculum Framework-2005 brought out by the NCERT emphasising constructivist approach in classroom states.
“Teachers should also nurture their classroom spaces as places where children can ask questions freely.” So, option (4) is correct.
5. The children in a class can be considered to be motivated if
(1) they ask questions seeking clarification from the teacher
(2) they come to school neatly dressed in uniform
(3) they maintain discipline in the class
(4) all are regular in attendance
Explanation: Students’ questions are considered to be a potential resouce for teaching and learning process. But a student feels comforted in a classroom environment and can be considered to be motivated only if he/she asks for clarification from his/her teachers on the concepts being studied. So, option (1) is correct.
6. Which one of the following is the most suitable to improve children’s learning?
(1) Teacher should facilitate children to interact with each other on real-life situations.
(2) Regular assessment test should be conducted.
(3) Teacher should explain the content using different examples and illustrations.
(4) All types of learning material should be there in the class.
Explanation: Teachers must facilitate learning by making the educational process easier for students by allowing the students to think critically and a number of instructional methods help the teachers to make the educational process easy. These methods include: i) providing students with choices to build a greater interest in the topic being taught. ii) discussing real world connections to make learning more meaningful. iii) increase opportunities for peer to peer learning. Thus, only option (1) is present among the instructional methods to improve children’s learning. So, option (1) is correct.
7. The discipline which has a significant role in a learning environment is of the kind which helps
(1) children to rote and memorise their lessons
(2) children to regulate and monitor their own learning
(3) to create silence
(4) teachers to give instructions
Explanation: Discipline in teaching learning process means it is a type of training for the learners to do something in a habitual and controlled way.
8. Which one of the following statements is true about the role of heredity and environment?
(1) Environment plays a significant role only in the child’s language development.
(2) Certain aspects of development are influenced more by heredity and others more by environment.
(3) A child’s ability to learn and perform is completely decided by the genes.
(4) Good care and a nutritious diet can fight off any disorder a child is born with.
Explanation: Heredity and environment both are closely correlated with each other and also affect too.
The growth of a child takes place with a combination of both heredity and environment.
9. Which one of the following statements cannot be attributed to Piaget’s theory?
(1) Children act on their environment.
(2) Development occurs in qualitative stages.
(3) Children construct and use knowledge about their world.
(4) Learning takes place through constant practice.
Explanation: Jean Piaget developed his cognitive developmental theory based on the data that children actively construct knowledge as they explore and manipulate the world around them. These lines define option (1) and option (3).
Piaget’s Cognitive Theory of development includes four stages – Sensorimotor (0-2 years), Preoperational
(2-7 years), Concrete operational (7-12 years), and Formal operational (12 years onwards). The above data defines option (2). So, option (4) is correct and it doesn’t come under the Jean Piaget’s theory.
10. Which one of the following is not a limitation of the preoperational thought?
(2) Tendency to concentrate
(3) Development of the symbolic thought
Explanation: Preoperational stage (2-7 years) is the second stage of cognitive development in Piaget’s theory. In this stage, there are some aspects which occur – egocentrism, animism, artificialism, irreversibility and centration. So, ‘development of the symbolic thought’ is not one of the limitations of the preoperational thought. Thus, option (3) is correct.
11. Play has a significant role in the development of young children for the following reasons except that
(1) they acquire new skills and learn when to use them
(2) they gain mastery over their body
(3) it stimulates their senses
(4) it is just a pleasant way to spend time
Explanation: There is no relation between playing a game to spend some pleasant time and development of young children.
12. Which one of the following questions invites children to think critically?
(1) What are the different ways in which we can solve this?
(2) Do you know the answer to this?
(3) What is the right answer?
(4) Can you think of a similar situation?
Explanation: The question type which is given in option (1) makes children more curious and internally forced to think about the various ways for that particularly asked question.
13. Which one of the following options best describes progressive education?
(1) Project method, ability grouping, ranking.
(2) Learning by doing, project method, cooperative learning.
(3) Thematic units, regular unit tests, ranking.
(4) Personalised learning, ability grouping, labeling students.
Explanation: Progressive education is an educational system which deals with the flexibility during learning procedures. It is based on activities and determined by the needs and capacities of the learner individually.
14. Which one of the following statements about progressive education explains – Education is life itself?
(1) Life is the true educator.
(2) School education should continue as long as possible.
(3) Schools are not required, children can learn from their life experiences.
(4) Education in schools should reflect the social and natural world.
Explanation: The aim of progressive education is to integrate academic development with social development.
15. Which one of the following can be considered as a contribution of Kohlberg’s theory?
(1) His belief is that children are moral philosophers.
(2) His theory has supported an association between cognitive maturity and moral maturity.
(3) The theory has elaborate testing procedures.
(4) It establishes a clear relationship between moral reasoning and action.
Explanation: Kohlberg’s theory relates to ‘social maturity’. But, Kohlberg was personally influenced by Jean Piaget. Due to this, his theory has an impact of ‘cognitive maturity’.
Therefore, option (2) is the correct answer to this question.
16. The Zone of Proximal Development refers to
(1) the point in learning when support can be withdrawn
(2) the phase when maximum development is possible
(3) the developmental phase when a child takes complete responsibility for learning
(4) a context in which children can almost perform a task on their own with the right level of support
Explanation: ‘Zone of Proximal Development’ is also known as ZPD. It was introduced by Soviet psychologist and social constructivist Lev Vygotsky. ZPD means the difference between what a learner can do without any assistance and what a learner can gain with the help and guidance of a skilled trainer.
17. An androgynous personality
(1) adheres to stereotypical gender roles prevalent in the society
(2) refers to a man with feminine traits
(3) has a balance of what are generally considered masculine and feminine traits
(4) tends to be assertive and arrogant
Explanation: Androgyny personality means it is a combination of characteristics of a female as well as a male within the same person. In psychology, it includes women and men who exhibit both masculine and feminine traits.
18. Children acquire gender roles through all the following, except
(1) tutoring (2) media
(3) socialisation (4) culture
Explanation: Except ‘tutoring’, in all other given options, children acquire gender roles. Gender role means an individual is involving in some kind of activity or responsibility within society.
19. One of the critiques of standardised tests has been that
(1) they do not give a clear picture of a child’s ability
(2) they represent largely the mainstream culture and are, therefore, biased
(3) their language is difficult to understand
(4) the tests cannot be administered on large populations
Explanation: Use of standardised tests encourage a narrowed curriculum, outdated methods of instruction, and harmful practices such as grade retention and tracking. Most test-makers review items for obvious biases, such as offensive words. But many forms of bias are not superficial. Testmakers also use statistical biasreduction techniques. However, these cannot detect underlying bias in the test’s form or content.
As a result, biased cultural assumptions built into the test as a whole often are not removed by test-makers. So, option (2) becomes one of the critiques of standardised tests.
20. The theory of multiple intelligence says that
(1) intelligence can be multiplied with effective pedagogy
(2) intelligence can be rapidly accelerated
(3) intelligence can be of several kinds
(4) paper-pencil tests are not helpful
Explanation: Multiple theory of intelligence is introduced by Gardner.
According to this theory, a person has many kinds of intelligence, such as musical, interpersonal, spatial-visual and linguistic intelligences, etc.
21. Teacher can utilise both assessment for learning and assessment of learning to
(1) monitor children’s progress and set appropriate goals to fill their learning gaps.
(2) know children’s progress and achievement level.
(3) know learning needs of children and select teaching strategy accordingly.
(4) assess a child’s performance at periodic intervals and certify his/her performance.
Explanation: Assessment for learning is considered as ‘Formative Assessment (FA)’, and assessment of learning is considered as ‘Summative Assessment (SA)’. Both FA and SA are used by a teacher to know children’s progress and achievement level. So, option (2) is correct.
22. Which one of the following is not related to Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation?
(1) It is useful to label children as slow, poor or intelligent.
(2) It has been mandated by the Right to Education Act of India.
(3) It is an integral part of teaching-learning process.
(4) It focusses on child’s achievement in different learning areas.
Explanation: Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) was a procedure of assessment of learners which was mandated by the Right to Education Act of India, 2009.
23. Giftedness in children can be attributed to
(1) a disciplined routine
(2) an interplay between heredity and environment
(3) a resource-rich environment
(4) successful parents
Explanation: Heredity and environment, both these factors can affect a gifted child. A gifted child means a highly intellectual, creative and artistic individual or learner.
24. Children coming from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds need a classroom environment which
(1) categorises children based on their abilities
(2) teaches them good behaviour
(3) values and uses their cultural and linguistic knowledge
(4) discourages the use of their language so that they learn the mainstream language
Explanation: Except option (3), all the other given options reflect an indication of discrimination among the students which is neither a positive way nor a good way of teaching learning system.
25. The intervention needed for creative and talented children in the classroom rests on
(1) giving them the responsibility of teaching other children
(2) use of customised and stimulating instructional methods by the teacher
(3) giving extra time to them
(4) being affectionate towards them
Explanation: Creative and talented students fall under the category of ‘Gifted children’. A gifted child means a highly intellectual and artistic student.
26. Which one of the following ways is not a suitable way to help hyperactive children learn?
(1) Reprimanding them often for being restless
(2) Breaking up a task into small, manageable segments
(3) Offering alternative ways of learning
(4) Including physical activity in their daily schedule
Explanation: Using the elimination method, we can easily choose the correct answer. Except option (1), all the other three given options are the part of an effective teaching learning method. Thus, option (1) is the correct answer for the given question.
27. Patterns of divergent thinking identify children who are
(1) resilient (2) disabled
(3) dyslexic (4) creative
Explanation: A learner with the ability of divergent thinking is more creative than others. He/she has suggestions for some particular problems or tasks. Such kind of learners have a problem-solving behaviour too.
28. Which one of the following does not describe the ways in which a teacher can model problem solving for children in the classroom?
(1) Ask questions with convergent answers
(2) Discuss your thought processes about solving a particular problem
(3) Be honest about making mistakes while solving something
(4) Use vocabulary like think, ideas, trial and different answers
Explanation: If a teacher wants to enhance the problem-solving ability or approach within his/her students, he/she can do some mistake deliberately during teachinglearning process, so that students would ask questions and make efforts to solve the problems. This is the best way to do so. But if a student asks questions relating to convergent answers, it would worsen the teaching-learning process. This approach can never be used to model problem solving for childern in the classroom. So, option (1) is correct.
29. Which one of the following is an emotion?
(1) Stimulus (2) Memory
(3) Fear (4) Attention
Explanation: Some major types of ‘emotions’ in psychology are joy, trust, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, etc.
30. A three-year-old child explains that milk is produced by a machine at the milk booth.
Which one of the following offers the best explanation of the child’s understanding?
(1) The child’s family does not offer a stimulating environment to the child.
(2) The child has very limited exposure to the world.
(3) The child’s answer is based on his/her experience of buying milk from the milk booth.
(4) The child has never seen cows.
Explanation: Such a kind of reply shows that the child has never seen cows before and he/she is also unaware of such kind of an animal which gives us milk. This reply directly indicates that it is totally based on his/her personal experience related to a milk booth.
DECEMBER 2018 PAPER 2