While teaching a class, a teacher may use certain tools or teaching materials to clarify the concepts or to make the class interesting and effective. These tools are known as audio-visual aids or instructional aids.
The term ‘audio’ means to hear and ‘visual’ means to see. Hence, we can say that audio-visual aids are tools that help students learn by seeing and hearing. According to Dictionary of Education, “Audio-visual aids are any device by means of which the learning process may be encouraged or carried on through senses of hearing or sight.” Devyer, on the other hand, said, “Educational aids are the realism of education. They provide reality to the teaching-learning process.” Such teaching aids are very useful in the introduction of a lesson especially at the elementary and junior stages.
The following are the characteristics of audio-visual aids:
► They help to understand and comprehend difficult ideas and concepts.
► They help to develop interest of the learners and make them curious.
► They make learners active.
► They help in retaining the learnt material for a long time.
► They provide reinforcement for better learning.
► They develop the perception of the learner towards the content.
Audio-visual aids play a very important role in making the teaching-learning process effective. In the words of Crow & Crow, “Audio-visual aids help benefit from planned experiences of persons, incidents, things and cause and effect relations.” The objective of using audio-visual aids in the field of education can be listed as follows:
► To make learning more concrete and lasting.
► To create natural or real-life scenario for learning a language.
► To save time, energy and burden of the teacher by overcoming the limitations of the classroom.
► To increase the understanding and comprehension by removing ambiguities of the subject.
► To motivate students by arousing their interest and curiosity in the subject.
► To create interest when the teaching material is lengthy and monotonous.
► To explain thoughts, ideas or concepts in a better and interesting way.
► To explain objects that have no physical existence.
► To explain difficult/complex topics and concepts.
► To interpret data.
► To introduce a new topic.
► To develop the objectives of the lesson plan.
Audio-visual aids are classified into the following categories:
► Audio Aids: These types of aids facilitate learning by using the sense of hearing. They are particularly beneficial in language teaching. They help to address the cognitive and affective objectives of teaching. Various types of audiovisual aids are listed in the following table, along with their examples and usage:
1. Tape Recorder ► Correct errors in speech
► Improve reading
► Improve pronunciation
► Understand phonetic sounds of words
2. Recorder Player Or Linguaphone
► Learn a foreign language
► Learn proper speech pattern
3. Radio ► Get acquainted with the correct pronunciation drill
► Listen to the latest news around the world
► Develop comprehension through listening
► Visual Aids: These types of aids appeal to the learner’s visual organs. They help in the attainment of the cognitive, affective and psychomotor objectives of teaching. These visual tools are shown in the following table:
1. Chalk Board and Blackboard
(48″ x 36″)
► Teach sentence structure
► Teach grammatical forms
► Explain difficult words and concepts
► Explain complex topics with the help of diagrams and figures
2. Pictures and Charts
► Tell a story
► Teach vocabulary
► Introduce a topic
3. Flannel Board
(60 cm x 90 cm)
► Read news articles
► Paste inspirational thoughts and ideas of scholars
► Spread motivational stories among the students
4. Flash Card ► Teaching composition and word recognition
5. Maps and Models
► Present geographical facts
► Relate complex concepts to students
► Enhance logical ability in students
► Audio-Visual Aids: These types of aids appeal to both the sense organs of the learner, i.e., visual organs and hearing organs. They facilitate in attaining the cognitive, affective and psychomotor objectives of teaching. Some of these aids are shown in the following table:
1. Television ► Develop comprehension ability
► Provide better quality instructions
► Know the latest news
2. Computer ► Store information for future use
► Connect to the Internet to search content on any topic or subject
► Prepare content in the form of soft copy
3. Cinema or Film
► Correct phonetic sound of L1 or L2
► Express words or sentences
► Show historical stories or inventions
► INSAT: Indian National Satellite
► STV: Secondary School Television Project
► HETV: Higher Educational Television Project
► SITE: Satellite Instructional Television Experiment
► DATV: Delhi Agricultural Television (also known as Krishi Darshan)
The term ‘microteaching’ refers to teaching under the microscope-not literally though. Microteaching is a teaching improvement technique, whereby a teacher reviews her recorded class session, often on video tape, to find out what worked and what fell short in his/her teaching style. This technique is to provide simple solutions to trainee teachers to overcome the difficulties faced during real teaching by simplifying the regular complex teaching process. Over the years, microteaching has proved to be an effective aid for the inculcation of good teaching skills in teachers. The concept of microteaching originated in Stanford University in 1963. In India, the technique was first embraced in Baroda by the contribution of Prof. B.K. Passi in 1976.
Microteaching is considered to be a facilitating technology for the teaching-learning process as it helps in reducing the complexities of normal classroom. It is like a simulated technique for developing teaching skills. It is based upon effective feedback mechanism and carried under controlled laboratory situations. The microteaching cycle continues till the target skill is acquired by the teacher.
According to Dwight Allen, “Microteaching is a scaled-down teaching encounter in class size and class time.” In Allen’s definition, the term ‘scaled-down teaching’ means a teaching that is reduced in class size, i.e., 5 to 10 pupils; time duration of periods, i.e., 5 to 10 minutes; size of topic and number of teaching skills.
According to M.B. Buch, “Microteaching is a teacher education technique, which allows teachers to apply clearly defined teaching skills to carefully prepared lessons in planned series of five to ten minutes. It encounters with a small group of real students, often with an opportunity to observe the results on video-tape.” According to Chift, “Microteaching is a teacher training procedure, which reduces the teaching situation to simpler and more controlled encounter by limiting the practice teaching to a specific skill and reducing teaching time and class size.”
These are the main characteristics of microteaching:
► It emphasises the development of teaching skills.
► It is a scaled-down teaching in which all aspects of teaching are set on a particular scale.
► It helps the trainee teachers to get a feedback on their performance.
► It is a highly individualised training programme to prepare effective teachers.
Microteaching has three phases:
1. Knowledge Acquisition Phase
(a) Observation of the demonstration of target teaching skill
(b) Analysis and discussion on demonstration
2. Skill Acquisition Phase
(a) Preparation of a micro-lesson
(b) Practice of the skill
(c) Evaluation of performance
3. Transfer Phase: This is the last phase wherein the acquired knowledge and skill are now applied in a normal classroom situation by the teacher.
The process of microteaching comprises the following steps:
Step I: A particular skill is defined to a pupil teacher as necessary.
Step II: The necessitated skill is demonstrated by an expert or shown on a video tape.
Step III: The pupil-teacher makes a micro-lesson plan according to which he/she can practise the skill.
Step IV: The micro-lesson plan is taught to a small group.
Step V: Teaching is followed by discussion to provide feedback.
Step VI: Re-planning, re-teaching and re-evaluation continue till mastery is attained.
In microteaching, there are about 10 pupil-teachers, some of whom act as pupils (simulated teaching), one or two as supervisors to provide feedback and one pupil as a teacher.
The best and effective time distribution with respect to microteaching is as follows:
Aspect Time Duration Teaching 6 minutes Feedback 6 minutes Re-plan 12 minutes Re-teach 6 minutes Re-feedback 6 minutes Total 36 minutes
The main advantages of microteaching are as given below:
► It is a training procedure for producing effective teachers.
► It is flexible, i.e., it can be changed according to circumstances.
► Feedback from expert teachers helps pupil-teachers to improve their skills and style of teaching.
► It decreases the complexities of normal classroom teaching.
► It is a type of real teaching and the pupil-teacher learns in the face of real situations.
The main disadvantages of microteaching are as given below:
► It is an expensive programme.
► It demands more and more time for practice.
► It is not possible to arrange audio-visual aids every time during the teaching process.
► Sometimes, there is a lack of supervisors and experts to train in the required teaching skills.
A teacher has to focus on only one skill in one microteaching class. A few of these skills are as follows:
► Skill of introducing a lesson
► Skill of probing questions
► Skill of using the lecture method
► Skill of demonstration
► Skill of explanation
► Skill of reinforcement
► Skill of using blackboard
► Skill of promoting pupil participation
► Skill of stimulus variation
► Skill of illustrating with examples and explaining
The term ‘lesson planning’ originated in Gestalt psychology. The psychologists of the Gestalt School emphasised whole-to-part method of learning, i.e., the whole is perceived by a part and vice versa. A lesson plan focusses only on a small unit that a teacher teaches during his/her class teaching. The approximate time limit of a teaching class based on a lesson plan is about 35 to 45 minutes.
A lesson plan is a plan of action, which a teacher takes before interacting with students. Generally, while preparing a lesson plan, there are three questions that cross the mind of a pupilteacher – “What is to be taught?”, “How is it to be taught?” and “How is it to be evaluated?”
According to the Dictionary of Education, “A lesson plan is a teaching outline of the important points of a lesson arranged in the order in which they are to be presented. It may include objectives, questions to be asked, evaluation, assignments,
etc.” In the words of Philip W. Jackson, “It is the pre-active stage of teaching.” According to N.L. Bossing, “Lesson plan is the title given to a statement of the achievements to be realised and the specific meaning by which these are to be attained as a result of the activities engaged during the period.” According to Ryburn, “To teach, we must use experience already gained as starting point of our work.”
In the context of the need and importance of lesson planning,
I.K. Davies, a famous educationist and philosopher, said, “Lessons must be prepared for there is nothing so fatal to a teacher’s progress than unpreparedness.” The importance of lesson planning can be enumerated as follows:
► It helps the pupil-teacher to teach confidently.
► It helps the pupil-teacher to develop the specific or scientific teaching skills.
► It helps the pupil-teacher to be aware of the teaching objectives.
► It helps to create a suitable atmosphere in the class.
► It helps the pupil-teacher to link the new knowledge of the students with their previous knowledge.
► It provides proper guidelines to run and coordinate the teaching process.
The main advantages of lesson planning are as given below:
► It helps facilitate evaluation.
► It helps develop various skills in a pupil-teacher.
► It gives confidence to the teacher.
► It ensures focus on important points, leaving out the irrelevant ones.
► It saves time and energy.
► It helps the teacher to focus on the needs and abilities of children.
► It helps to easily link the previous knowledge with the new knowledge.
The main approaches of lesson planning are as given below:
Name of Approach Introduced by Herbartian approach Johann Friedrich Herbart Evaluation approach B.S. Bloom Unit approach Morrison RCEM approach Indian Educationists Note: RCEM stands for Regional College of Education, Mysore.
Answer the following questions by selecting the most appropriate option.
25. Mary, a young teacher, believes in personalised learning because she thinks that
(1) every person must be exposed to learning.
(2) every learner is unique and needs to be given a chance to develop to the best of their ability.
(3) all learners must learn on their own.
(4) children must enjoy their learning.
1. To enrich the curriculum for learners who are gifted and talented to
(1) give them leadership roles in class activities.
(2) increase complexity of curriculum for them to experience a wider variety of language and opportunities for creativity.
(3) promote them to a higher class so that they are exposed to a more difficult syllabus.
(4) introduce a foreign language.
2. In Computer Aided Instruction (CAI), the ‘simulation mode’ is where learners
(1) experience real-life systems and phenomena.
(2) receive bits of information followed by questions with immediate feedback.
(3) a series of exercises with repetition practice.
(4) get a problem.
3. RTE stands for
(1) Right to Education Act
(2) Right to Employment Act
(3) Right to Empowerment Act
(4) Right to Free Education Act
4. The main responsibility of a language teacher as a facilitator is
(1) to read the lessons aloud and provide explanation for each line.
(2) to create a number of opportunities for the learners to use the language meaningfully.
(3) to provide a lot of information and make the learners listen to it.
(4) to strictly control the class and cover the syllabus in quick time.
5. It is generally believed that a language teacher uses up _________ of the time during class teaching.
6. We use ________ to talk about something that happened within a definite time span.
7. Reading for comprehension can be best achieved through
(1) helping learners speak words softly while reading.
(2) learners reading silently and asking comprehension questions.
(3) teaching learners to run a finger or pencil under the line being read.
(4) asking the children to read the text aloud.
8. DISE stands for
(1) District Infotech System for Education
(2) Direct Information System for Education
(3) District Information System for Education
(4) District Informative System for Education
9. A Hindi-speaking teacher gets posted in a primary school which is situated in a remote area of Rajasthan.
Since she doesn’t know the local language, she faces lots of problems. She should
(1) focus on the textbook as a source of standard Hindi
(2) use the child’s language as a resource while teaching
(3) encourage the child unity to learn standard Hindi
(4) try to get a posting to a Hindi-speaking area
10. The provision of libraries in schools helps develop the love or skill of ____________ in students.
11. Which of the following factors related to a teacher has no effect on the learning process?
(1) Teacher’s command over the subject
(2) Teacher’s personality and attitude
(3) Teacher’s height and appearance
(4) Teacher’s use of educational technology
12. Group project work helps in developing
(1) competition among learners to excel in academics
(2) good memory in young learners
(3) a high level of ambition to achieve
(4) collaboration, critical thinking and problem-solving
13. Lalita, a teacher of young learners, provides them with opportunities to play with clay, water and sand so as to
(1) build fine motor skills, especially of the fingers and thumb.
(2) encourage play with no other objective.
(3) please them and make them happy.
(4) dirty their hands so that they may learn to wash them.
14. The seating arrangement should be flexible so that
(1) children have the freedom to move their seats wherever they want.
(2) many groups, pair and whole-class activities can be conducted easily.
(3) children do not form permanent friendship groups.
(4) the teacher could ensure equality in her classroom.