• word ‘planning’ is not new to you as it is a part of everyday usage. It involves process of thinking, formulation of a scheme or programme and implementation of a set of actions to achieve some goal.
• Though it is a very broad term, in this chapter, it has been used with reference to process of economic development.
• There are two approaches to planning which are as follows:
(1) Sectoral Planning Approach: development of various sectors of economy, such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing, power, construction, transportation, communication, social infrastructure and services, and so on, are taken into account in this approach, and various schemes or programmes are to be developed and implemented.
(2) Regional Planning Approach: main focus of this strategy is on developing plans that can assist to decrease regional differences and promoting consistent economic development.
Target Area Planning
• primary goal of planning process is to promote economically underdeveloped areas. This is critical that a region’s economic development be based on its resource base, technology, and investment all at same time, because resource-rich places can be backward.
• After nearly a decade of planning, it has become clear that our economic development continues to be hampered by regional disparities. Planning Commission introduced ‘Target area’ and ‘target group approaches’ to planning in order to address both geographical and social imbalances.
• Some of programmes which are directed towards development of these two approaches are as follows:
Target Area Programmes
• target area has following programmes such as:
(1) Command Area Development programme
(2) Drought Prone Area Development Programme
(3) Desert Development Programme
(4) Hill Area Development Programme
Target Group Programmes
• Target groups have following programmes such as:
(1) Small Farmers Development Agency [SFDA]
(2) Marginal Farmers Development Agency [MFDA]
• Hill areas, North-Eastern states, tribal areas, and backward areas were all considered in Eighth FiveYear Plan when developing special area programmes.
Planning Related to Area Development Programme
Drought Prone Area Programme [DPAP]
• During Fourth Five-Year Plan, this programme was launched. following are key goals of Drought Prone Area Program:
(1) main focus of this plan was to provide job possibilities to people living in droughtprone areas as well as to develop productive assets.
(2) Its other key aims included irrigation projects, land development programmes, afforestation, grassland development, and construction of basic rural infrastructures such as rural electrification, roads, markets, credit, & services.
(3) National Committee for Development of Backward Areas discovered that this programme was primarily focused on agricultural and related sectors, as well as ecological restoration.
(4) Due to population pressures, society was forced to use marginal lands for agriculture, resulting in environmental damage.
• Thus, it was observed that there is an urgent need to generate alternative employment opportunities in these regions.
Drought Prone Regions
• In India, Planning Commission  categorised 67 districts as drought-prone regions [either entirely or partially].
• Irrigation Commission  defined droughtaffected areas and established 30% irrigated land threshold.
• These are semi-arid and desert tracts of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Western Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra’s Marathwada region, Andhra Pradesh’s Rayalseema and Telangana plateaus, Karnataka plateau and Highlands, and Tamil Nadu’s interior sections.
• Haryana, Punjab, & Northern Rajasthan have become protected territories as irrigation facilities have improved.
Hill Area Development Programme
• It encompasses 15 districts, including all of Uttar Pradesh’s hilly districts [now called Uttarakhand], Assam’s Mikir and North Cachar hills, West Bengal’s Darjeeling district, and Tamil Nadu’s Nilgiri district. It was introduced in fifth year plan.
• National Committee on Development of Backward Areas advised in 1981 that hill areas with a height of more than 600 metres that are not covered by tribal sub-plans be classified as backward hill areas.
• aims of Hill Area Development Programmes are as follows:
(1) Horticulture, plantation agriculture, animal husbandry, poultry, forestry, & small scale and village industry development were program’s key goals, with goal of allowing local resources to be exploited.
(2) specific designs were based on hill areas’ topographical, ecological, economic, & social conditions.
Integrated Tribal Development Project in Bharmaur Region
• region is located between 32°11′ N and 32° 41′ N latitudes, and 76° 22′ E and 76° 53′ E longitudes. region, which covers an area of around 1818 sq km, is usually between 1500 and 3700 metres above sea level.
• This location, called Gaddis’ homeland, is encircled on all sides by high mountains. This is bordered on north by Pir Panjal and on south by Dhaula Dhar range.
• Dhaula Dhar’s eastern extension converges with Pir Panjal near Rohtang pass. Ravi River and its tributaries, Budhil & Tundahen, drain this land and cut steep canyons.
• Holi, Khani, Kugti, & Tundah areas are formed by these rivers, which split region into four physiographic divisions. In winter, Bharmaurs reaches subzero temperatures and receive snowfall. It indicates that monthly temperature in January remains at 4°C and that monthly temperature in July remains at 26°C.
Area and Life of People in Bharmaur
• area and life of people of Bharmaur region are as follows:
(1) tribal area includes tehsils of Bharmaur and Holi in Himachal Pradesh district of Chamba.
(2) This is one of Himachal Pradesh’s most economically and socially deprived areas, as well as a recognised tribal region since November 21, 1975.
(3) area is inhabited by a tribe called ‘Gaddi,’ who practised transhumance and spoke a dialect called ‘Gaddiali.’ According to 2001 census, area’s total population was 39113, or 21 people per square kilometre.
(4) people of area confront significant challenges because economy is harmed by hard climate, limited resource base, and fragile environment.
(5) People of area face major problems as economy is mostly affected by its harsh climate, low resource base and fragile environment.
Economy in Area of Bharmaur
• These people’s major activities have traditionally been subsistence agriculture-cum-pastoral activities such as farming food grains and animal husbandry such as rearing of sheep and goat.
Integrated Tribal Development Project [ITDP]
• Gaddis tribe was added to list of scheduled tribes in 1970s, and tribal area of this region began to emerge at same time.
• In 1974, tribal sub-plan was launched as part of Fifth Five Year Plan, and Bharmaur was designated as one of Himachal Pradesh’s five Integrated Tribal Development Projects [ITDPs].
• Aims and priorities of Integrated Tribal Development Project are as follows:
(1) Improving Gaddis’ quality of living.
(2) Closing development gap between Bharmaur and rest of Himachal Pradesh’s districts.
(3) development of transportation and communications, agriculture and related sectors, as well as social and community services, were given top importance.
• main achievements of tribal sub-plan are as follows:
• Infrastructural facilities of tribal sub-plan are as follows:
(1) Infrastructure development, such as schools, health-care facilities, potable water, roads, communications, and power [electricity].
(2) Infrastructural development has primarily benefited villages near Ravi River in Holi and Khani districts.
• Pulses and other cash crops were one of region’s principal crops later during last three decades of twentieth century, as Gaddis had historically practised subsistence agriculture cum-pastoral economy.
• Social benefits of tribal sub-plan are as follows:
(1) literacy rate has risen dramatically; for example, female literacy rate in region has risen from 1.88% in 1971 to 65% in 2011.
(2) A decrease in gender inequality, i.e. difference in literacy rates between men and women.
(3) An increase in male-to-female ratio.
(4) Child marriage is on decline.
Some Shortcomings to ITDP
• isolated settlements in Tundah and Kugti areas have been undisturbed in terms of infrastructure.
• technique is still very traditional.
• Pastoralism’s prominence is dwindling day by day, with only roughly a tenth of all households practising transhumance.
• However, during cold season, a large number of Gaddis relocate to Kangra and its Fringing Zone to work as wage labourers.
Overview of Planning Perspective in India
• India has centralised planning, with Planning Commission in charge of overseeing planning duties in country.
• Planning Commission, which is a statutory organisation, is chaired by Prime Minister and has a Deputy Chairman and members. following five-year plans are responsible for carrying out planning in India:
• The 1951-52 to 1955-56 period was covered by First Five Year Plan, which began in 1951 and ended in 1956.
• Second and Third Five Year Plans, respectively, covered years 1956-57 to 1960-61 and 1961-62 to 1965-1966.
• Droughts in mid-1960s [1965-66 and 1966-67] and 1965 conflict with Pakistan caused cancellation of vacation plans in 1966-67 and 1968-69. Annual plans, often called rolling plans, covered this time period.
• In 1969-70, Fourth Five-Year Plan began and ended in 1973-74.
• Following this, Fifth Five-Year Plan began in 1974- 75, but was cancelled one year earlier, in 1977-78, by government.
• In 1980, Sixth Five-Year Plan was launched.
• Between 1985 through 1990, Seventh Five-Year Plan was in effect.
• Eighth Five Year Plan was postponed was again due to political unrest and implementation of liberalisation policies. It spanned years 1997 to 2002.
• In 2002, tenth five-year plan began and it ended in 2007.
• In 2007, Eleventh Five-Year Plan began and ended in 2012. ‘Towards faster and more inclusive growth,’ it was titled.
• Twelfth Five-Year Plan was launched in 2012 and is still ongoing. In 2017, it came to end.
• In 1960s, people all over world were concerned about environmental issues as a result of negative impacts of industrial expansion, and notion of sustainable development was born in Western world.
• With release of Ehrlich’s ‘Population Bomb’ in 1968 and Meadows’ ‘Limits to Growth,’ this degree of concern among environmentalists and general public reached an all-time high.
Aims of Sustainable Development
• basic goal of sustainable development is to look after economic, social, & environmental realms of development in present while conserving all resources so they can be passed down to future generations.
• As a result, we must alter our attitudes toward both nature and economic development. Concept of Development
• Development is a dynamic notion that emerged in second half of 20th century.to describe status of individual civilizations and changes that they are through.
• interaction process between human societies and their bio-physical environment was key criterion for determining a society’s condition in early human history.
• Societies aided in development of various levels of technology and institutions that are essential for human-environmental dynamic.
• As a result of momentum produced and festinated technological growth, transformation, and institution building, they have aided in raising pace of human-environment interaction.
• Following World War II, two key words of development and economic growth were merged into one notion. Even industrialised countries with significant economic growth, however, face a quicker rate of growth in poverty due to unequal distribution.
• In 1970s, terms “redistribution with growth” and “growth and equity” were added to word “development” to make it mean more. Now, idea of development includes more than just economics. It also includes people’s welfare and quality of life, as well as their health, education, and other comforts, as well as equal opportunities for everyone and protection of their political and civil rights.
• As a result, idea of development has broadened to include positive, irreversible changes in economy, society, & environment.
World Commission on Environment and Development [WCED]
• After considering views of international community on environmental challenges, United Nations established World Commission on Environment and Development [WCED].
• Gro Harlem Brundtland, Norwegian Prime Minister, led WCED. In 1987, panel issued a report titled ‘Our Common Future,’ called Brundtland Report.
• In this paper, term ‘sustainable development’ was considered and defined as ‘development that meets current demands without jeopardising future generations’ ability to satisfy their own needs.’
Promotion of Sustainable Development in Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area
• Kanwar Sain, a civil engineer, designed one of India’s greatest canal systems in 1948. This project, which began on March 31, 1958, turned a desert into verdant land.
• canal originates at Harike barrage in Punjab and runs parallel to Pakistan border at an average distance of 40 km in Thar Desert [Marusthali] of Rajasthan.
• total projected length of system, which would serve irrigation needs of a total culturable command area of 19.63 lakh hectares, is 9060 kilometres.
• There are two irrigation systems in canal: a ‘flow system’ and a ‘lift system.’ Around 70% of command area’s land is irrigated with flow system, while other 30% is irrigated with lift system.
• There have been two stages in development of canal system, including:
Stage I of Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area
• This command area covers Ganganagar, Hanumangarh and Northern parts of Bikaner district. It has a culturable command area of 5.53 million hectares and a gently sloping topography.
• In early 1960s, irrigation system was established at this level.
Stage II of Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area
• This stage includes 14.10 lakh hectares of cultivable land in districts of Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Jodhpur, Nagpur, & Churu.
• following are primary characteristics of area:
(1) Hot desert with shifting sand dunes.
(2) Summer temperature upto 50°C.
• In mid-1980s, an irrigation system was installed at this stage. In lift canal, water is lifted up to make it to flow against slope of land. All of system’s lift canals originate on left bank of main canal, whereas all of canals on right bank are flow channels.
Effects of Indira Gandhi Canal Irrigation
• There are various effects of Indira Gandhi Canal irrigation on environment and on agricultural economy:
Effects on Agriculture
• There are some positive and negative effects on agriculture:
(1) Positive Effect: This canal irrigation resulted in an increase in cultivated land and cropping intensity. Drought-resistant crops such as gram, bajra, & jowar were replaced by main commercial crops such as wheat, rice, cotton, & groundnut.
(2) Negative Effect: Irrigation has become a source of water logging and soil salinity as a result of intensive irrigation. As a result, it may jeopardise agriculture’s long-term viability in foreseeable future.
Effects on Environment
• environment of area is influenced by this project both positively and negatively:
(1) Positive Effect: Now, there is sufficient soil moisture availability for a longer duration. Various afforestation and pasture development programme came into being. A considerable reduction in wind erosion and siltation of canal systems have been recorded.
(2) Negative Effect: Due to intensive irrigation and excessive use of water, an alarming rate of water logging and soil salinity have been recorded.
Measures for Promotion of Sustainable Development
• As we can see, this project has had a negative impact on region’s ecological sustainability and physical surroundings. As a result, achieving goal of sustainable development in command area necessitates measures that can concurrently accomplish ecological, social, & economic sustainability.
• As a result, five of seven measures that have been suggested to promote sustainable development in command area are meant to restore ecological balance:
(1) project’s first and most important requirement is strict execution of water management policies. According to canal proposal, Stage I & Stage II consist of protective irrigation for crops and wide irrigation for pasture growth.
(2) Water-intensive crops can be avoided in general, and people shall be encouraged to grow plantation crops like fruits.
(3) A few significant programmes, such as CAD [Command Area Development] programmes, must be considered in order to reduce water conveyance loss. • Lining of water courses. • Land development and levelling. • Warabandi system [means equal distribution of canal water in command area of outlet].
(4) areas damaged by water logging and soil salinity should be restored.
(5) Through afforestation, shelterbelt, plantation, and pasture development operations, ecodevelopment is necessary, especially in fragile environment of Stage II.
(6) By providing adequate financial and institutional support for land cultivation, allottees from lowincome backgrounds can make a meaningful contribution to region’s social sustainability.
(7) Economic sustainability can be achieved through diversifying economy, which must include agriculture and related industries, as well as other economic sectors. As a result, we will see economic diversification and formation of functional linkages between basic villages, agroservice centres, and market centres.