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Chapter 9. Inclusive Education (Child Development & Pedagogy for CTET & TET Exams)

Inclusive Education

A child who has abilities that are different from that of an average child is said to be a child with special needs. The deviation from average child can be in terms of their mental, physical, psychological, social and other such kinds of ability to perform a given task. These special abilities may need special requirement from the school and society Heward and Orlansky (1980), said “exceptional is an inclusive term that refers to any child whose performance deviates from the norm, either below or above such an extent that special education programming is indicated.” On similar lines Krik and Gallagher (1979) said “the disabled child is one who deviates from the average or normal child in (i) mental characteristics (ii) sensory ability (iii) neuro-motor or physical characteristics (iv) communication abilities and (v) multiple handicaps.”
Inclusive education is a process to bring all students together in one classroom and school, regardless of their strengths or limitations in any area, and it seeks to maximize the potential of all students, where everyone is recognized and respected for his/her is worth.
Understanding Diversities: Linguistic, Socio-Cultural, Economic, Gender And Disability
Let us see some of the different dimensions of diversity seen in our social groups around.
Linguistic Diversity – many languages that are used in social communication.
Socio-Cultural Diversity – Cultural diversity to a sociologist refers to the variety of human societies or cultures in the world; to the variety of the makeup or the varied cultures of a group or organization or region. It is also called multiculturalism. It includes the various social structures, belief systems, rituals, ways of living and strategies the cultures adhere to, for adapting to life situations in various parts of the world.
Economic Diversity – The varied levels of social classes and the gap between these have been increasingly contributing to diversity in our society. From the time, the caste system got rooted in our society and education got monopolized by the upper caste people who knew
Gender Diversity – Gender is a social construct where as sex of a person is a biological status. Gender diversity refers to the difference in the societal outlook to people around vis a vis their sex. Right from ancient times, a female has been considered as the weaker of the two. A female, as a child, is to be protected by her Father, as a wife, by her husband and as an old mother, by her son. Her role is to bear children and look after everyone in the family. A male is looked upon as the bread winner, protector and savior of the family. From this social discriminatory position of males and females, the life experiences of a girl and boy have been very different simply because of their sex. This difference immensely contributes to diversity in our society to varying degrees across regions.
Ability, Disability And Diversity
Disability comes under diversity and is part of it. Disability is a diversity classification that transcends all other indices like class, caste, race, religion and language. It represents the only minority group that anyone can become a member, anytime in life. “The principle of diversity provides the foundation to accept disability as part of human variation. However, it is a sad reality that in practice our treatment of difference has been rather poor, especially in the context of disability” (Ability Junction, 2011). Disability is a widely misused and misunderstood concept, as illustrated by the World Health Organization (WHO) definition: Disability is an umbrella term, covering impairment, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. Thus, disability is a complex phenomenon, reflecting an interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives.
It is a universal understanding that members of any social group will have varying capabilities and abilities. We also know that all of us who have no disabilities at a point in time are temporarily able bodied. Anyone can end up with disability anytime, especially physical disabilities. Many of the persons with disability have been so from birth and others have acquired it through their years owing to numerous factors. Disability is an inescapable element of human experience. It is so, first, in the sense that, world-wide, an enormous number of people have disability/disabilities. The proportion of people who have disability/ies in different national populations varies significantly with respect to the country’s status of economic development, health care, general awareness and other factors. Furthermore, because of the way this group of people is constituted, it is arguably more heterogeneous than those of race, gender, class, and sexual orientation.
Concept Of Social Exclusion And Inclusion
Social exclusion, on another analysis is the process of relegation of individuals or social groups to the fringe of society; they are systematically blocked from (or denied full access to) various rights, opportunities and resources that are normally available to members of mainstream groups, and which are fundamental to social integration within these groups (e.g., housing, employment, healthcare, civic engagement, democratic participation).
People with disabilities are among the most vulnerable groups who are at the risk of social exclusion. The societal systems fail to provide facilities for early detection, identification and intervention to infants and young children with disabilities and provide support to their parents and caretakers; this results in secondary disabling conditions which further limit their capacity to benefit from educational opportunities. Denial of education to children and youth with disabilities results in their alienation from access to vocational training, employment and income generation. This in turn affects their economic and social independence leading them to poverty perpetuated generation after generation (Barnes, 2012).
Social inclusion refers to a process by which efforts are made to ensure equal opportunities for all, regardless of their background, be it money, class, ethnicity, gender, race or whatever the index of diversity be, to enable full and active participation in all aspects of life, including civic, social, economic, and political activities, as well as participation in decision-making processes. Social inclusion can be approached as a goal, an objective, and a process. Its process affects almost all societal activities, and should therefore be approached from various dimensions.
If a society is inclusive it means that it understands, accepts and respects diversity, it not only recognizes diversity but also embodies it so that each member of the diverse society can achieve their full potential in life. Such societal conditions instill in each member, a sense of belonging to the community and society at large. Exclusion conversely is a process and a state resulting in lack of access to full participation in the mainstream of society.
Integration And Inclusion
Integration involves preparing pupils for placement in regular schools. It implies readiness from the part of the society or school for a change from special to regular schools. Students are expected to adapt to the school ethos and the other facilities with no assumption that the school will change to accommodate a greater diversity of students than before the scenario of integration. Integration is all about making the regular schools, suitable for children with disabilities by transplanting the best special school practices, teachers or equipment into regular settings even without analyzing the needs of the children with special needs including disabilities to ensure if these are necessary or not.
Inclusion implies a radical reform of the school in terms of conviction and philosophy followed with curriculum, assessment, pedagogy, grouping of pupils and the school environment and ethos. It is based on a value system that welcomes, respects and celebrates diversity arising from gender, nationality, race, language of origin, social background, religion, class and caste, level of educational achievement, disability etc.
Models Of Disability
There is a shift from a defect within- the-child model based on the assumption that the origins of learning difficulties is largely within the child, to a thinking that it is the societal system that are discriminatory and disabling, demanding attention to the alleviation of obstacles to the participation of disabled people in all the events and developments of the society. Let us examine these models of disability.
Charity Model – Driven largely by emotive appeals of charity, this model sees Persons with Disabilities (PwDs) as helpless people needing ‘care’ and ‘protection’. This model relies largely on the goodwill of benevolent humanitarians for ‘custodial care’ of the PwDs rather than justice and equality.
Medical Model – The medical model of disability views disability as a ‘problem’ that belongs to the disabled individual and is based on the view that disability is caused by disease or trauma and its resolution or solution is intervention provided and controlled by professionals.
The Social Model -The social model of disability views disability as socially constructed and a consequence of society’s lack of awareness and concern about persons who require specific modifications in their environment to live full, productive lives. The model, referred to by some as the barriers model, views the medical diagnosis, illness or injury as having no part in disability. The social model of disability, in the example presented above, in the context of the student using wheel chair in a building with no ramps, would see the steps or the environmental factors as the barrier disabling the student.
Bio-psychosocial Model – The bio-psychosocial model of disability situates disability as rooted in an amalgamation of factors at the physical, emotional and environmental levels. Disability is an umbrella term, covering impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual while trying to involve in life situations. Disability is thus not just a health problem. It is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. Overcoming the difficulties faced by people with disabilities requires interventions to remove environmental and social barriers. The bio-psychosocial model thus recognizes that disabilities are often due to illness or injury and does not dismiss the importance of the impact of biological, emotional and environmental issues on health, well-being and function in society.
Disability as a Multiple Identity -Disability is the quintessential post-modern concept, because it is so complex, so variable, so contingent, so situated. It sits at the intersection of biology and society and of agency and structure. Disability cannot be reduced to a singular identity: it is a multiplicity, a plurality. An adequate social theory of disability would include all the dimensions of disabled people’s experiences: bodily, psychological, cultural, social, political, rather than claiming that disability is either medical or social” (Shakespeare & Erickson, 2000).
Affirmation Model of Disability – A new model of disability is emerging within the literature by disabled people and within disability culture, especially emerging in the Disability Arts Movement called the affirmative model. It is essentially a non-tragic model of disability to include positive social identities, both individual and collective, for disabled people. The affirmation model balances the limitations of the social model through the realization of positive identity encompassing impairment, as well as
Diversity And Inclusion In Education
Classroom is a cross section of society where the diversity existing among people in the community is reflected. The increasing number of learners from diverse backgrounds admitted to elementary classrooms has reinforced the importance of making schools more inclusive. With a relatively much higher variation in the talents, and social, cultural, economic and political backgrounds of the learners, a teacher is expected to transfer the understanding and position about diversity into the classroom processes, identify and recognize the threads of diversity among learners in order to address the corresponding issues and challenges with respect to curriculum design, teaching-learning practices and processes and learning materials, so that subsequently the different learning needs of children are met. Precisely, the elementary classroom in India is confronted with an immense challenge of weaving in diversity constructively into classroom processes to democratize these processes and practices, all geared to the larger goal of social justice.
Let us see what inclusion in education is more closely:
• It is a process to bring all students together in one classroom and school, regardless of their strengths or weaknesses in any area, and it seeks to maximize the potential of all students
• It is a process where diversity in a group with respect to any aspect is appreciated and in which everyone is recognized and respected for his/her worth
• It is an effort to make sure that diverse learners – those with disabilities, different languages and cultures, different homes and family lives, different interests and ways of learning – are taught using teaching learning strategies adapted to individual learning needs

Addressing The Talented, Creative, Specially Abled Learners

As per Marland (1972), “Gifted and talented children are those identified by professionally qualified persons who by virtue of outstanding abilities are capable of high performance. These are children who require differentiated educational programmes and/or services beyond those normally provided by the regular school programme in order to realize their contribution to self and society”.
► Gifted/talented children are the ones that require a different approach for meeting their educational needs. Thus, a traditional educational programme is not sufficient for these children. The following are the signs of gifted/talented children that parents can observe to determine whether their child is gifted/talented or not:
► Gifted/talented children always seek perfection and are relatively idealistic than other children.
► These children are quick problem solvers.
► Gifted/talented children are able to solve mathematical problems that other children of their age are not able to solve.
► They have abstract thinking and have high test-taking skills.
► They participate willingly in intellectual activities.
► Gifted/talented children demonstrate a good sense of humour.
► These children possess unusual imagination and question arbitrary decisions.
Characteristics of gifted/talented children
There are six specific characteristics of gifted/talented children:
1. Creative thinking: Gifted/talented children are always independent thinkers and demonstrate original thinking in vocal and written expressions. They believe in creating something new and innovative and being different from the crowd.
2. General intellectual ability: Gifted/talented children have abstract thinking, can process any complex information, analyse new ideas, have a large vocabulary and take initiatives. 3. Psychomotor skills: These children demonstrate precision in movement and are well-coordinated. They love to participate in sports activities and have high energy levels.
4. Specific academic ability: Gifted/talented children have good memorisation ability and advanced comprehension skills.
5. Leadership: They are keen to take responsibilities and have high expectations both from themselves and others. They have good judgement in decision making and are self-confident.
6. Visual/performing arts: Gifted/talented children demonstrate creative expression and are well observant. They have an unusual ability of expressing themselves as well as anticipating moods of others.
How should gifted/talented children be tackled?
A teacher can use the following tips to handle gifted/talented children:
► Generally, gifted/talented children tend to finish their work well before time. In such a case, the teacher should give them extra time to explore their talents.
► They exhibit good verbal and written expressions and have high energy levels.
Thus, the teacher should provide them an opportunity to work upon their leadership skills and group dynamics.
► Gifted/talented children should be given a chance to work upon advanced level projects and assignments so that their analytical skills can be explored.
► The teacher should ask the gifted/talented children to mentor other children who are ready to work with them in their area of interest.
► The teacher should not act as an expert for these children rather he/she should serve as a facilitator. This implies that the teacher should not provide information rather help them find that information.

Socially Disadvantaged Children

Socially disadvantaged children are the ones who get separated from their families because of various reasons, such as poverty, natural calamities, epidemics, etc. Children belonging to tribal and other backward communities also fall under the category of socially disadvantaged children. These children are deprived of proper educational facilities and guidance. The following steps can be taken to fulfil the needs of socially disadvantaged children:
► Basic needs of these children such as food, clothing and shelter must be fulfilled.
► Government should waive off their school fee and provide them with books and school uniform free of cost.
► They should be encouraged to develop vocational skills so that they can feel selfsufficient.
► Reformatory houses and psychological guidance must be arranged for juvenile delinquents.

Physically & Mentally Disadvantaged Children

Generally, sensory disabilities are those in which sensory organs of human beings are affected. You know the importance of sensory organs in learning. Among the five senses, vision and hearing are predominantly used in the class room. Tactile/ kinesthetic sense is also used but to some extent. As a student teacher, you should know the three-main sensory disabilities i.e. Visual, Hearing and Speech impairment. In this unit, we will discuss these sensory disabilities, their nature, needs, assessment, intervention and teaching strategies in detail.

Visual Impairment

Definition and Types of Assessment of Vision
According to the Rights of Persons with Disability Act 2016, Blindness “blindness” means a condition where a person has any of the following conditions, after best correction— (i) total absence of sight; or (ii) visual acuity less than 3/60 or less than 10/200 (Snellen) in the better eye with best possible correction; or (iii) limitation of the field of vision subtending an angle of less than 10 degree;
Low-Vision – “low-vision” means a condition where a person has any of the following condition’s, namely: — (i) visual acuity not exceeding 6/18 or less than 20/60 up to 3/60 or up to 10/200 (Snellen) in the better eye with best possible corrections; or (ii) limitation of the field of vision subtending an angle of less than 40 degree up to 10 degree.
Identification of Student’s with Visual Impairment
To identify children with visual impairment by teachers or parents in school or at home, it is important to follow ‘ ABC’. It is generally done based on appearance (A) of eye, behaviours (B) of students and complaints (C) of students. The teachers hence, need to be aware and knowledgeable about the behavioural manifestations of children with partial and full visual impairment. They are as follows:
• Frequent watering, red or inflamed eyes.
• Jumpy and un-synchronized eye movements.
• Difficulties experienced in moving around, bumping into things, doors and other objects.
• Difficulty experienced in reading small print, or identifying minute details in pictures or illustrations.
• Complaints of dizziness after completing a visual task like reading, drawing or writing.
• Needs to exert, and change positions, e.g. tilting of the head, or squinting to focus better.
• Difficulties in coordinating both the eyes i.e. a tendency to use one eye more than the other.
• Clumsy movements.
• Severe problems with mobility and orientation. Mobility refers to the ability to move around in the environment. Orientation refers to the ability to know one’s place or position in the environment i.e. Am I near a railway station? Is the fish market to my left? And so on.
• Repetitive stereotypic movements, referred to as “blindisms” e.g. rocking, hand weaving, head rolling. It is believed that these behaviours are due to under stimulation. Babies and young children who are sighted are more observant while a lack of visual feedback deters a blind child to explore. By increasing infant stimulation these behaviours could be reduced or eliminated.
Immature social behaviours / skills, Lack of visual feedback and appropriate intervention results in the poor social maturity of children with visual impairment. However, adequate intervention makes them develop appropriately, later. Poor understanding of feelings and emotions is also observed in these children.
Visually Impaired children’s early language development tends to be more self-centred and they talk less about other people and objects. They also tend to be very selfconscious when with other people.
Teaching Strategies And Intervention For Children With Visual Impairment
Visual impairment is caused by absence of sight and/or impaired vision. We know that eye is the biggest gateway (sense organ) of information from the external world in our body. We receive more than 80% of knowledge through the sense of seeing (vision). This means that those who cannot see are deprived of the opportunity of gaining this knowledge directly from surroundings. Indeed, Vision serves the purpose of integrating the information received by other modalities and is important in the formation and refinement of concepts. Absence of vision deprives a person of such a privilege. It is often said that 80% of knowledge is gained through vision and 95% knowledge is received through vision and hearing. This implies that in the absence of vision and hearing, learning may not take place at all.
Principles Of Using Instructional Materials
We need to understand the nature and needs of visual impairment so that we can impart education to them. The instructional methods will be adapted as per the needs of visual impairment. We should give information through the remaining sense organs. In fact, blindness reduces the confidence in the remaining senses and therefore, adequate training would be necessary to orient the children to use other sense organs. Many key areas for sensory training could be essential to compensate the experiences which are based on the visual ideas. In addition to this, the discussion of the nonvisual experience to visual idea should consider the following implications towards blindness.
1. Sense of Hearing – The modes through which ideas can be transmitted and education can be imparted to the blind child are auditory and tactual. The sequence of learning to understand and give meaning to sound seems to follow a pattern.
• Awareness and attention to sounds • Response to specific sounds • Sound discrimination and recognition • Recognition ofwords and interpretation of connected speech • Selective listening to verbal instructions • Auditory processing and listening for learning
2. Sense of Smell – A good nose voluntarily offers the information of the objects which could be smelt. Smell is a sensible clue for a traveler. During his travel, the smell of a gutter, the smell of smoke from a chemical industry, smell of flowers of a garden, smell of kitchen and so on, are sources of information for him to locate where he is.
3. Sense of Taste – This skill helps a child with visual impairment to associate the names of substances with the taste. For example, sweet, sour or hot could be associated with the substances which provide such experiences.
4. Tactual Sense – Often referred to as the skin sense, the tactual and kinesthetic system involves touch, movement and body positions in space. These senses assume paramount importance, and are the primary learning channels for blind children. This sense also follows a pattern.
5. Kinesthetic Sense – The feeling of the body when responding to the external stimuli, which is otherwise known as the kinesthetic sense, enables the child to get certain information like cold, heat, breeze, elevation of surface and so on.

Hearing Impairment

Hearing impairment refers to hearing loss that prevents a person from totally receiving sounds through the ear. If the loss is mild, the person has difficulty hearing faint or distant speech. Aperson with this degree of hearing impairment may use a hearing aid to amplify sounds. If the hearing loss is severe, the person may not be able to distinguish any sounds.
According to the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016, Hearing impairment— (a) “deaf’ means persons having 70 DB hearing loss in speech frequencies in both ears; (b) “hard of hearing” means person having 60 DB to 70 DB hearing loss in speech frequencies in both ears;
Assessment of hearing impairment may be categorized into two type informal and formal assessment.
Grades Of Hearing Impairment

Grade of ImpairmentAudionietric ISO ValueImpairment Description
0 (No Impairment)25 dBHL or Less (Better Ear)No or very slight hearing problems, Able to hear Whispers
1 (Slight Impairment)26-40 dBHL (Better Ear)Able to hear and repeat words spoken in normal voice at 1 metre
2 (Moderate Impairment)41-60 dBHL (Better Ear)Able to hear and repeat words spoken in raised voice at 1 metre
3 (Severe Impairment)61-80 dBHL (Better Ear)Able to hear some words when should into better ear
4 (Profound Impairment Including deafness)81 dBHL or greater (Better Ear)Unable to hear and understand even a shouted voice

Chacteristics And Behavioural Manifestations

1-3 months oldNo response to sudden sound such as banging of door or ringing of doorbell
4-6 months oldUnable to locate the sound source.
7-9 months oldUnable to look at the person who make sounds
10-12 months oldNo response to their names

The Characteristics Of Children With Hearing Impairment Are As Follows:
• Delayed language development.
Very limited use of spoken language, and very un-intelligible speech. This is linked to the degree of hearing loss. It is much more difficult for a pre-lingual deaf child to learn to speak than those who have acquired deafness post lingual. (Pre-lingual = before2 yrs. Post-lingual = after 2 yrs. of age). This is because of the absence of an auditory feedback from the sounds they make. Though Hearing-Impaired child too babbles like his normal peers, he soon abandons it because the child does not get any auditory feedback from his own sounds. It is this lack of feedback among the hearing-impaired children, which is the primary cause for them experiencing severe difficulties with the learning of speech.
• Concentration on lips of the speaker as an attempt to listen.
• The student turns his head towards the speaker to listen, or cups his ears.
• No response when called from the back.
• Turning the volume high while watching TV or listening to the radio.
• Frequent complaints of ear aches, ear discharges, or ear infections.
Problems in interpersonal relations because of communication problems
• Lack of fluency in language comprehension and expression affects his/her cognitive processes like assimilation, abstraction categorization and generalization. Hence learning at an abstract conceptual level i.e., “subjects like geometry, becomes challenging for children with Hearing Impairment (more so with pre-lingual deaf children).
• Hearing Impaired children are also handicapped in varying degrees in the educational achievement.
• Developing reading skills is challenging for these children. This is because of the lack of auditory feedback on which reading is superimposed. With children with hearing impairment, language itselfbeing impaired, achieving reading success is difficult.• Serious Arithmetic / Math difficulties too have been observed in these children. This is attributed to the subject being totally abstract and the deficient language comprehension of the child with hearing impairment. It is not that they are incapable of learning arithmetic. But what it points to is the need of a greater intensive instruction programme.
• Social Adjustment problems are frequently observed in children with Hearing Impairment. Because of a deficit in communication, many children grow up in relative isolation which results in some developing adjustment problems. They tend to be excessively shy, have difficulties making friends specially those who have nobody to interact with non-verbally. However, when they are with people with Hearing Impairment they mix easily. There is also a ‘Deaf community’ in the world formed by persons with hearing impairment.
Teaching Strategies And Intervention For Children With Hearing Impairment
Education of children with hearing impairment in India is just a little over a hundred years old. At present, over 500 schools for the hearing-impaired children are established in the country. The Government established some schools whereas the NGOs run many others. In understanding hearing impairment, from an educational perspective, one needs to consider the age of the onset of the hearing loss and the degree of the hearing loss. Both these have a direct bearing on the child’s educational programme. If the loss is pre-lingual i.e. occurs before he learns to speak, the effect is more severe than one who lost hearing later in life. If there was a normal language development till he lost hearing, there would be a lot he has learnt, on which his future learning could be based. This support is totally absent with the pre-lingual deaf child.
The early intervention centres can motivate the family members to take part in the education of hearing impaired children which helps them develop early verbal language skills. In some cases, parents and family members have assumed the responsibility of educating hearing impaired infants and young children with the help from sources such as ENT clinics, speech and language professionals and special educators. They help the children develop early verbal language skills and join mainstream schools.

Speech Impairment

Definition And Types Of Speech And Language Impairment
Speech disability refers to person’s inability to speak properly. Speech of a person is judged to be disordered if the person’s speech is not understood by the listener. Persons with speech disability include those who could not speak, spoke only with limited words or those with loss of voice. It also includes those whose speech is not understood due to defects in speech, such as stammering, nasal voice, hoarse voice and discordant voice and articulation defects.
Speech impairments where the child produces sounds incorrectly can be categorized as follows:
Articulation – Articulation refers to correct production of speech sounds of a language. About 3 out of 5 all speech impairments occur due to articulatory disorders.
Distortions – Sounds changed so that the intended sound is recognized, but sounds incorrect, speech of a person with a lisp.
Substitutions -Substituting one sound for another (i.e. “doze” for those)
Omissions – Omitting certain sounds (i.e. “cool” for school or“pos” for post)
Additions – Addition of extra sound (i.e. “buhrown” for brown).
Stuttering – Rapid fire repetitions of consonant or vowel.
Cluttering – Rapid speech with extra sounds or mispronounced sounds
Phonation Disorder – Causes the voice to sound hoarse, husky or strained. Severely, there is no voice at all.
Resonance Disorder – Too many sounds coming out through the air passages of the nose (hyper nasality) or not enough resonance of the nasal passages (hypo nasality).
Language – Language impairment where the child has problems expressing needs, ideas, or information, and/or in understanding what others say. It includes deficiency in receptive language skills to gain information; deficiency in expressive language skills to communicate information; and deficiency in processing (auditory perception) skills to organize information
Assessment And Classification Of Speech Impairment
Assessment of Speech or Language Impairments shall include the following
Language Impairment – a significant deficiency in language shall be determined by: An analysis of receptive, expressive, and/or composite test scores that fall at least 1.5 standard deviations below the mean of the language assessment instruments administered; and a minimum of two measures shall be used, including criterionreferenced and/or norm-referenced instruments, functional communication analyses, and language samples. At least one standardized comprehensive measure of language ability shall be included in the evaluation process.
Levels of Language
1) Phonetics/Phonology – This is the level of sounds. One must distinguish here between the set of possible human sounds, for instance what distinctions in meaning can be made based on what sounds. 2) Morphology – It is what one normally understands by grammar (along with syntax). The term morphology refers to the analysis of minimal forms in language which are used to construct words which have either a grammatical or a lexical function. Lexicology is concerned with the study of the lexicon from a formal point of view and is thus closely linked to morphology.
3) Syntax – This is the level of sentences. It is concerned with the meanings of words in combination with each other to form phrases or sentences. , it involves differences in meaning arrived at by changes in word order, the addition or subtraction of words from sentences or changes in the form of sentences.
4) Semantics – This is the area of meaning. Here one touches, however, on practically every other level of language as well as there exists lexical, grammatical, sentence and utterance meaning.
5) Pragmatics The concern here is with the use of language in specific situations.
Teaching Strategies And Intervention For Children With Speech Impairment
►Concepts using actual objects and progress from the concrete to the abstract.
►Seating positions that facilitate the use of prompts, cues or other strategies during learning and teaching.
►Important to ensure that the student’s attention has been secured.
►Slower speech rate to facilitate the processing of information. Children with Sensory and Speech Disabilities Diversity and Inclusion 44
►Use of gestures to help students with severe receptive language disorder understands the meaning of a word that symbolizes an object or an action.
►Age appropriate instructions help to involve the students in selecting the strategy that works best for them
►Use of pictures or photographs to reinforce and to develop vocabulary of the students.
►Radio/television broadcasts, puppetry, telephoning, and role playing can be used to develop oral language activities.
►Co-operative learning model can be applied to enhance skills
►Avoiding the role that misunderstanding can have social problems.
►The Speech-Language Pathologist (SLP) provides classroom teachers with information regarding communication development and possible communication concerns through team meetings and training sessions.
►The SLP also provides suggestions for addressing specific areas of concern through modelling and examples of expansion and other techniques.
►Teacher or parent may bring communication concerns to the Student Support Team (SST) for consideration. If a student presents with an obvious disability, the SST should expedite the referral for a Full andIndividual Evaluation (FIE).

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